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1.
Nurse Educ Today ; 84: 104208, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disaster nursing education is a necessity for nurses and students to improve their disaster relief competencies. Determining undergraduate student nurses' learning perceived needs for disaster nursing can help improve curricula construction. In China there is currently no valid instrument available for the evaluation of influencing factors. A disaster nursing course content system was developed using the Delphi method in 2011. However, this system was unformed and lacked psychometric evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To adapt the disaster nursing course content system into an instrument, to evaluate its psychometric properties, and to investigate undergraduate student nurses' learning perceived needs for disaster nursing. DESIGN, SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in public higher education institutions in China. In the first study, a total of 1714 undergraduate student nurses were recruited in May to October 2016; in the second study, 68 were recruited in May 2019. METHODS: The instrument was adapted through literature review, face validity and pilot testing in preliminary studies. The construct validity and reliability of the instrument were tested using exploratory factor analysis, parallel analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability. RESULTS: The exploratory factor analysis and parallel analysis extracted a three-factor solution comprising 19 items that accounted for 71.69% of the total variance, including discipline introduction, skills and knowledge in disaster relief, and disaster management. The fit indices indicated a good fit. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability was good, as indicated by a Cronbach's alpha of 0.89 and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87. CONCLUSION: The Learning Needs for Disaster Nursing questionnaire exhibited good psychometric properties, thereby proving itself a valuable instrument for evaluating learning perceived needs in undergraduate student nurses.

2.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(3): 1873-1877, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492355

RESUMO

The structure and anisotropic magnetization of One-dimensional (1D) Nd/Co/PA66 coaxial nanocables prepared by a low cost physical infiltration and electrodeposition methods are investigated. The preparation of Co nanotubes, Co/PA66 two-layer nanotubes and Nd/Co/PA66 three-layer nanocales is described, respectively. The structure, chemical composition and magnetic properties of various nanomaterials were investigated. The results show that the magnetic properties were affected by the rare earth metal Nd and the structural properties. The residual magnetization ratio of Nd/Co/PA66 nanocables is the biggest due to the synergistic effect of Nd and Co. In addition, the magnetization processes of the nanostructure were discussed in detail. We believe that these methods may provide an idea for ferromagnetic alloys and permanent magnet material and suitable for future applications in perpendicular recording media.

3.
Behav Sleep Med ; : 1-14, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672062

RESUMO

Objective: Poor sleep quality is common in nursing staff. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the pooled prevalence of poor sleep quality in nursing staff.Methods: A systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases was performed. Studies that reported sleep quality measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were synthesized using a random-effects model.Results: Fifty-three studies were analyzed. The pooled prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61.0% (95% CI: 55.8-66.1%). The pooled total PSQI score was 7.13 ± 0.18 (95% CI: 6.78-7.50). The pooled component scores were 1.47 ± 0.20 (95% CI of mean score: 1.08-1.85) in sleep latency, 0.91 ± 0.15 (95% CI of mean score: 0.61-1.21) in sleep duration, 1.59 ± 0.13 (95% CI of mean score: 1.35-1.84) in overall sleep disturbances, 0.33 ± 0.18 (95% CI of mean score: 0-0.67) in sleeping medication, 1.21 ± 1.20 (95% CI of mean score: 0.83-1.60) in daytime dysfunction, 1.39 ± 0.14 (95% CI of mean score: 1.11-1.67) in subjective sleep quality, and 0.66 ± 0.11 (95% CI of mean score: 0.44-0.87) in habitual sleep efficiency. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses found that PSQI cutoff values, mean age, body mass index (BMI), sample size, study quality, and work experience moderated the prevalence of poor sleep quality.Conclusions: Poor sleep quality appears to be common in nursing staff. Considering its negative impact on health, effective measures should be taken to improve poor sleep quality in this population. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to examine the contributing factors of nurses' poor sleep quality.

