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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125454, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505413

RESUMO

The effects of the (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-gelatin biofilm treatment (EGT) on microbial composition and quality of tilapia fillets stored at low temperatures were evaluated. The changes in mechanical properties, microbial reproduction, as well as lipid and protein oxidation during fillets storage were determined. The results showed that EGT reduced the microbial count and the relative abundance of the fillets. And EGT delayed the rate of lipid oxidation and protein denaturation in fillets. Compared with the control group, EGT samples had lower K values (74% on 18 d) and biogenic amines (39 mg/kg for putrescine and 50 mg/kg for cadaverine on 21 d). According to sensory evaluation, the shelf life of tilapia fillets was extended by 6 d in the EGT group. Therefore, EGT improved the quality of cryopreserved tilapia fillets and could be considered as a potential method for fish fillet preservation.

2.
Dalton Trans ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825405

RESUMO

A novel family of fully nitroamino-functionalized [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4]triazole-based energetic salts were synthesized. All salts were characterized by IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and elemental analysis. The crystal structures of salts 5, 6, and 7 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The densities of these salts are between 1.65 (4) and 1.89 g cm-3 (3), whilst their oxygen balances are between -42.8% (7) and -11.3% (3). Theoretical performance calculations (Gaussian 09 and EXPLO 6.01) provided detonation pressures and velocities for salts 2-7 in the ranges of 27.6-41.1 GPa and 8519-9518 m s-1, respectively, which make them competitive energetic materials.

3.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(12): 1321-6, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of acupuncture on resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in patients with refractory peripheral facial paralysis, and to preliminarily explore the central mechanism of acupuncture for this disease. METHODS: Twenty patients with refractory peripheral facial paralysis were selected as subject and treated with acupuncture at Qianzheng (EX-HN 16), Fengchi (GB 20), Cuanzhu (BL 2), Dicang (ST 4), Jiache (ST 6), Shuigou (GV 26), Chengjiang (CV 24), Yifeng (TE 17), Touwei (ST 8), Sibai (ST 2), Yingxiang (LI 20) and Hegu (LI 4), once every other day, three times a week, 15 times as a course of treatment. The 1-course treatment was given. The score of Sunnybrook (Toronto) facial grading system was used to evaluate the clinical efficacy before and after the treatment. In addition, 20 healthy volunteers were selected as control. For patients, the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scans were performed before and after treatment, for healthy volunteers, the scans were performed when they were recruited. The brain magnetic resonance images were analyzed with left primary motor area (LMⅠ) and right primary motor area (RMⅠ) as regions of interest. The differences of rs-FC between patients with refractory peripheral facial paralysis before and after treatment and healthy volunteers were compared. RESULTS: Compared before treatment, the Sunnybrook score was increased after the treatment (P<0.05). Compared with healthy volunteers, the functional connection between bilateral primary motor areas (MⅠ) and multiple brain areas were enhanced in patients before treatment, and most of brain areas were located in the anterior motor area (middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus), posterior central gyrus, anterior cuneiform lobe, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus and cerebellum lobe. Compared before treatment, the left inferior frontal gyrus was the strong functional connection area between LMⅠ and whole brain after acupuncture treatment, and there was no significant difference between RMⅠ and resting-state whole brain. Compared with healthy volunteers, the functional connections between bilateral MⅠ and multiple brain regions were enhanced after acupuncture, and most of the main brain regions were consistent with those before treatment. CONCLUSION: (1) Acupuncture could effectively improve the clinical symptoms of refractory peripheral facial paralysis. (2) The brain function of patients with refractory peripheral facial paralysis has been changed before acupuncture, which may be caused by the reactive compensation of the brain. (3) Acupuncture could enhance the functional connection between LMⅠ and left inferior frontal gyrus to promote the compensatory response, which may be one of the central mechanisms of acupuncture for refractory peripheral facial paralysis.

