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1.
Food Chem ; 403: 134424, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358074

RESUMO

In this study, surimi products rich in lipids were prepared by using myofibril protein (MP) emulsion gel as carriers. The MP emulsion gel (MP concentration, c = 1.5%, oil fraction, ø = 0.68) was prepared by one-step homogenization. The emulsion gel maintained a high elastic modulus (G') after heating and freezing treatment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the structure of the emulsion gel was a hybrid network consisting of polymers of cross-linked MP and aggregated protein-stabilized emulsion (W/O/W multiple structures) droplets. The double emulsification of the emulsion gel and MP stabilized the oil droplets in the surimi product, preventing water and oil from leaching out. The microstructure also showed smaller gaps between MPs with increased porosity, while oil droplets were stably embedded in the surimi gel matrix. Moreover, adding MP emulsion gel significantly reduced the surimi gel strength compared to adding oil directly (p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Tilápia , Animais , Emulsões/química , Géis/química , Miofibrilas/química , Proteínas/análise , Lipídeos/química
2.
Food Chem ; 401: 134112, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099819

RESUMO

Drying is an important process that can impart a different flavor to dried fish. The differences and sources of flavor of semi-dried golden pompano at different drying temperatures (40, 48, and 56 °C) were investigated, and the sensory quality, flavor substances, nonenzymatic reactions, and protein degradation were analyzed. Significant flavor differences were observed among different drying temperatures (P < 0.05), with several sensory properties showing superior results in the 40 °C group. Thirteen volatile compounds that contributed to the overall aroma were screened according to the relative odor activity value. Glu (umami taste) and Ala (sweet taste) were identified as key flavor substances based on the taste activity value. Nonanal, hexanal, heptanal, acetoin, pentadecane, and octanal represented the flavor markers. The flavor sources at higher drying temperatures included the joint action of lipid oxidation and the Maillard reaction, while those at lower temperature were lipid oxidation and protein degradation, which increased the aldehyde and free amino acid levels in the product, thus leading to the best flavor.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Temperatura , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Acetoína , Aldeídos/análise , Paladar , Odorantes/análise , Peixes , Aminoácidos , Lipídeos
3.
Food Chem ; 401: 134210, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122488

RESUMO

Compound fruit drink (CFD) is a functional drink prepared with fruit, Chinese herbs and prebiotic fructooligosaccharide as the main ingredients. Loperamide hydrochloride was used to establish a mouse model of constipation. And the effect of CFD on the improvement of constipation and the impact on gut microbiota were studied. The results showed that CFD significantly enhanced intestinal motility in constipated mice (P < 0.05). It significantly improved serum levels of gastrointestinal regulatory-related peptides, elevated the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) content and alleviated colonic injury. Meanwhile, CFD also up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of AQP3, AQP9, SCF and c-Kit and the related protein expression levels. Fecal microbial results showed that the CFD medium-dose group significantly increased species richness. Furthermore, CFD increased the abundance of potentially beneficial bacteria and reduced the number of potentially pathogenic bacteria. This study indicated that CFD was a promising functional drink for effectively relieving constipation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Camundongos , Animais , Loperamida/análise , Loperamida/farmacologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Constipação Intestinal/genética , Constipação Intestinal/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/microbiologia , RNA Mensageiro
4.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 225: 106182, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152789

