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1.
Plant Cell Rep ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524480

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Glycinebetaine alleviates the detrimental effects of aluminium stress by regulating aluminium uptake and translocation, maintaining PSII activity, and activating the oxidative defence, thereby maintaining the growth and development of rice. Aluminium (Al) toxicity is one of the primary growth-limiting factors that limits plant growth and crop productivity in acidic soils. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants are susceptible to Al stress and do not naturally accumulate glycinebetaine (GB), one of the most effective protectants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous GB can ameliorate the detrimental effects of Al stress on rice plants. Our results showed that the growth, development and biomass of rice were clearly inhibited under Al stress. However, exogenous GB application increased rice shoot growth and photosynthetic pigments contents, maintained photosystem II (PSII) activity, and activated the antioxidant defence system under Al stress. More importantly, GB may mediate the expression of Al uptake- and translocation-related genes, including OsALS1, OsNrat1, OsSTAR1 and OsSTAR2, and the galacturonic acid contents in rice roots under Al stress. Therefore, our findings highlight exogenous GB application is a valid approach to effectively combat Al toxicity by regulating physiological and biochemical processes in crops.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 191: 396-404, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547317

RESUMO

Scavenger receptor is pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) that plays a crucial function in host defense against pathogens. Scavenger receptor C (SR-C) is present only in invertebrates and its function has not been studied in detail. In this study, an SR-C homologous gene from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, was identified and characterized. SR-C was largely expressed in hemocytes and Malpighian tubules, with continuous expression in hemocytes. The peak expression was observed in hemocytes during molting and wandering stages both at mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, immunofluorescence demonstrated it to be mainly distributed in the cell membranes of hemocytes, including oenocytoids and granulocytes. The recombinant SR-C protein (rSR-C) could bind to different types of bacteria and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), with strong binding to gram-positive bacteria and Lys-type peptidoglycans. The overexpression of SR-C induced the expression of genes related to the Toll pathway and antibacterial peptides. While the knockdown of SR-C reduced the expression of AMPs and inhibited the Toll pathway, it impaired the bacterial clearance ability of silkworm larvae, thus decreasing silkworm larvae's survival rate. Altogether, SR-C is a PRR that protect silkworms against bacterial pathogens by enhancing the expression of AMPs expression via the Toll pathway in hemocytes.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 188: 32-42, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352318

RESUMO

Akirins, highly conserved nuclear factors, regulate diverse physiological processes such as innate immunity. The biological functions of Akirins have extensively been studied in vertebrates and many invertebrates; however, there is no report so far on lepidopteran insects. In the present study, we identified and characterized a novel Akirin from the silkworm, Bombyx mori (designated as BmAkirin), and explored its potential roles in innate immunity. The expression analysis revealed the unequal mRNA levels of BmAkirin in all the tested tissues; however, the gene's transcription level was highest in testis, followed by ovaries and hemocytes. It also had significant expression levels at the early stages of embryonic development. Expression of BmAkirin in fat bodies and hemocytes exhibited an increase in various degrees when challenged with virus, fungus, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria. Immunofluorescence analysis showed BmAkirin protein was prominently localized in the nucleus. Knockdown of BmAkirin strongly reduced the expression of AMPs and decreased the survival ability of larva upon immune stimulation. Moreover, the bacterial clearance ability of larvae was also decreased following the depletion of BmAkirin. Collectively, our results demonstrate that BmAkirin plays an indispensable role in the innate immunity of Bombyx mori (B. mori) by positively modulating AMPs expression in vivo.

4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 390-399, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404010

