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1.
J Food Biochem ; : e13962, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617307

RESUMO

Marinating is a Chinese meat-processing technique that involves treating meat products in an aged brine containing traditional Chinese spices and other condiments. In this study, beef meats were marinated in different seasoning recipes, including marinade solution of water as control (BS1), marinade solution consisting of water and 2% salt (BS2), marinade solution consisting of water, 2% salt, and 0.5% sugar (BS3), and marinade solution consisting of water, 2% salt, 0.5% sugar, 0.5% soy sauce, and spices (BS4). The effects of different marinade solutions through the tumbling on the flavor profile of roasted beef meat were comprehensively analyzed via chemical and sensory analysis. A total of 82 volatile flavor compounds were identified. Among them, 36 compounds were identified in BS1, 40 compounds in BS2, 46 compounds in BS3, and 64 compounds in BS4. Besides, 4 compounds showed high odor activity values (OAVs) in marinated samples, including decanal, trans-2-decenal, linalool, and nonanal. The metal oxide sensors of E-nose distinguished the differences among the different marinated samples. Marinated beef samples BS2 and BS3 showed a significant increase in the values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In contrast, marinated beef sample BS4 significantly reduced TBARS value to 4.11 µg MDA/kg beef. It can be concluded that using this different seasoning processing enhances the aroma profile and provides a reference for the production of marinated meat products. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Marinating is a Chinese meat-processing technique that involves treating meat products in an aged brine containing traditional Chinese spices and other condiments. Processing beef meat with different marinade solutions could enhance its aroma profile. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of marination in different marinade solutions through the tumbling on the volatile flavor compounds of roasted beef meat using HS-SPME-GC-MS and E-nose. The obtained results from this study could enrich the theoretical knowledge of the flavor chemistry of marinated beef meat and provide a reference for the production of marinated meat products.

2.
Theor Popul Biol ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627803

RESUMO

The evolution of cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemmas with additive random cost and benefit for cooperation cannot be accounted for by Hamilton's rule based on mean effects transferred from recipients to donors weighted by coefficients of relatedness, which defines inclusive fitness in a constant environment. Extensions that involve higher moments of stochastic effects are possible, however, and these are connected to a concept of random inclusive fitness that is frequency-dependent. This is shown in the setting of pairwise interactions in a haploid population with the same coefficient of relatedness between interacting players. In an infinite population, fixation of cooperation is stochastically stable if a mean geometric inclusive fitness of defection when rare is negative, while fixation of defection is stochastically unstable if a mean geometric inclusive fitness of cooperation when rare is positive, and these conditions are generally not equivalent. In a finite population, the probability for cooperation to ultimately fix when represented once exceeds the probability under neutrality or the corresponding probability for defection if the mean inclusive fitness of cooperation when its frequency is 1/3 or 1/2 exceeds 1. All these results rely on the simplifying assumption of a linear fitness function. It is argued that meaningful applications of random inclusive fitness in complex settings (multi-player game, diploidy, population structure) would generally require conditions of weak selection and additive gene action.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study compares the change of retinal vessel density (VD) after pan-retinal photocoagulation (PRP) and intravitreal conbercept (IVC) treatment in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) eyes with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: A total of 55 treatment-naïve PDR eyes were included in this retrospective study. Of these, 29 eyes were divided into a PRP group, and 26 eyes were divided into an IVC group based on the treatment they received. OCTA was performed to measure macular and papillary VD at each follow-up in both groups. RESULTS: The macular VD for superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), choriocapillaris (CC) and papillary VD for radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) between the two groups demonstrated no significant difference at baseline and month 12 (p > 0.05). The paired t-test results showed that the macular VD for SCP, DCP, CC and papillary VD for the RPC at month 12 did not differ to the baseline in each group (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the 12-month follow-up, there was no significant change of macular and papillary VD between the PRP and IVC treatment in PDR eyes. Additionally, compared to the baseline, there were no significant changes of macular and papillary VD after either the PRP or IVC treatment. Considering the decrease in VD as DR progress, both treatments have potential protection of macular and papillary VD loss in PDR.