RESUMO

Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao capsule (XLGB) is a widely prescribed traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, it significantly elevates levels of serum estrogens. Here we aimed to assess the dominant contributors of sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes to the sulfation of estrogens and identify the effective inhibitors of this pathway in XLGB. First, estrone, 17ß-estradiol, and estriol underwent sulfation in human liver S9 extracts. Phenotyping reactions and enzyme kinetics assays revealed that SULT1A1, 1A2, 1A3, 1C4, 1E1, and 2A1 all participated in estrogen sulfation, with SULT1E1 and 1A1 as the most important contributors. The incubation system for these two active enzymes were optimized with Tris-HCl buffer, DL-Dithiothreitol (DTT), MgCl2, adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), protein concentration, and incubation time. Then, 29 compounds in XLGB were selected to investigate their inhibitory effects and mechanisms against SULT1E1 and 1A1 through kinetic modelling. Moreover, in silico molecular docking was used to validate the obtained results. And finally, the prenylated flavonoids (isobavachin, neobavaisoflavone, etc.) from Psoralea corylifolia L., prenylated flavanols (icariside II) from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim., tanshinones (dihydrotanshinone, tanshinone II-A,) from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., and others (corylifol A, corylin) were identified as the most potent inhibitors of estrogen sulfation. Taken together, these findings provide insights into the understanding regioselectivity of estrogen sulfation and identify the effective components of XLGB responsible for the promotion of estrogen levels.


Assuntos
Polifenóis , Sulfotransferases , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Sulfotransferases/metabolismo , Estrogênios
5.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154542, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morinda officinalis (MO) is a herb used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for the treatment of osteoporosis. M13, a MO-based anthraquinone compound is known to suppress osteoclast activity. However, whether M13 promotes MSCs osteogenic differentiation and its potential mechanism remains unknown. PURPOSE: To examine the influence of M13 on MSCs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation and elucidate the underlying mechanism. METHODS/STUDY DESIGNS: The effect of M13 exposure on MSCs proliferation was assessed via CCK8 assay, clone formation assay, immunofluorescence, RT-qPCR, and Western blot. The M13-mediated osteogenesis in vitro and ex vivo were evaluated via ALP and Alizarin red S staining, osteogenesis-associated gene (Runx2, Col1a1 and Opn) expression, and fetal limb explants culture. Molecular docking was employed for target signal pathway screening. The potential signaling mechanisms of M13-promoted MSCs osteogenic differentiation were analyzed by introducing XAV939 (Wnt/ß-catenin signaling inhibitor). RESULTS: M13 induced certain obvious positive effects on MSCs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Treatment with M13 enhanced MSCs viability and clone numbers. Meanwhile, M13 promoted osteogenic gene expression, enhanced ALP intensity and Alizarin red S staining in MSCs. In terms of mechanism, M13 strongly interacted with the docking site of the WNT signaling complex, thereby activating the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Furthermore, the M13-mediated osteogenic effect was partially inhibited by XAV939 both in vitro and ex vivo, which confirmed that the Wnt/ß-catenin axis is a critical regulator of M13-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. CONCLUSION: Our study elucidated for the first time that M13 significantly promoted osteogenic differentiation of MSCs via stimulation of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in vitro and ex vivo.Our findings offered new additional evidence to support the MO or M13-based therapy of osteoporosis.

6.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(30): 11066-11073, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36338224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis is a common radiologic finding. Some imaging inklings are the absence of a mass effect, and there is currently no report of hepatic steatosis with mass effect. CASE SUMMARY: A 23-year-old female was admitted due to a liver mass for half a month. No obvious abnormalities were found in physical and laboratory examinations. Ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge mass between the liver and stomach with a significant mass effect, and the caudate lobe and left lobe of the liver were involved. The signal on T2- and T1- weighted fat-saturated images of the mass was significantly reduced, and the enhanced scan showed inhomogeneous enhancement. Surgical and pathological findings indicated the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis. The operation and re-review of the patient's images showed that the lesion was supplied by the branch of the hepatic artery. The signal on T1-weighted out-of-phase images of the lesion was lower than on in-phase images, and there was no black rim cancellation artifact around the hepatic steatosis area on T1-weighted out-of-phase images. The dynamic enhancement pattern of the lesion was similar to that of the adjacent normal liver parenchyma. The above characteristics suggested that the lesion was hepatic steatosis. However, in this case, the lesion showed exogenous growth and was mass-like, with an obvious mass effect, which has not been reported previously. CONCLUSION: Hepatic steatosis could grow exogenously and has an obvious mass effect. It needs to be distinguished from fat-rich tumors. The T1-weighted in- and out-of-phase images and dynamic enhanced scanning are valuable for differential diagnosis of this lesion.