RESUMO

Various abiotic stressors, particularly drought stress, affect plant growth and yield. Zinc finger proteins play an important role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we isolated the apple MdZAT10 gene, a C2H2-type zinc finger protein, which is a homolog of Arabidopsis STZ/ZAT10. MdZAT10 was localized to the nucleus and highly expressed in leaves and fruit. Promoter analysis showed that MdZAT10 contained several response elements and the transcription level of MdZAT10 was induced by abiotic stress and hormone treatments. MdZAT10 was responsive to drought treatment both at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. MdZAT10-overexpressing apple calli decreased the expression level of MdAPX2 and increased sensitivity to PEG 6000 treatment. Moreover, ectopically expressed MdZAT10 in Arabidopsis reduced the tolerance to drought stress, and exhibited higher water loss, higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content and higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation under drought stress. In addition, MdZAT10 reduced the sensitivity to abscisic acid in apple. Ectopically expressed MdZAT10 in Arabidopsis promoted seed germination and seedling growth. These results indicate that MdZAT10 plays a negative regulator in the drought resistance, which can provide theoretical basis for further molecular mechanism research.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25606, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis (OP) is an age-related disease characterized by reduced bone mass and increased bone fragility. It is more common in older people and postmenopausal women. As a new type of exercise training for OP, whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been proved to have a good effect on postmenopausal women with OP. It can increase bone density and improve strength and balance in postmenopausal population, which has certain clinical value, but lacks evidence-based medicine evidence. This study aims to systematically study the effectiveness of WBV exercise on postmenopausal women with OP. METHODS: The English databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library) and Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Network, Wanfang, Weipu, China Biomedical Database) were searched by computer. From the establishment of the database to February 2021, the randomized controlled clinical studies on WBV exercise on postmenopausal women with OP were conducted. The quality of the included studies was independently extracted by 2 researchers and literature quality was evaluated. Meta-analysis of the included studies was performed using RevMan5.3 software. RESULTS: In this study, the efficacy and safety of WBV exercise on postmenopausal women with OP were evaluated by lumbar spine bone density, femoral neck bone density, pain, incidence of falls, incidence of fractures, and quality of life scale score, etc. CONCLUSION: This study will provide reliable evidences for the clinical application of WBV exercise on postmenopausal women with OP. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Private information from individuals will not be published. This systematic review also does not involve endangering participant rights. Ethical approval will not be required. The results may be published in a peer-reviewed journal or disseminated at relevant conferences. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/WPYT9.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/terapia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Vibração/uso terapêutico , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Metanálise como Assunto , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/complicações , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Gene Med ; 23(7): e3340, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ectopic thymic carcinoma (TC) is an extremely rare disease with a poor prognosis. The main treatment for early TC is surgery, although an effective treatment for advanced TC is lacking. METHODS: We present the case of a 61-year-old man with advanced posterior mediastinum thymic squamous cell carcinoma. Amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to investigate the molecular and mutational characteristics of this tumour. RESULTS: After chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the tumour showed disease progression. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour was positive for CD117 (specific for primary TC), CK19, CD56 and Ki67. ARMS-PCR analysis revealed an EGFR exon 19 deletion in the patient. The patient subsequently received icotinib treatment and achieved complete remission for 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: This case report suggests that tyrosine kinase inhibitors are a potential treatment strategy for patients with TC harbouring EGFR alterations.

7.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 125, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dehydrodiisoeugenol (DEH), a novel lignan component extracted from nutmeg, which is the seed of Myristica fragrans Houtt, displays noticeable anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects in digestive system diseases. However, the mechanism of its anticancer activity in gastrointestinal cancer remains to be investigated. METHODS: In this study, the anticancer effect of DEH on human colorectal cancer and its underlying mechanism were evaluated. Assays including MTT, EdU, Plate clone formation, Soft agar, Flow cytometry, Electron microscopy, Immunofluorescence and Western blotting were used in vitro. The CDX and PDX tumor xenograft models were used in vivo. RESULTS: Our findings indicated that treatment with DEH arrested the cell cycle of colorectal cancer cells at the G1/S phase, leading to significant inhibition in cell growth. Moreover, DEH induced strong cellular autophagy, which could be inhibited through autophagic inhibitors, with a rction in the DEH-induced inhibition of cell growth in colorectal cancer cells. Further analysis indicated that DEH also induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequently stimulated autophagy through the activation of PERK/eIF2α and IRE1α/XBP-1 s/CHOP pathways. Knockdown of PERK or IRE1α significantly decreased DEH-induced autophagy and retrieved cell viability in cells treated with DEH. Furthermore, DEH also exhibited significant anticancer activities in the CDX- and PDX-models. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our studies strongly suggest that DEH might be a potential anticancer agent against colorectal cancer by activating ER stress-induced inhibition of autophagy.