4.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(12): 1187-1197, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735749

RESUMO

In this study, we first isolate phospholipid (PL) from Golden pompano head (GPH), and elucidate its structure. Gas chromatography (GC) was used to assess the GPH-PL fatty acid composition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet absorption spectrometry (UV) were used for the qualitative analysis of GPH-PL, and LC-MS analysis was used to determine the major PL species. The results show that the contents of the various molecular species of GPH-PL were generally in the order phosphatidylcholine (PC) > sphingomyelin (SM) > lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) > phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The main molecular PC species are 16:0/18:2, 13:0/23:2, 27:2/9:0, 16:0/18:1, 12:0/22:2, 18:0/18:1, 18:0/24:1, and 18:1/24:0. The major SM species are 16:1/16:0, 16:0/18:1, 16:0/18:2, 16:0/26:2, and 18:1/24:1. The major LPC species are 18:1 and 16:0. The major PE species are 18:0/18:1 and 16:0/22:6. The total eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contents in the GPH-PLs were 18.39%, and the content of DHA in the PL fraction was 16.47%. These results suggest that PLs from GPH is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which have good activity in anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, anti-osteoporosis and other aspects, and have important development prospects in the future.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5114, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704972

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which lacks estrogen receptor α (ERα), progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression, is closely related to basal-like breast cancer. Previously, we and others report that cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) phosphorylates enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) at T416 (pT416-EZH2). Here, we show that transgenic expression of phospho-mimicking EZH2 mutant EZH2T416D in mammary glands leads to tumors with TNBC phenotype. Coexpression of EZH2T416D in mammary epithelia of HER2/Neu transgenic mice reprograms HER2-driven luminal tumors into basal-like tumors. Pharmacological inhibition of CDK2 or EZH2 allows re-expression of ERα and converts TNBC to luminal ERα-positive, rendering TNBC cells targetable by tamoxifen. Furthermore, the combination of either CDK2 or EZH2 inhibitor with tamoxifen effectively suppresses tumor growth and markedly improves the survival of the mice bearing TNBC tumors, suggesting that the mechanism-based combination therapy may be an alternative approach to treat TNBC.

6.
Mol Cell ; 76(3): 359-370, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668929

RESUMO

The engagement of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; encoded by the PDCD1 gene) receptor expressed on activated T cells and its ligand, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1; encoded by the CD274 gene), is a major co-inhibitory checkpoint signaling that controls T cell activities. Various types of cancers express high levels of PD-L1 and exploit PD-L1/PD-1 signaling to evade T cell immunity. Blocking the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway has consistently shown remarkable anti-tumor effects in patients with advanced cancers and is recognized as the gold standard for developing new immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and combination therapies. However, the response rates of anti-PD-L1 have been limited in several solid tumors. Therefore, furthering our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of PD-L1 can bring substantial benefits to patients with cancer by improving the efficacy of current PD-L1/PD-1 blockade or other ICBs. In this review, we provide current knowledge of PD-L1 regulatory mechanisms at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, post-translational, and extracellular levels, and discuss the implications of these findings in cancer diagnosis and immunotherapy.

7.
J Nurs Manag ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710410

RESUMO

AIM: To develop a mobile application (App) that enhances bed cleaning management. BACKGROUND: Bed cleaning affects clinical work in hospitals. The nursing department needed an App to enhance bed cleaning management, especially one on the status of all beds to be cleaned. METHODS: Bed-Cleaning App (BedCApp) was developed. Then, asurvey was administered to 50 BedCApp users. RESULTS: BedCApp helped the administrative staff and nurse managers in adjusting their workload effectively. A complete presentation of beds to be cleaned and reminders were found to be the most satisfactory features. The average time from receiving the notice to completing bed cleaning was shortenedby25.5 min. The user satisfaction survey comprised50 valid questionnaires, with a satisfaction rate of 3.6/5. CONCLUSION: BedCApp provides the actual workload status; therefore, the administrative staff and nurse managers can optimize the workload during rush hours. The software is user-oriented, with good user acceptance. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Proactive workload management would improve outcomes during rush hours and avoid interference in clinical care. The user interfaces for the elderly staff has special design-simple to use, larger font size than that in the interface for non-elderly staff, and workflow reminders.