7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6892, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371489

RESUMO

The harvesting of 'hot' triplet excitons through high-lying reverse intersystem crossing mechanism has emerged as a hot research issue in the field of organic light-emitting diodes. However, if high-lying reverse intersystem crossing materials lack the capability to convert 'cold' T1 excitons into singlet ones, the actual maximum exciton utilization efficiency would generally deviate from 100%. Herein, through comparative studies on two naphthalimide-based compounds CzNI and TPANI, we revealed that the 'cold' T1 excitons in high-lying reverse intersystem crossing materials can be utilized effectively through the triplet-triplet annihilation-mediated high-lying reverse intersystem crossing process if they possess certain triplet-triplet upconversion capability. Especially, quite effective triplet-triplet annihilation-mediated high-lying reverse intersystem crossing can be triggered by endowing the high-lying reverse intersystem crossing process with a 3ππ*→1nπ* character. By taking advantage of the permanent orthogonal orbital transition effect of 3ππ*→1nπ*, spin-orbit coupling matrix elements of ca. 10 cm-1 can be acquired, and hence ultra-fast mediated high-lying reverse intersystem crossing process with rate constant over 109 s-1 can be realized.

8.
Zool Stud ; 61: e26, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36381976

RESUMO

Social insects have evolved different search strategies to find target objects in unknown environments. In the present study, the searching behavior of the tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata was investigated in a circular arena. The average time, search path, speed, and search patterns of worker ants in a circular arena were determined. The results showed that fire ant workers followed six major search patterns. The variation in the searching patterns of workers may explain the different levels of exploration. Most workers (56.8%) tended to search in small loops and progressively increase the search area size. These workers mostly turned in one direction, either clockwise or counterclockwise. More workers turned in a consistent pattern than in an inconsistent pattern. Moving speed was also higher in workers that maintained their turning directions than in those that changed directions. We thus propose that following search patterns consisting of loops of increasing size may be an effective strategy. The tropical fire ant S. geminata is a globally invasive species that was introduced to Taiwan 40 years ago and has continued to threaten residents. Based on behavioral studies of S. geminata, we may gain a better understanding of their exploratory behavior in the ecosystem in Taiwan.

9.
Front Nutr ; 9: 1035619, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36407513

RESUMO

Polysaccharides show protective effects on intestinal barrier function due to their effectiveness in mitigating oxidative damage, inflammation and probiotic effects. Little has been known about the effects of polysaccharides from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. pulp (jackfruit, JFP-Ps) on intestinal barrier function. This study aimed to investigate the effects of JFP-Ps on intestinal barrier function in high fat diet-induced obese rats. H&E staining and biochemical analysis were performed to measure the pathological and inflammatory state of the intestine as well as oxidative damage. Expression of the genes and proteins associated with intestinal health and inflammation were analyzed by RT-qPCR and western blots. Results showed that JFP-Ps promoted bowel movements and modified intestinal physiochemical environment by lowering fecal pH and increasing fecal water content. JFP-Ps also alleviated oxidative damage of the colon, relieved intestinal colonic inflammation, and regulated blood glucose transport in the small intestine. In addition, JFP-Ps modified intestinal physiological status through repairing intestinal mucosal damage and increasing the thickness of the mucus layer. Furthermore, JFP-Ps downregulated the inflammatory genes (TNF-α, IL-6) and up-regulated the free fatty acid receptors (GPR41 and GPR43) and tight junction protein (occludin). These results revealed that JFP-Ps showed a protective effect on intestinal function through enhancing the biological, mucosal, immune and mechanical barrier functions of the intestine, and activating SCFAs-GPR41/GPR43 related signaling pathways. JFP-Ps may be used as a promising phytochemical to improve human intestinal health.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 129(19): 190503, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399745