4.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686114

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: SiDWF1 encodes a gibberellin receptor GID1B-like protein controlling the internode length and plant height in sesame. Sesame is a high-height crop. Here we systematically analyzed the morphological and genetic characters of the sesame dwarf mutant dw607 (dwf1 type). The plant height and the internode length of dw607 significantly declined, while the thousand seed weight (TSW) significantly increased (P < 0.01). The cell size of stem parenchyma and pith tissue reduced, and vascular bundle cells and parenchyma tissue arranged much tighter in the dwarf mutant. Based on the cross-population association mapping of a RIL population of the cross 'dw607 (dwf1) × 15N41 (wt type),' the target interval linked to the short internode length was located on C9.scaffold2 of SiChr.4 in sesame. We further screened the 58 variants using the genomic variant data of 824 germplasm and BSA DNA pools and determined the target gene Sidwf1. The SNP mutation of C1057 to T1057 resulted in the amino acid change of P150 (proline) to S150 (serine) in SiDWF1. SiDWF1 gene allele is 1,638 bp and encodes a gibberellin receptor GID1B-like protein. Transcription profile assay reflected that Sidwf1 is highly expressed in leaf, stem, bud, and capsule tissues. The dynamic variation in endogenous GA3 content in dw607 and the wild type was also monitored in this study. The results revealed the molecular genetic mechanism of the internode length and plant height trait in sesame for the first time. The findings supply the theoretical and material basis for developing the marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding in sesame.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our previous study has indicated that somatostatin potently inhibits neuropathic pain through activation of its type 2 receptor (SSTR2) in mouse dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord. However, the underlying mechanism of this activation has not been elucidated clearly. OBJECTIVE: To perform the painful behavior and pharmacological studies on the basis of sciatic nerve-pinch mice model and explore the underlying mechansim which SSTR2 involved. METHODS: On the basis of a sciatic nerve-pinch injury model, we aimed at comparing the painful behavior and dorsal root ganglion neurons neurochemical changes after the SSTR2 antibody (anti-SSTR2;5µl,1µg/ml) administration in mouse. RESULTS: After pinch nerve injury, we found that the mechanical hyperalgesia and severely painful behavior (autotomy) were detected after the application of SSTR2 antibody (anti-SSTR2;5µl,1µg/ml) on the pinch-injured nerve.The up-regulated phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) expression and the apoptotic marker (i.e., Bax) was significantly decreased in DRGs after anti-SSTR2 treatment. CONCLUSION: The current data suggested that inhibitory changes in proteins from the apoptotic pathway in anti-SSTR2-treated groups might be taking place to overcome the protein deficits caused by SSTR2 antibody and supported the new therapeutic intervention with SSTR2 antagonist for neuronal degeneration following nerve injury.

6.
Luminescence ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713314

RESUMO

Energy transfer engineering based on fluorescent probes for directly sensing enzyme activities are in great demand as enzyme-mediated transformations, which are central to all biological processes. Here, a fluorescence carbon dot (CD)-based assay exhibiting selective responses to the quantitation of ß-glucosidase and the effect of its inhibitor was developed. The most common substrate, para-nitrophenyl-ß-d-glucopyranoside (pNPG) was hydrolyzed by ß-glucosidase to release p-nitrophenol (pNP), which can efficiently quench fluorescence of CDs via an inner filter effect and electron transfer. However, in the presence of inhibitors of ß-glucosidase, the fluorescence intensity gradually recovered as the concentration of inhibitors increased. Therefore, the enzyme-triggered fluorescence turn-off/turn-on of specific CDs successfully achieved sensitive detection of ß-glucosidase and monitored the effect of its inhibitors. This new strategy was applied to detect ß-glucosidase and monitor ß-glucosidase inhibitor in hepatoma cells using cell imaging. All results suggest that the new method is sensitive and promising for use in cancer diagnosis and treatment.

8.
ChemMedChem ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674143

RESUMO

The ability to selectively degrade proteins with bifunctional small molecules has the potential to fundamentally alter therapy in a variety of diseases. However, the relatively large size of these chimeric molecules often results in challenging physico-chemical properties (e. g., low aqueous solubility) and poor pharmacokinetics which may complicate their in vivo applications. We recently discovered an exquisitely potent chimeric BET degrader (GNE-987) which exhibited picomolar cell potencies but also demonstrated low in vivo exposures. In an effort to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of this molecule, we discovered the first degrader-antibody conjugate by attaching GNE-987 to an anti-CLL1 antibody via a novel linker. A single IV dose of the conjugate afforded sustained in vivo exposures that resulted in antigen-specific tumor regressions. Enhancement of a chimeric protein degrader with poor in vivo properties through antibody conjugation thereby expands the utility of directed protein degradation as both a biological tool and a therapeutic possibility.