8.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 679-688, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679450

RESUMO

MiR-25 is a well-documented oncogenic miRNA implicated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) development, progression and metastasis. However, whether and how miR-25 is involved in the development and metastasis of ESCC remain un-addressed. By using qRT-PCR analysis to compare levels of miR-25 in ESCC tissues with or without lymph node metastasis (LNM), it showed that ESCC tissues with LNM had increased levels of miR-25, which was correlated with tumor metastasis and poor prognosis. Gain- and loss-of-function assays indicated that targeting miR-25 could reverse EMT, and reduce in vitro cell migration and invasion, but not apoptosis and proliferation of ESCC. Furthermore, targeting miR-25 inhibited in vivo lung metastasis, and vice versa. And E-cadherin was a direct target of miR-25 through which affected EMT process and metastasis of ESCC. It is therefore indicated that miR-25 promotes metastasis of ESCC through E-cadherin and EMT events, thus may serves as a negative prognostic factor and possible target for treatment of ESCC patients.

9.
Dalton Trans ; 48(46): 17258-17265, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710322

RESUMO

The development of effective bifunctional catalysts for both oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) and oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) is crucial for improving the performance of charge and discharge processes in rechargeable metal-air batteries. Here, we report a sulfonated cobalt phthalocyanine/carbon nanotube hybrid (CoPc-SO3H/CNT) prepared by a facile anchoring method along with sonication and magnetic stirring. The resulting CoPc-SO3H/CNT hybrid exhibits better catalytic activity for ORRs and OERs than the cobalt phthalocyanine/carbon nanotube hybrid (CoPc/CNT), sulfonated cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc-SO3H), cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) and the carbon nanotube (CNT). The onset potential of CoPc-SO3H/CNT for the ORR in 0.1 M KOH is 0.88 V (vs. RHE), which is higher than that of CoPc/CNT (0.85 V), the CNT (0.80 V), CoPc-SO3H (0.77 V) and CoPc (0.66 V). Meanwhile, the CoPc-SO3H/CNT hybrid shows a much lower OER potential (1.62 V) at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 compared to CoPc-SO3H (1.64 V), CoPc/CNT (1.74 V), the CNT (1.96 V) and CoPc (>2.00 V) in 1 M KOH. Similar patterns are also found in 0.1 M KOH solution. Both the conductive CNT and the electron-withdrawing sulfonic groups are confirmed to benefit the electrochemical oxygen reactions (ORRs/OERs).

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(19): 190401, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765183

RESUMO

Nonclassical correlations can be regarded as resources for quantum information processing. However, the classification problem of nonclassical correlations for quantum states remains a challenge, even for finite-size systems. Although there exists a set of criteria for determining individual nonclassical correlations, a unified framework that is capable of simultaneously classifying multiple correlations is still missing. In this Letter, we experimentally explored the possibility of applying machine-learning methods for simultaneously identifying nonclassical correlations. Specifically, by using partial information, we applied an artificial neural network, support vector machine, and decision tree for learning entanglement, quantum steering, and nonlocality. Overall, we found that, for a family of quantum states, all three approaches can achieve high accuracy for the classification problem. Moreover, the run time of the machine-learning methods to output the state label is experimentally found to be significantly less than that of state tomography.

11.
Neuropediatrics ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766058

RESUMO

Familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2) is an autosomal dominant inheritance disorder caused by ATP1A2 mutation, and the clinical spectrum is heterogeneous even with acute severe encephalopathy. However, up to now, early treatments against acute and severe attacks in FHM2 are still insufficient. Here, we report a 15-year-old female with intellectual disability due to FHM2 caused by a pathogenic ATP1A2 gene mutation, presenting mild-to-moderate headache at the onset, followed by confusion, complete right hemiparalysis, epileptic partial seizures, and conscious disturbance with rapid progression in acute attack. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy have revealed left extensive cerebral cortex edema, slightly decreased N-acetylaspartate for neuronal damage, and mildly increased lactate acid for mitochondrial dysfunction throughout the hemispheric swollen cortex. The patient is diagnosed as severe encephalopathy caused by FHM2. Based on literature review about pathophysiologic mechanism described in FHM2 recently, we use early treatments including prevention of glutamatergic excitotoxicity and protection of mitochondria function, as well as traditional antimigraine drug. The symptoms are all greatly improved and recovered within a short time, and follow-up MRI also shows complete disappearance of edema throughout the left hemispheric cortex. Altogether, the approach in our case may reduce the severity and duration of encephalopathy effectively, expend therapeutic options, and provide helpful references for acute severe encephalopathy in FHM2.