RESUMO

Genuine multipartite entanglement represents the strongest type of entanglement, which is an essential resource for quantum information processing. Standard methods to detect genuine multipartite entanglement, e.g., entanglement witnesses, state tomography, or quantum state verification, require full knowledge of the Hilbert space dimension and precise calibration of measurement devices, which are usually difficult to acquire in an experiment. The most radical way to overcome these problems is to detect entanglement solely based on the Bell-like correlations of measurement outcomes collected in the experiment, namely, device independently. However, it is difficult to certify genuine entanglement of practical multipartite states in this way, and even more difficult to quantify it, due to the difficulty in identifying optimal multipartite Bell inequalities and protocols tolerant to state impurity. In this Letter, we explore a general and robust device-independent method that can be applied to various realistic multipartite quantum states in arbitrary finite dimension, while merely relying on bipartite Bell inequalities. Our method allows us both to certify the presence of genuine multipartite entanglement and to quantify it. Several important classes of entangled states are tested with this method, leading to the detection of genuinely entangled states. We also certify genuine multipartite entanglement in weakly entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, showing that the method applies equally well to less standard states.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cutaneous toxicities are common adverse effects following epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) therapy. Zinc deficiency causes diverse diseases, including skin toxicities. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of zinc deficiency in patients with EGFR-TKI-induced skin toxicities. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This retrospective study enrolled 269 patients with diverse skin disorders who visited our hospital between January 2016 and December 2017. The skin toxicity severities and plasma zinc levels of 101 EGFR-TKI-treated cancer patients were analysed and compared with those of 43 non-EGFR-TKI-treated cancer patients and 125 patients without cancer but presenting cutaneous manifestations. Additionally, the role of zinc in erlotinib-induced skin eruptions was established in a 14-day-murine model. Clinical features were further evaluated following systemic zinc supplementation in EGFR-TKI-treated cancer patients. RESULTS: EGFR-TKI-treated patients demonstrated severe cutaneous manifestations and a significant decrease in plasma zinc levels than those of the control groups. The serum zinc level and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) 5.0 grading of EGFR-TKI-induced skin toxicities showed a significant negative correlation (r = -0.29; p < 0.0001). Moreover, erlotinib treatment decreased the plasma zinc levels and induced periorificial dermatitis in rats confirming zinc deficiency following EGFR-TKI treatment. Zinc supplementation to the EGFR-TKI-treated cancer patients showed a significant decrease in the CTCEA grading (p < 0.0005 for mucositis and p < 0.0.0001 for all other cases) after 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Skin impairment following EGFR-TKI therapy could be ameliorated through zinc supplementation. Thus, zinc supplementation should be considered for cancer patients undergoing EGFR-TKI therapy.

12.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2200317, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401832