9.
Arch Med Res ; 50(6): 384-392, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocytes and associated interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-13 play crucial roles in asthma pathogenesis. In this study, we explored an adeno-associated virus 5 (AAV5) based gene therapy by delivering truncated IL-4 protein to antagonize IL-4 receptor α chain and interrupt asthmatic signal pathway. RESULTS: A recombinant adeno-associated virus 5 (AAV5) vector harboring a truncated mouse IL-4 gene (AAV5-mIL-4ΔC22) was prepared. Western blotting showed that the IL-4 mutant protein lacking the C-terminal 22 amino acids was expressed well in AAV5-mIL-4ΔC22 infected 16HBE and BEAS-2B cells. AAV5-drivn green fluorescent protein (AAV5-GFP) served as a control. The biodistribution of vector DNA after AAV5 vector aerosol inhalation was examined by PCR and the result showed that foreign DNA was detectable in the lungs but not in other organs including gonads. The aerosol inhalation-mediated delivery of AAV5-expressed antagonistic IL-4 mutant protein improved the lung function of ovalbumin-induced asthma mice. CONCLUSIONS: The inhalation of aerosolized AAV5-mIL-4ΔC22 significantly improved the lung function and modulated the immune cell infiltration and associated cytokine expression in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of ovalbumin-induced asthma mice.

10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 112372, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683036

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Recipes (Qingre Jiedu (QJ), Wenyang Yiqi (WYYQ) and Huo Xue (HX)) in Qishen granules (QSG) are believed to synergistically exert cardio-protective effects. However, the underlying pattern of each decomposed recipe in QSG and their synergistic effects in the treatment of heart failure (HF) are not clear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore the biological contributions of decomposed recipes to therapeutic effects of QSG and reveal the pharmacological mechanism of QSG in treating HF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The therapeutic effects of QSG or its recipes on heart failure were examined in wet-lab at both transcription and phenotypic level using HF Sprague-Dawley rats. Sequencing and transcriptome analyses were performed using in silico approaches including identification of differentially expressed genes, pathway enrichment and protein-protein interaction network studies. Specially, an optimized in silico quantitative pathway analysis that maximally extracted gene expression information was developed to reveal differentially expressed pathways (DEPs) among various groups, and is publicly available as R package QPA on GitHub (https://github.com/github-gs/QPA). Finally, the HF-related genes predicted using DEP approach were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. RESULTS: Multiple key genes and the associated signaling pathways were shown to be highly relevant for the therapeutic effect of QSG. Decreased expression of Spp1 gene required for inflammatory signaling and profibrotic signaling were observed in failing hearts treated with QJ, WYYQ and HX. Decreased expression of Cx3cr1 gene required for inflammatory signaling was observed in failing hearts treated with WYYQ and HX. Decreased expression of Myc gene required for oxidative stress and Fgfr2 gene required for profibrotic signaling were observed in failing hearts treated with HX and WYYQ, respectively. Increased expression of Adcy1 gene required for cAMP-PKA signaling cascade was observed in failing hearts treated with WYYQ and HX. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that QJ, WYYQ and HX recipes in QSG achieve synergistic and complementary therapeutic effects through alleviating inflammatory responses, attenuating ventricular remodeling and enhancing myocardial energy supply.

11.
J Mol Biol ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682837

RESUMO

Alginate lyases, which are important in both basic and applied sciences, fall into ten polysaccharide lyase (PL) families. PL36 is a newly established family that includes 39 bacterial sequences and one eukaryotic sequence. Till now, the structures or catalytic mechanisms of PL36 alginate lyases have yet to be revealed. Here, we characterized a novel PL36 alginate lyase, Aly36B, from Chitinophaga sp. MD30. Aly36B is a polymannuronate specific endolytic alginate lyase. To probe the catalytic mechanism of Aly36B, the structures of wild-type Aly36B and its mutants (K143A/Y185A in complex with alginate tetrasaccharide and K143A/M171A with trisaccharide) were solved. The overall structure of Aly36B belongs to the ß-jelly roll scaffold, adopting a typical ß-sandwich fold. Aly36B contains a Ca2+, which is far away from the active center and plays an important role in stabilizing the structure of Aly36B. Based on structural and mutational analyses, the catalytic mechanism of Aly36B for alginate degradation was explained. During catalysis, Arg169, Tyr185, and Tyr187 are responsible for neutralizing the negative charge of the substrate, and Lys143 acts as both the catalytic base and the catalytic acid, which represents a new kind of catalytic mechanism of alginate lyases. Sequence alignment shows that these four residues involved in catalysis are highly conserved in all PL36 sequences, suggesting that PL36 alginate lyases may adopt a similar catalytic mechanism. Taken together, this study reveals the molecular structure and catalytic mechanism of a PL36 alginate lyase, broadening our knowledge on alginate lyases and facilitating future biotechnological applications of PL36 alginate lyases.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(95): 14307-14310, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713549

RESUMO

A novel hepatocyte-targeting near-infrared fluorescent probe named Gal-NIR is developed. Gal-NIR shows ratiometric response to ONOO- with high sensitivity and selectivity. Moreover, the probe can accurately target the hepatocyte, and thus is used for assessing drug-induced hepatotoxicity and its remediation by using hepatoprotective medicines in living cells and mice.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718125