8.
J Bone Miner Res ; 36(7): 1281-1287, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784428

RESUMO

Uncovering additional causal clinical traits and exposure variables is important when studying osteoporosis mechanisms and for the prevention of osteoporosis. Until recently, the causal relationship between anthropometric measurements and osteoporosis had not been fully revealed. In the present study, we utilized several state-of-the-art Mendelian randomization (MR) methods to investigate whether height, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), hip circumference (HC), and waist circumference (WC) are causally associated with two major characteristics of osteoporosis, bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. Genomewide significant (p ≤ 5 × 10-8 ) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the five anthropometric variables were obtained from previous large-scale genomewide association studies (GWAS) and were utilized as instrumental variables. Summary-level data of estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) and fractures were obtained from a large-scale UK Biobank GWAS. Of the MR methods utilized, the inverse-variance weighted method was the primary method used for analysis, and the weighted-median, MR-Egger, mode-based estimate, and MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier methods were utilized for sensitivity analyses. The results of the present study indicated that each increase in height equal to a single standard deviation (SD) was associated with a 9.9% increase in risk of fracture (odds ratio [OR] = 1.099; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.067-1.133; p = 8.793 × 10-10 ) and a 0.080 SD decrease of estimated bone mineral density (95% CI -0.106-(-0.054); p = 2.322 × 10-9 ). We also found that BMI was causally associated with eBMD (beta = 0.129, 95% CI 0.065-0.194; p = 8.113 × 10-5 ) but not associated with fracture. The WHR adjusted for BMI, HC adjusted for BMI, and WC adjusted for BMI were not found to be related to fracture occurrence or eBMD. In conclusion, the present study provided genetic evidence for certain causal relationships between anthropometric measurements and bone mineral density or fracture risk. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Osteoporose , Densidade Óssea/genética , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Osteoporose/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
9.
J Physiol Sci ; 71(1): 6, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546583

RESUMO

Our previous research has shown that galanin plays an antinociceptive effect via binding to galanin receptors (GalRs) in nucleus accumbens (NAc). This study focused on the involvement of GalR2 in galanin-induced antinociceptive effect in NAc of neuropathic pain rats. The chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve (CCI) was used to mimic neuropathic pain model. The hind paw withdrawal latency (HWL) to thermal stimulation and hind paw withdrawal threshold (HWT) to mechanical stimulation were measured as the indicators of pain threshold. The results showed that 14 and 28 days after CCI, the expression of GalR2 was up-regulated in bilateral NAc of rats, and intra-NAc injection of GalR2 antagonist M871 reversed galanin-induced increases in HWL and HWT of CCI rats. Furthermore, intra-NAc injection of GalR2 agonist M1145 induced increases in HWL and HWT at day 14 and day 28 after CCI, which could also be reversed by M871. Finally, we found that M1145-induced antinociceptive effect in NAc of CCI rats was stronger than that in intact rats. These results imply that the GalR2 is activated in the NAc from day 14 to day 28 after CCI and GalR2 is involved in the galanin-induced antinociceptive effect in NAc of CCI rats.

10.
Photosynth Res ; 147(3): 301-315, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394352

RESUMO

Photosystem II (PSII), especially the D1 protein, is highly sensitive to the detrimental impact of heat stress. Photoinhibition always occurs when the rate of photodamage exceeds the rate of D1 protein repair. Here, genetically engineered codA-tomato with the capability to accumulate glycinebetaine (GB) was established. After photoinhibition treatment at high temperature, the transgenic lines displayed more thermotolerance to heat-induced photoinhibition than the control line. GB maintained high expression of LeFtsHs and LeDegs and degraded the damaged D1 protein in time. Meanwhile, the increased transcription of synthesis-related genes accelerated the de novo synthesis of D1 protein. Low ROS accumulation reduced the inhibition of D1 protein translation in the transgenic plants, thereby reducing protein damage. The increased D1 protein content and decreased phosphorylated D1 protein (pD1) in the transgenic plants compared with control plants imply that GB may minimize photodamage and maximize D1 protein stability. As D1 protein exhibits a high turnover, PSII maybe repaired rapidly and efficiently in transgenic plants under photoinhibition treatment at high temperature, with the resultant mitigation of photoinhibition of PSII.