RESUMO

SCOPE: Immunosuppression is one of the major risk factors for a series of diseases, such as tumor, rheumatoid arthritis, and microbial infection. Various natural products have attracted wide attention due to their immunomodulatory activities. Herein, the study investigated the regulation of Holothuria leucospilota polysaccharides (HLP) in immunosuppressed mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight-week-old female BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with cyclophosphamide (80 mg/kg body weight/d) to establish the immunosuppressive model. After 12 days of HLP treatment, the immune organ indexes, serum cytokines, and immunoglobulin levels were significantly increased in immunosuppressed mice (P < 0.05). Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis found that HLP improved the immune factors, T-cell markers, and Toll-like receptors (TLR) pathway-related proteins expression. Simultaneously, HLP significantly increased the short-chain fatty acids concentration and regulated the gut microbiota composition (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the metagenomics analysis showed that HLP increased the levels of functional genes involved in amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and growth activity of the gut microbiota. CONCLUSION: HLP intervention improves the mice's immune function, and the beneficial effects are closely associated with intestinal homeostasis regulation and TLR pathway activation. This study suggests the potential for HLP as prebiotics in novel immunopotentiators development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e062257, 2022 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of falls among the elderly in Guangdong, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in six communities of Guangdong province. People over 60 years old were selected with multistage random-cluster sampling. Data on falls within the previous 12 months and fall-related risk factors were collected through a face-to-face interview. RESULTS: The prevalence of falls among older adults was 11.9% (95% CI: 11.0% to 12.8%) among 5374 interviewees. The common injuries caused by falls were bruises/scrapes (40.0%) and fractures (15.5%), and most people fall while doing housework (35.0%). Univariate analysis showed that 14 factors were associated with falls among older adults, including gender, age, residence, occupation, education level, balance ability, situation of cognition, disease, depression, living arrangement, marital status, the behaviour of exercise, drinking and drug use (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the associated factors of falls among older adults included woman (OR=1.68, 95% CI: 1.40 to 2.02), age from 70 to 79 years (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.58), age over 80 (OR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.25 to 2.13), impaired balance ability (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.75), exercise several times per month (OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.53), polypharmacy (OR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.00), cognition impairment (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.69), mild depression (OR=1.89, 95% CI: 1.47 to 2.45) and moderate depression (OR=3.07, 95% CI: 1.99 to 4.73). CONCLUSIONS: The hazards caused by falls to the elderly in China cannot be ignored. A multidimensional customised fall prevention programme should be considered to reduce the risk of falls among the elderly based on the results above.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia
14.
Biomedicines ; 10(11)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36359276

RESUMO

Hearing loss is a major public problem with a heritability of up to 70%. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) encodes an enzyme that is highly expressed in sensory hair cells of the inner ear. The association between COMT and hearing loss has not been reported previously in nationally representative population-based studies. A regression linear model was used to estimate associations between the allele/genotype of COMT and self-reported hearing loss based on 13,403 individuals from Wave IV of the Add Health study, a nationally representative sample of multiethnic U.S. young adults. The inverse variance-weighted effect magnitude was estimated using a genetic meta-analysis model. The "A" allele frequency of rs6480 (a missense variant in COMT) was 0.44. The prevalence of hearing loss was 7.9% for individuals with the "A" allele and 6.5% for those with the "G" allele. The "A" allele was significantly associated with increased hearing loss (p = 0.01). The prevalence of hearing loss was 6.0%, 7.2%, and 8.7% for individuals with GG, AG, and AA genotypes, respectively, which was consistent with a genetic additive model. The genotypic association model showed that rs4680 was significantly associated with increased hearing loss (p = 0.006). A missense variant of rs4680 in COMT was significantly associated with increased hearing loss among young adults in a multi-racial/ethnic U.S. population-based cohort.

15.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Panonychus citri is a major citrus pest worldwide. The short life cycle and high reproductive potential of P. citri, combined with heavy acaricide use, have led to high levels of resistance to acaricides, posing a threat to global resistance management programs. Here, resistance monitoring was established to determine the pyridaben resistance status of ten P. citri populations in China from 2014 to 2021 using a leaf-dipping assay. Four characterized strains-the susceptible strain (Lab_S), the resistant strain (Pyr_R), as well as the segregated resistant strain (Pyr_Rs) and the segregated susceptible strain (Pyr_Control) derived from the crossing of the Lab_S and Pyr_R strains, were used to evaluate the life-history characteristics using age-stage, two-sex life tables. RESULTS: Most P. citri populations developed high resistance to pyridaben. Resistance levels exceeded 1000-fold in Yuxi, Anyue, Nanning, and Ganzhou populations compared with the Lab_S strain. Compared with Pyr_Control, two key fitness cost criteria, developmental period and fecundity, showed significant differences in Pyr_Rs under consistent conditions. The intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate and gross reproductive rate were lower in the resistant strain compared with the Pyr_Control strain. The Pyr_Rs strain had a lower relative fitness of 0.934 compared with the Pyr_Control. Moreover, the life-history traits and population parameters of the Pyr_R strain also showed significant differences compared with the Lab_S strain. CONCLUSION: The resistance levels to pyridaben varied greatly among the different P. citri populations and showed regional differences. Substantial fitness costs are associated with pyridaben resistance. This study provides potential implications for developing strategies for resistance management in P. citri. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 638: 23-27, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36436338