12.
ACS Nano ; 13(11): 13492-13500, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689076

RESUMO

Generating single photons at high temperature remains a major challenge, particularly for group III-As and III-P materials widely used in optical communication. Here, we report a high temperature single photon emitter based on a "surface-free" GaAs quantum dot (QD) in a GaAsP nanowire. By using self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth and simple surface engineering, we can significantly enhance the optical signal from the QDs with a highly polarized photoluminescence at 750 nm. The "surface-free" nanowire quantum dots show photon antibunching up to 160 K and well resolved exciton lines as high as 220 K.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17920, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702672

RESUMO

There is little information concerning the predictive ability of the preoperative platelet to albumin ratio (PAR) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after liver resection. In the current study, we aimed to assess the prognostic power of the PAR in HCC patients without portal hypertension (PH) following liver resection.Approximately 628 patients were included in this study. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive value of the PAR for both recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the independent risk factors for both RFS and OS.During the follow-up period, 361 patients experienced recurrence, and 217 patients died. ROC curve analysis suggested that the best cut-off value of the PAR for RFS was greater than 4.8. The multivariate analysis revealed that microvascular invasion (MVI), tumor size >5 cm, high aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet count ratio index (APRI) and high PAR were four independent risk factors for both RFS and OS. Patients with a low PAR had significantly better RFS and OS than those with a high PAR.The PAR may be a useful marker to predict the prognosis of HCC patients after liver resection. HCC patients with a high preoperative PAR had a higher recurrent risk and lower long-term survival rate than those with a low preoperative PAR.


Assuntos
Albuminas/metabolismo , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Feminino , Hepatectomia/mortalidade , Hepatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Curva ROC
14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(18): 180504, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763920

RESUMO

Quantum systems can be exploited for disruptive technologies but in practice quantum features are fragile due to noisy environments. Quantum coherence, a fundamental such feature, is a basis-dependent property that is known to exhibit a resilience to certain types of Markovian noise. Yet, it is still unclear whether this resilience can be relevant in practical tasks. Here, we experimentally investigate the resilient effect of quantum coherence in a photonic Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state under Markovian bit-flip noise, and explore its applications in a noisy metrology scenario. In particular, using up to six-qubit probes, we demonstrate that the standard quantum limit can be outperformed under a transversal noise strength of approximately equal magnitude to the signal, providing experimental evidence of metrological advantage even in the presence of uncorrelated Markovian noise. This work highlights the important role of passive control in noisy quantum hardware, which can act as a low-overhead complement to more traditional approaches such as quantum error correction, thus impacting on the deployment of quantum technologies in real-world settings.

15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(21): 9280-9294, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is characterized by a highly aggressive nature and a dismal outcome. FOXA2 is an archetypal transcription factor involved in cholangiocyte proliferation. RESULTS: FOXA2 expression was negatively correlated with tumor stage (p = 0.024). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that low FoxA2 expression was associated with tumor relapse and survival. At 20 weeks after TAA administration, FoxA2-/- mice displayed significant manifestations of neoplasia, while WT mice did not.RNA sequencing analysis showed that the expression of genes in the MAPK signaling pathway was significantly higher in FoxA2-/- mice. IHC and Western blot results showed that p-ERK1/2, CREB1 and RAS were highly expressed in FoxA2-/- mice. Furthermore, using in vitro experiments with siRNA, we found that low expression of FoxA2 could exacerbate the metastatic potential of ICC. The expression of p-ERK1/2 and RAS, which are key mediators of the MAPK signaling pathway, was significantly increased. CONCLUSION: Low FOXA2 expression negatively affected the prognosis of patients with ICC. Loss of FoxA2 expression could promote intrahepatic bile duct neoplasia partly via activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, the data of 85 patients with ICC were retrospectively collected and analyzed. TAA was used to induce ICC in FoxA2-/- mice and WT mice. RNA-sequencing analysis was used to identify the expression of different genes.