11.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 116: 103917, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159959

RESUMO

Scavenger receptor class B (SR-B) is an extracellular transmembrane glycoprotein that plays a vital role in innate immunity. Although SR-Bs have been widely studied in vertebrates, their functions remained to elucidate in insects. Here, we identified and characterized a scavenger receptor class B member from the silkworm, Bombyx mori (designated as BmSCRB8). BmSCRB8 is broadly expressed in various immune tissues/organs, including fat body, gut, and hemocyte. Its expression is dramatically enhanced after challenge with different types of bacteria or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The recombinant BmSCRB8 protein can detect different types of bacteria by directly binding to PAMPs and significantly improve the bacterial clearance in vivo. After knockdown of BmSCRB8, the pathogenic bacterial clearance was strongly impaired, and several AMP genes were down-regulated following E. coli challenge. Moreover, pathogenic bacteria's treatment following the depletion of BmSCRB8 remarkably decreased silkworm larvae's survival rate. Taken together, these results demonstrate that BmSCRB8 acts as a pattern recognition protein and plays an essential role in silkworm innate immunity by enhancing bacterial clearance and contributing to the production of AMPs in vivo.

12.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 114: 103869, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950537

RESUMO

Integrins are transmembrane glycoproteins that are broadly distributed in living organisms. As a heterodimer, they contain an α and a ß subunit, which are reported to be associated with various physiological and pathological processes. In the present study, a 2502 bp full-length cDNA sequence of Bmintegrin ß1 was obtained from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Bmintegrin ß1 belongs to the ß subunit of the integrin family and contains several typical structures of integrins. Gene expression profile analysis demonstrated that Bmintegrin ß1 was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues and organs, with the maximum expression levels in fat body and hemocytes. The immunofluorescence results showed that Bmintegrin ß1 was located in the cell membrane and widely distributed in fat bodies and different types of hemocytes. Bmintegrin ß1 expression was remarkably increased after challenging with different kinds of bacteria and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Further investigation revealed that Bmintegrin ß1 could participate in the agglutination of pathogenic bacteria possibly through direct binding with the relative bacteria and PAMPs. Altogether, this study provides a novel insight into the immune functional features of Bmintegrin ß1.

13.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 2): 111570, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129023

RESUMO

The increasing frequency and severity of wildfires poses human health risks, especially for those within burnt regions. The potential health effects of fire ash on farmworkers in orchards via inhalation exposure after fire is rarely studied. After the 2017 Thomas Fire, in Ventura County (California, USA), fire ash and corresponding soil samples were collected from several impacted orchards and analyzed for eight trace elements (TEs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results indicate that except for mercury (Hg), the concentrations of TEs and PAHs were higher in ash samples compared with the corresponding soil samples. In general, ash samples showed greater potential to expose farmworkers to health risks than the corresponding soil samples. One site had particularly high concentrations of As (778 mg kg-1), Cr (629 mg kg-1), and Cu (499 mg kg-1) in the ash. This location corresponds to a house which was burned during the Thomas Fire, which might have contained chromated copper arsenate as a wood preservative. Therefore, the existence of construction materials in orchards could add hazardous materials to ash deposited on soil. Furthermore, a monitored dust generation experiment was designed to obtain the particle emission factors (PEF) of soil and ash, which is an essential parameter for the calculation of inhalation health risks. A two-fold difference in the PEFs was found between ash and the corresponding soil sample. Hence, health risks through inhalation exposure from fire ash may be underestimated if the default PEF suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency is used.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , California , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
14.
Mol Immunol ; 131: 78-88, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376000

RESUMO

Cathepsin L protease belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases family, plays indispensable roles in animals' pathological and physiological processes. However, little is known about Cathepsin L in silkworm, Bombyx mori. Herein, a novel Cathepsin L-like (Cat L-like) was cloned and identified from silkworm by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Cat L-like contains an intact open reading frame (ORF) of 1 668 bp and encodes 556 amino acid residues, consisting of a signal peptide, typical cathepsins' inhibitor_I29, and pept_C1 domain. Cat L-like is specifically and highly expressed in hemocytes. The cathepsin (including Cathepsin L, B, and H) crude extract from hemocytes had typical substrate specific catalytic activities and were sensitive to pH and temperature. Cat L-like up-regulated considerably after 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) administration, indicating that Cat L-like may be regulated by insect hormone. The responses of Cat L-like against bacterial infection suggest it may play essential roles in silkworm immunity. Overall, our studies provide a theoretical basis and insights to further investigate the functions of Cat L-like and in insects' innate immunity mechanisms.