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and HER2-positive breast cancer are particularly aggressive and the effectiveness of current therapies for them is limited. TNBC lacks effective therapies and HER2-positive cancer is often resistant to HER2-targeted drugs after an initial response. The recent studies have demonstrated that the combination of JAK2 inhibitors and SMO inhibitors can effectively inhibit the growth and metastasis of TNBC and HER2-positive drug resistant breast cancer cells. In this study, deep reinforcement learning was used to learn the characteristics of existing small molecule inhibitors of JAK2 and SMO, and to generate a novel library of small molecule compounds that may be able to inhibit both JAK2 and SMO. Subsequently, the molecule library was screened by molecular docking and a total of 7 compounds were selected out as dual inhibitors of JAK2 and SMO. Molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energies showed that the top three compounds stably bound to both JAK2 and SMO proteins. The binding free energies and hydrogen bond occupancy of key amino acids indicate that A8976 and A10625 has good properties and could be a potential dual-target inhibitor of JAK2 and SMO.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(41): 46726-46737, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36203276

RESUMO

Over the past decade, SnO has been considered a promising p-type oxide semiconductor. However, achieving high mobility in the fabrication of p-type SnO films is still highly dependent on the post-annealing procedure, which is often used to make SnO, due to its metastable nature, readily convertible to SnO2 and/or intermediate phases. This paper demonstrates a fully room-temperature fabrication of p-type SnOx thin films using ion-beam-assisted deposition. This technique offers independent control between ion density, via the ion-gun anode current and oxygen flow rate, and ion energy, via the ion-gun anode voltage, thus being able to optimize the optical band gap and the hole mobility of the SnO films to reach 2.70 eV and 7.89 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, without the need for annealing. Remarkably, this is the highest mobility reported for p-type SnO films whose fabrication was carried out entirely at room temperature. Using first-principles calculations, we rationalize that the high mobility is associated with the fine-tuning of the Sn-rich-related defects and lattice densification, obtained by controlling the density and energy of the oxygen ions, both of which optimize the spatial overlap of the valence bands to form a continuous conduction path for the holes. Moreover, due to the absence of the annealing process, the Raman spectra reveal no significant signatures of microcrystal formation in the films. This behavior contrasts with the case involving the air-annealing procedure, where a complex interaction occurs between the formation of SnO microcrystals and the formation of SnOx intermediate phases. This interplay results in variations in grain texture within the film, leading to a lower optimum Hall mobility of only 5.17 cm2 V-1 s-1. Finally, we demonstrate the rectification characteristics of all-fabricated-at-room-temperature SnOx-based p-n devices to confirm the viability of the p-type SnOx films.