RESUMO

Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a key microscopic process in many electrochemical applications of materials, where the requirements of their ORR performances may vary strikingly, for example, during the uses of MoS2 as an electrocatalyst and anticorrosion/lubricating coating in aqueous/humid environments, ORR should be activated and inhibited, respectively. To reveal a complete ORR profile of MoS2, using first-principles calculations, we examine the stabilities of various possible zero-dimensional point defects on the surface and one-dimensional edge defects and comprehensively explore the ORR activities on pristine MoS2 surface and those defects in acid/alkaline solutions. It is found that the ORRs on the pristine surface and surfaces with point defects always require large overpotentials (>1.0 V), indicating a defect-immune resistance of the planar MoS2 surface against the ORR. However, the ORR overpotentials on edge defects can reach as low as 0.66 V, corresponding to a relatively high activity close to that of the prototypical catalyst Pt (overpotential ∼0.45 V). Such contrasting ORR behaviors of point and edge defects are also understood in depth by analyzing the underlying thermodynamic and electronic-structure mechanisms. This work not only quantitatively explains the performances of MoS2 in both galvanic corrosion and electrochemical catalysis but also provides a useful structure-ORR map that can facilitate adapting the realistic MoS2 to versatile electrochemical applications.

15.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 668-678, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722607

RESUMO

Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) genes are involved in auxin signaling pathway and play an important role in plant growth and development. However, many studies focus on Aux/IAA gene families and much less known in Bletilla striata. In this study, a total of 27 Aux/IAA genes (BsIAA1-27) were cloned from the transcriptome of Bletilla striata. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA protein sequences from B. striata, Arabidopsis thaliana and Dendrobium officinale, the Aux/IAA genes of B. striata (BsIAAs) were categorized into 2 subfamilies and 9 groups. While BsIAAs were more closer to those of D. officinale compared to A. thaliana. EST-SSR marker mining test showed that 4 markers could be stably amplified with obvious polymorphisms among 4 landraces. Our results suggested that BsIAAs were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of Aux/IAA genes in B. striata and other plants.

16.
Int J Biol Sci ; 15(12): 2664-2675, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754338

RESUMO

Cys2-His2 zinc finger (C2H2-ZF) proteins represent the most common class of transcription factors. These factors have great potential for the management of developmental progression by regulating the specific spatiotemporal expression of genes. In this study, we cloned one C2H2-ZF protein gene of Bombyx mori, BGIBMGA000319, that is orthologous to B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1); we thus named it as Bombyx mori Blimp-1 (BmBlimp-1). In the silkworm, the BmBlimp-1 gene is specifically upregulated during day 2 of the pupal to adult stage and is highly expressed in wing discs on day 3 of the pupa. Knockdown of its expression level in the pupal stage results in a crumpled-winged silkworm moth. Using the predicted DNA-binding sequences of BmBlimp-1 to search the silkworm genome to screen target genes of BmBlimp-1, 7049 genes were identified to have at least one binding site of BmBlimp-1 on their 1 kb upstream and downstream genome regions. Comparisons of those genes with a reported pupal wing disc transcriptome data resulted in 4065 overlapping genes being retrieved. GO enrichment analysis of the overlapping genes showed that most of the genes were enriched in the binding term. Combining functional annotation and real-time quantitative PCR, 15 genes were identified as the candidate target genes of BmBlimp-1, including several wing cuticular protein genes, chitin synthase A, and wing disc development genes, such as Wnt1, cubitus interruptus (ci) and engrailed (en). Moreover, the amino acid sequence of the zinc finger motif of Blimp-1 gene was highly conserved among the 15 insect species. We propose that BmBlimp-1 is an important regulatory factor in silkworm wing development.