Assuntos
Bombyx/imunologia , Catepsina L/imunologia , Cisteína Proteases/imunologia , Ecdisterona/imunologia , Hemócitos/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bombyx/genética , Catepsina L/genética , Cisteína Proteases/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(46): 51669-51678, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151683

RESUMO

In this paper, 2 atom % Al-doped ZnO (AZO) was prepared by the co-precipitation method together with sparking plasma sintering (SPS) treatment. The as-synthesized AZO powders show the morphology of hollow hexagonal towers, which result in a high porosity of 50.6% in the bulk sample consolidated by SPS sintering at 400 °C, and the porosity decreases gradually with increasing sintering temperature up to 1000 °C. Positron annihilation measurements reveal that even after sintering at 1000 °C, there are still a considerable number of small pores. A high electrical conductivity of 3 × 105 S m-1 is achieved at room temperature for the AZO sample sintered at 1000 °C, while the absolute values of Seebeck coefficient keep at relatively high values between 59 and 144 µV K-1 in the measurement temperature range of 27-500 °C, leading to a high power factor of 3.4 × 10-3 W m-1 K-2. On the other hand, the pores in AZO act as strong phonon scattering centers, and an extremely low thermal conductivity of 1.5 W m-1 K-1 measured at room temperature is obtained for AZO sintered at 400 °C. Due to the residual pores in the 1000 °C-sintered sample, the thermal conductivity is still relatively low. As a result, a maximum ZT of 0.275 measured at 500 °C is obtained in this sample, which is the highest ZT reported for ZnO around this temperature.

16.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 230, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lycorine hydrochloride (LH), an alkaloid extracted from the bulb of the Lycoris radiata, is considered to have anti-viral, anti-malarial, and anti-tumorous effects. At present, the underlying mechanisms of LH in gastric cancer remain unclear. MCL1, an anti-apoptotic protein of BCL2 family, is closely related to drug resistance of tumor. Therefore, MCL1 is considered as a potential target for cancer treatment. METHODS: The effect of LH on gastric cancer was assessed in vitro (by MTT, BrdU, western blotting…) and in vivo (by immunohistochemistry). RESULTS: In this study, we showed that LH has an anti-tumorous effect by down-regulating MCL1 in gastric cancer. Besides, we unveiled that LH reduced the protein stability of MCL1 by up-regulating ubiquitin E3 ligase FBXW7, arrested cell cycle at S phase and triggered apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Meanwhile, we also demonstrated that LH could induce apoptosis of the BCL2-drug-resistant-cell-lines. Moreover, PDX (Patient-Derived tumor xenograft) model experiment proved that LH combined with HA14-1 (inhibitor of BCL2), had a more significant therapeutic effect on gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy showed in our data suggests that lycorine hydrochloride is a promising anti-tumor compound for gastric cancer.

17.
J Plant Res ; 133(6): 751-763, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033876

RESUMO

The YABBY family is a class of plant-specific transcription factors comprising a typical N-terminal C2C2-type zinc finger domain and a C-terminal helix-loop-helix YABBY domain. YABBY transcription factors play important roles in multiple biological processes, including polarity establishment in plant leaves, the formation and development of reproductive organs, the response to plant hormone signals, resistance to stress, crop breeding and agricultural production. The aim of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the roles, functions and value of the YABBY family in plants, with particular emphasis on new insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in the YABBY-mediated modulation of polarity establishment, morphogenesis and development, and phytohormone and stress responses in plants. In addition, we propose that this transcription factor family presents great value and potential for research, application and development in crop breeding and agricultural production in the future.