18.
Front Physiol ; 13: 1006657, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36237519

RESUMO

We aimed to validate the performance of the ratio of the platelet count (PLT) to liver stiffness measurement (LSM) in excluding high-risk varices (HRVs) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related compensated cirrhosis beyond Baveno VI criteria. A total of 310 patients were assessed. The performances of the PLT:LSM ratio (PLER), PLER adjusted for the international normalized ratio, etiology, age, and sex (PLEASE), and the sequential algorithm for HRV screening (VariScreen) in excluding HRVs were evaluated and compared with those of expanded Baveno VI criteria (LSM <25 kPa and PLT >110×109/L, EB6C); PLT >150×109/L and model for end-stage liver disease score = 6 (P150M6 criterion); PLT >120×109/L and albumin >36 g/L (P120A36 criterion); and albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade and PLT score (ALBI-PLT score). Among the enrolled patients, 43 (13.9%) had HRVs. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of PLER for predicting HRVs (0.771, 95% confidence interval, 0.720-0.817) was significantly higher than that for PLT and LSM (p < 0.01). PLER was an independent risk factor for HRVs. VariScreen, PLEASE, and PLER could spare 20 (6.5%), 91 (29.4%), and 60 (19.4%) endoscopies, with 0, 3 (3.3%), and 1 (1.7%) HRVs missed, respectively. The EB6C and P120A36 criteria could spare 45 (14.5%) and 36 (11.6%) endoscopies, with 1 (2.2%) and 1 (2.8%) HRVs missed, respectively. The P150M6 criterion and ALBI-PLT score missed 6.8% and 10.3% of HRVs, respectively. We found that PLER performed better than other non-invasive tests. VariScreen secured the screening of HRVs in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis beyond Baveno VI criteria.

19.
Front Genet ; 13: 1008649, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36186474

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) might play critical roles in skeletal myofiber specification. In a previous study, we found that chicken miR-499-5p is specifically expressed in slow-twitch muscle and that its potential target gene is SOX6. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing to investigate the effects of SOX6 and miR-499-5p on the modulation and regulation of chicken muscle fiber type and its regulatory mechanism. The expression levels of miR-499-5p and SOX6 demonstrated opposing trends in different skeletal muscles and were associated with muscle fiber type composition. Differential expression analysis revealed that miR-499-5p overexpression led to significant changes in the expression of 297 genes in chicken primary myoblasts (CPMs). Myofiber type-related genes, including MYH7B and CSRP3, showed expression patterns similar to those in slow-twitch muscle. According to functional enrichment analysis, differentially expressed genes were mostly associated with muscle development and muscle fiber-related processes. SOX6 was identified as the target gene of miR-499-5p in CPM using target gene mining and luciferase reporter assays. SOX6 knockdown resulted in upregulation of the slow myosin genes and downregulation of fast myosin genes. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed that MYH7B and RUNX2 may be the direct targets of SOX6. These results indicated that chicken miR-499-5p may promote slow-twitch muscle fiber formation by repressing SOX6 expression. Our study provides a dataset that can be used as a reference for animal meat quality and human muscle disease studies.

20.
World J Psychiatry ; 12(9): 1169-1182, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36186505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments are core characteristics of schizophrenia, but are largely resistant to current treatments. Several recent studies have shown that high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dor-solateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can reduce negative symptoms and improve certain cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients. However, results are inconsistent across studies. AIM: To examine if high-frequency rTMS of the DLPFC can improve visual memory deficits in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Forty-seven chronic schizophrenia patients with severe negative symptoms on stable treatment regimens were randomly assigned to receive active rTMS to the DLPFC (n = 25) or sham stimulation (n = 22) on weekdays for four consecutive weeks. Patients performed the pattern recognition memory (PRM) task from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery at baseline, at the end of rTMS treatment (week 4), and 4 wk after rTMS treatment (week 8). Clinical symptoms were also measured at these same time points using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). RESULTS: There were no significant differences in PRM performance metrics, SANS total score, SANS subscores, PANSS total score, and PANSS subscores between active and sham rTMS groups at the end of the 4-wk treatment period, but PRM performance metrics (percent correct and number correct) and changes in these metrics from baseline were significantly greater in the active rTMS group at week 8 compared to the sham group (all P < 0.05). Active rTMS treatment also significantly reduced SANS score at week 8 compared to sham treatment. Moreover, the improvement in visual memory was correlated with the reduction in negative symptoms at week 8. In contrast, there were no between-group differences in PANSS total score and subscale scores at either week 4 or week 8 (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: High-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation improves visual memory and reduces negative symptoms in schizophrenia, but these effects are delayed, potentially due to the requirement for extensive neuroplastic changes within DLPFC networks.

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