17.
Genes Genomics ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both photosynthetic pigments and chloroplasts in plant leaf cells play an important role in deciding on the photosynthetic capacity and efficiency in plants. Systematical investigating the regulatory mechanism of chloroplast development and chlorophyll (Chl) content variation is necessary for clarifying the photosynthesis mechanism for crops. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the critical regulatory mechanism of leaf color mutation in a yellow-green leaf sesame mutant Siyl-1. METHODS: We performed the genetic analysis of the yellow-green leaf color mutation using the F2 population of the mutant Siyl-1. We compared the morphological structure of the chloroplasts, chlorophyll content of the three genotypes of the mutant F2 progeny. We performed the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and compared the protein expression variation between the mutant progeny and the wild type. RESULTS: Genetic analysis indicated that there were 3 phenotypes of the F2 population of the mutant Siyl-1, i.e., YY type with light-yellow leaf color (lethal); Yy type with yellow-green leaf color, and yy type with normal green leaf color. The yellow-green mutation was controlled by an incompletely dominant nuclear gene, Siyl-1. Compared with the wild genotype, the chloroplast number and the morphological structure in YY and Yy mutant lines varied evidently. The chlorophyll content also significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The 2-DE comparison showed that there were 98 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) among YY, Yy, and yy lines. All the 98 DEPs were classified into 5 functional groups. Of which 82.7% DEPs proteins belonged to the photosynthesis and energy metabolism group. CONCLUSION: The results revealed the genetic character of yellow-green leaf color mutant Siyl-1. 98 DEPs were found in YY and Yy mutant compared with the wild genotype. The regulation pathway related with the yellow leaf trait mutation in sesame was analyzed for the first time. The findings supplied the basic theoretical and gene basis for leaf color and chloroplast development mechanism in sesame.

18.
Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr ; 29(2): 113-121, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679266

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a common debilitating gynecologic disease. Almost 10% of reproductive-age women are affected by this disease; they commonly suffer pelvic pain and/or infertility. Early diagnosis of this multifactorial disease remains difficult because its etiology is not clear and the early symptoms are nonspecific. In addition, many reproductive-age women are unwilling to undergo invasive laparoscopic surgery because of the possibility of decreasing fertility. Thus, identifying biomarkers for the early diagnosis of endometriosis a key focus of current research. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of noncoding transcripts that have length of > 200 nucleotides and lack protein-coding ability but still influence gene expression in various ways. With advances in genome-wide analysis, researchers have determined that lncRNAs play an important role in many human diseases, particularly tumors. Moreover, the role of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of endometriosis has been continually recognized. In this review, we discuss the status of current research on dysregulated lncRNAs and their roles in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. We aim to stimulate new investigations toward the identification of lncRNAs as biomarkers for the early diagnosis and therapy of this long-term gynecological disease.

19.
FASEB J ; : fj201901021RR, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725331

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequently occurring and gravest primary tumor of the CNS in adults. The development of chemoresistance to temozolomide (TMZ), the first-line chemotherapy for GBM, is an important factor contributing to poor treatment outcomes. Down-regulation of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression in GBM cells is an attractive strategy for overcoming TMZ resistance and improving outcomes. This study revealed that the nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) exerts antitumorigenic effects on TMZ-sensitive and TMZ-resistant (TMZ-R) glioma cells. Pretreatment with SNAP not only induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and hypoxia-inducing factor 1, but also resensitized TMZ-R GBM cells to TMZ through down-regulation of MGMT expression. SNAP acted principally through post-translational modification of p53, phosphorylated N-myc downstream regulated gene 1, and MGMT protein stability in TMZ-R GBM cells. Additionally, when applied together, SNAP and TMZ enhanced the inhibition of tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. This study sheds new light on a potential strategy to overcome TMZ resistance in GBM and thus possesses the potential for prolonging survival of patients with GBM.-Tsai, C.-K., Huang, L.-C., Wu, Y.-P., Kan, I.-Y., Hueng, D.-Y. SNAP reverses temozolomide resistance in human glioblastoma multiforme cells through down-regulation of MGMT.

20.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729146

RESUMO

Modification of cell wall properties has been considered as one of the determinants that confer Al tolerance in plants, while how cell wall modifying processes are regulated remains elusive. Here, we present a WRKY transcription factor WRKY47 involved in Al tolerance and root growth. Lack of WRKY47 significantly reduces, while overexpression of it increases Al tolerance. We show that lack of WRKY47 substantially affects subcellular Al distribution in the root, with Al content decreased in apoplast and increased in symplast, which is attributed to the reduced cell wall Al-binding capacity conferred by the decreased content of hemicellulose I in the wrky47-1 mutant. Based on microarray, RT-qPCR and ChIP assays, we further show that WRKY47 directly regulates the expression of EXTENSIN-LIKE PROTEIN (ELP) and XYLOGLUCAN ENDOTRANSGLUCOSYLASE-HYDROLASES17 (XTH17) responsible for cell wall modification. Increasing the expression of ELP and XTH17 rescued Al tolerance as well as root growth in wrky47-1 mutant. In summary, our results demonstrate that WRKY47 is required for root growth under both normal and Al stress conditions via direct regulation of cell wall modification genes, and that the balance of Al distribution between root apoplast and symplast conferred by WRKY47 is important for Al tolerance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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