Assuntos
Morfogênese , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Proteínas de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Plant Cell Rep ; 39(11): 1525-1538, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860517

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We propose that codA tomato plants exhibited higher degrees of enhanced thermotolerance than BADH tomato plants, and H2O2 as a signaling molecule also plays an important role in heat resistance. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) and choline oxidase (COD) are key enzymes in glycinebetaine (GB) synthesis. In this study, two kinds of transgenic tomato plants, which were transformed with BADH gene and codA gene, respectively, were used to explore their thermotolerance. Our results showed that the levels of GB in leaves of the fourteen independent transgenic lines ranged from 1.9 µmol g-1 fresh weight to 3.4 µmol g-1 fresh weight, while GB was almost undetectable in leaves of WT plants. CO2 assimilation and photosystem II (PSII) photochemical activity in transgenic plants were more thermotolerant than WT plants, especially the codA-transgenic plants showed the most. Significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion radical (O2·-), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were more in WT plants than transgenic plants, while this accumulation in codA-transgenic plant was the least. Furthermore, the expression of the heat response genes and the accumulation of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) were found to be more in transgenic plants than that in WT plants during heat stress, as well as showing the most expression and accumulation of HSP70 in the codA-transgenic plants. Taken together, our results suggest that the enhanced thermotolerance in transgenic plants is due to the positive role of GB in response to heat stress. And interestingly, in addition to the major role of GB in codA-transgenic plants, H2O2 as a signaling molecule may also play an important role in heat resistance, leading to higher thermotolerance compared to BADH-transgenic plants.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Betaína-Aldeído Desidrogenase/genética , Betaína/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Enzimas/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Termotolerância/genética , Termotolerância/fisiologia
19.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 579: 258-268, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592991

RESUMO

This study reports on the development of modified pyrogenic carbonaceous materials (PCMs) for recovering orthophosphate (PO4-P). The PCMs include softwood and hardwood biochars and a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) that were modified by irreversible adsorption of the quaternary ammonium polymer, poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (pDADMAC), which reverses electrokinetic charge and increases PO4-P sorption. MgO-doped biochars were prepared by a literature method for comparison. Imaging and spectroscopic analyses characterize pDADMAC coverage, MgO doping, and binding of PO4-P. At environmentally relevant concentrations, PO4-P sorption by the pDADMAC-treated biochars was ~100 times greater than that of the corresponding unmodified biochars, and was comparable to that of the corresponding MgO-doped biochars on a coating content basis. The pDADMAC-coated carbons bind PO4-P by ion exchange, while the MgO-doped biochars bind PO4-P principally by forming an amorphous Mg phosphate species. Susceptibility to competition from other relevant anions (Cl-, NO3-, HCO3-/CO32-, SO42-) and poultry and dairy manure extracts was moderate and comparable for the two types of modified softwood biochars. Sorption to the pDADMAC-treated biochars appears to be more reversible than to the MgO-doped biochars using stepwise water extraction. Greater reversibility may be advantageous for trapping and recycling phosphate.

20.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 55(9): 1103-1114, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542809

RESUMO

The fertilization capacity of sex-sorted sperms is seriously decreased, which inhibits its wide application. However, little information is still available about the effect of vitamin C (VC) and lycopene (Lyc) on the fertilization capacity of sex-sorted bull sperm. In this study, the washing medium and fertilization medium of sex-sorted sperm from three bull individuals were supplemented with different concentrations of VC (0, 1 × 10-3 , 1 × 10-4 , 1 × 10-5 , 1 × 10-6  M) or Lyc (0, 1 × 10-4 , 1 × 10-5 , 1 × 10-6 , 1 × 10-7 ). After washing twice and incubation for 1.5 hr, the malondialdehyde (MDA) level, phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation, membrane potential (Δψm) and IVF (in vitro fertilization) ability of sex-sorted sperm were investigated. For the sex-sorted sperm of bulls A, B and C, 1 × 10-3  M VC or 1 × 10-4  M Lyc treatment significantly decreased their MDA levels and PS translocation and increased their Δψm levels and cleavage rates after IVF. When blastocysts were concerned, 1 × 10-4  M Lyc significantly improved the blastocyst rates and their IFN-tau expression of bulls A and C. In conclusion, supplementation of 1 × 10-3  M VC or 1 × 10-4  M Lyc in washing and fertilization medium contributed greatly to improving the fertilization capacity of sex-sorted bull sperm during IVF procedure.

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