16.
Bull Entomol Res ; : 1-9, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735176

RESUMO

Body size is an important life-history trait in eusocial insects which plays a key role in colony fitness. The division of labour, represented by caste polyethism, correlates with divergent morphological traits. Size polymorphism has been noted in the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata; however, little is known regarding the differences in the size distributions of workers performing foraging tasks. In the present study, task partitioning was observed in the foraging activities of S. geminata. Two subgroups among foraging workers of S. geminata were discovered using the Gaussian mixture model: a large worker group (head width ≥ 0.924 mm) and a small worker group (head width < 0.924 mm). The foraging worker population comprised two distinct groups - 25.64% were large workers and 74.36% were small workers. Larger workers delivered heavier seeds faster than smaller workers, but this difference became less apparent when lighter seeds were being carried. When large prey such as crickets was encountered during foraging, S. geminata partitioned their tasks into cutting and transportation. The large workers were observed to cut cricket prey into fragments with their longer mandibles, and the small workers then transported these fragments back to the nest. These results present evidence of task partitioning among tropical fire ants, with different tasks being performed by ants of different castes.

17.
Opt Lett ; 44(21): 5254-5257, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674981

RESUMO

Here we present a design of a traveling-wave optical cavity containing four identical ellipsoidal mirrors arranged in a square. The cavity proves to support more than 21 Laguerre-Gaussian modes simultaneously. There is a polarization splitting in the cavity that can be used for polarization filtering with a high isolation level.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225644, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High levels of suspended particulate matters (PMs) and bioaerosols are created by dental procedures. The present study aimed to evaluate the size and concentration of PMs produced by drilling and grinding teeth, and to assess the efficiency of central vacuum system and protective masks for the removal of PMs. METHODS: A total of 20 extracted permanent teeth were collected. A novel experimental system and particle counter were used to evaluate the PMs produced by dental procedures and the PM removal efficiency of a central vacuum system and surgical/N95 masks. RESULTS: The number concentration of total PMs produced by drilling and grinding teeth was significantly higher than the indoor background concentration. The average aerodynamic diameter of particle was generally less than 1 µm. The average number concentration of ultrafine particles was 2.1x1011 particles/m3 during tooth drilling and grinding. The efficiency of the central vacuum system was 35.74% for PM≥0.5 and 35.41% for PM10. For PM≥0.5, the ratios of inside and outside masks were 0.8-1.34 without vacuum and 1.18-1.36 with vacuum. No difference was found with the use of surgical/N95 masks during dental therapy, with or without vacuum use. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of PMs were found during tooth drilling and grinding procedures, especially among PM1. The PM removal efficiency of a central vacuum system and surgical/N95 masks were limited.

19.
Med Res Rev ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692025

RESUMO

Malaria is a tropical disease, leading to around half a million deaths annually. Antimalarials such as quinolines are crucial to fight against malaria, but malaria control is extremely challenged by the limited pipeline of effective pharmaceuticals against drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum which are resistant toward almost all currently accessible antimalarials. To tackle the growing resistance, new antimalarial drugs are needed urgently. Hybrid molecules which contain two or more pharmacophores have the potential to overcome the drug resistance, and hybridization of quinoline privileged antimalarial building block with other antimalarial pharmacophores may provide novel molecules with enhanced in vitro and in vivo activity against drug-resistant (including multidrug-resistant) P falciparum. In recent years, numerous of quinoline hybrids were developed, and their activities against a panel of drug-resistant P falciparum strains were screened. Some of quinoline hybrids were found to possess promising in vitro and in vivo potency. This review emphasized quinoline hybrid molecules with potential in vitro antiplasmodial and in vivo antimalarial activity against drug-resistant P falciparum, covering articles published between 2010 and 2019.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(17): 170402, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702255

RESUMO

In a measurement-device-independent or quantum-refereed protocol, a referee can verify whether two parties share entanglement or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering without the need to trust either of the parties or their devices. The need for trusting a party is substituted by a quantum channel between the referee and that party, through which the referee encodes the measurements to be performed on that party's subsystem in a set of nonorthogonal quantum states. In this Letter, an EPR-steering inequality is adapted as a quantum-refereed EPR-steering witness, and the trust-free experimental verification of higher dimensional quantum steering is reported via preparing a class of entangled photonic qutrits. Further, with two measurement settings, we extract 1.106±0.023 bits of private randomness per every photon pair from our observed data, which surpasses the one-bit limit for projective measurements performed on qubit systems. Our results advance research on quantum information processing tasks beyond qubits.

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