4.
Phytomedicine ; 93: 153747, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a common cause of irreversible blindness in elderly patients in developed countries, and subretinal fibrosis is an advanced stage of CNV. Currently, there is no effective clinical treatment for subretinal fibrosis. PURPOSE: To investigate whether intravitreal injection of triptolide (TP) could attenuate subretinal fibrosis and determine its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in C57BL/6J mice. Immediately after laser photocoagulation, 1 µl of free TP (10 µg), TP-nanolip-PEG (TP-loaded PEGylated nanoliposomes containing 10 µg TP), or the same volume of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was intravitreally administered to each respective group. Areas and ratios of subretinal fibrosis were calculated seven days after laser injury. Additionally, expression levels of M2 macrophage-related markers, molecules of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1/Smad signaling pathway, and markers for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) were detected both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: The areas of subretinal fibrosis were significantly reduced in both the free TP (10993.87 ± 2416.90 µm2) and TP-nanolip-PEG (7695.32 ± 2121.91 µm2) groups when compared with the PBS group (15971.97 ± 3203.10 µm2) (p < 0.05, n = 6). The ratio of subretinal fibrosis in the free TP monomer (20.8 ± 4.2%) and TP-nanolip-PEG (12.5 ± 4.0%) groups was lower than that in the PBS control group (41.7 ± 5.3%) (p < 0.01, n = 6). Moreover, both TP and TP-nanolip-PEG suppressed the polarization of M2 macrophages and downregulated gene expressions of TGF-ß1, Smad 2, Smad 3, α-SMA, and collagen I (p < 0.05), but upregulated the gene expression of E-cadherin (p < 0.05), thus reversing TGF-ß1 induced EMT/EndoMT and attenuating subretinal fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: TP could attenuate subretinal fibrosis by suppressing the polarization of M2 macrophages and TGF-ß1 induced EMT/EndoMT. TP-nanolip-PEG enhanced the inhibitory effects of TP on subretinal fibrosis, suggesting its therapeutic potential for CNV-related subretinal fibrosis.

5.
Cancer Lett ; 523: 43-56, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601021

RESUMO

Membrane vesicles, including exosomes and microparticles (MPs), serve to package and transfer the cellular cargo during inter/extracellular communication, which is of great interest in cancer development, especially in the dissemination of signal transduction-associated traits from donor cells to recipient cells. Although increasing evidence suggests that microparticles (MPs) contribute to the development of cancer, their unique characteristics remain to be exploited. Here, we examined the secretion of MPs in tumor tissues from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients and found that the tumor cells could release MPs loaded with immune checkpoint molecular programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), especially in patients treated with traditional clinical interventions, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These PD-L1-loading MPs contribute to the suppressive immune microenvironment, eventually resulting in the tumor progression in TNBC. Mechanically, we proved that PD-L1-loading MPs could suppress the activation and function of functional cluster of differentiation CD8+ T cells. Meanwhile, the PD-L1-loading MPs could mediate the differentiation of macrophages toward the immune-suppressive M2 phenotype via the activation of the TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) signal and suppression of the serine-threonine kinase (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal. Given the increasing MP production induced by traditional clinical interventions, we further combined chemotherapy with the PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab (ATZ) to efficiently abrogate the immunosuppression caused by the PD-L1-loading MPs. Therefore, our study unveils the mechanism by which tumor cells systemically evade immune surveillance by releasing the PD-L1-loading MPs, and provides new insights into clinical TNBC immunotherapy.

7.
Cell Death Differ ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635817

RESUMO

Many integral membrane proteins might act as indispensable coordinators in specific functional microdomains to maintain the normal operation of known receptors, such as Notch. Gm364 is a multi-pass transmembrane protein that has been screened as a potential female fertility factor. However, there have been no reports to date about its function in female fertility. Here, we found that global knockout of Gm364 decreased the numbers of primordial follicles and growing follicles, impaired oocyte quality as indicated by increased ROS and γ-H2AX, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased oocyte maturation, and increased aneuploidy. Mechanistically, Gm364 directly binds and anchors MIB2, a ubiquitin ligase, on the membrane. Subsequently, membrane MIB2 ubiquitinates and activates DLL3. Next, the activated DLL3 binds and activates Notch2, which is subsequently cleaved within the cytoplasm to produce NICD2, the intracellular active domain of Notch2. Finally, NICD2 can directly activate AKT within the cytoplasm to regulate oocyte meiosis and quality.

8.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 706, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvement of wheat gercTriticum aestivum L.) yield could relieve global food shortages. Kernel size, as an important component of 1000-kernel weight (TKW), is always a significant consideration to improve yield for wheat breeders. Wheat related species possesses numerous elite genes that can be introduced into wheat breeding. It is thus vital to explore, identify, and introduce new genetic resources for kernel size from wheat wild relatives to increase wheat yield. RESULTS: In the present study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for kernel length (KL) and width (KW) were detected in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between a wild emmer accession 'LM001' and a Sichuan endemic tetraploid wheat 'Ailanmai' using the Wheat 55 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array-based constructed linkage map and phenotype from six different environments. We identified eleven QTL for KL and KW including two major ones QKL.sicau-AM-3B and QKW.sicau-AM-4B, the positive alleles of which were from LM001 and Ailanmai, respectively. They explained 17.57 to 44.28% and 13.91 to 39.01% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. For these two major QTL, Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) markers were developed and used to successfully validate their effects in three F3 populations and two natural populations containing a panel of 272 Chinese wheat landraces and that of 300 Chinese wheat cultivars, respectively. QKL.sicau-AM-3B was located at 675.6-695.4 Mb on chromosome arm 3BL. QKW.sicau-AM-4B was located at 444.2-474.0 Mb on chromosome arm 4BL. Comparison with previous studies suggested that these two major QTL were likely new loci. Further analysis indicated that the positive alleles of QKL.sicau-AM-3B and QKW.sicau-AM-4B had a great additive effect increasing TKW by 6.01%. Correlation analysis between KL and other agronomic traits showed that KL was significantly correlated to spike length, length of uppermost internode, TKW, and flag leaf length. KW was also significantly correlated with TKW. Four genes, TRIDC3BG062390, TRIDC3BG062400, TRIDC4BG037810, and TRIDC4BG037830, associated with kernel development were predicted in physical intervals harboring these two major QTL on wild emmer and Chinese Spring reference genomes. CONCLUSIONS: Two stable and major QTL for KL and KW across six environments were detected and verified in three biparental populations and two natural populations. Significant relationships between kernel size and yield-related traits were identified. KASP markers tightly linked the two major QTL could contribute greatly to subsequent fine mapping. These results suggested the application potential of wheat related species in wheat genetic improvement.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tetraploidia , Triticum/genética
9.
Food Res Int ; 149: 110651, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600653

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of spices on individual phospholipid molecules of water-boiled salted duck (WSD) processing. Shotgun lipidomics was used to determine the structure of individual phospholipid molecules in raw duck meat and changes of phospholipids in processed-WSD with or without spices. A total of 118 phospholipid molecules were determined during the whole processing. Spices had a significant effect on the changes of most individual phospholipid molecules during the processing, but the overall effect on the phospholipid profile was not obvious. Nine phospholipid molecule markers were screened by partial least squares discriminant analysis, which can be used to distinguish with or without spice treatment. The effect of spices on most phospholipid molecules began on the first day of dry-ripening, and gradually became more obvious in the subsequent processing. Spice's main function was to delay the degradation of individual phospholipid molecules.

10.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679891

RESUMO

We present an analysis of transcriptomic dynamics in rumen epithelium of 18 Holstein calves during the transition from pre-rumination to rumination in cattle-fed hay or concentrated diets at weaning. Three calves each were euthanized at 14 and 42 d of age to exemplify preweaning, and six calves each were provided diets of either milk replacer and grass hay or calf starter to introduce weaning. The two distinct phases of rumen development and function in cattle are tightly regulated by a series of signaling events and clusters of effectors on critical pathways. The dietary shift from liquid to solid feeds prompted the shifting of gene activity. The number of differentially expressed genes increased significantly after weaning. Bioinformatic analysis revealed gene activity shifts underline the functional transitions in the ruminal epithelium and signify the transcriptomic reprogramming. Gene ontogeny (GO) term enrichment shows extensively activated biological functions of differentially expressed genes in the ruminal epithelium after weaning were predominant metabolic functions. The transcriptomic reprogramming signifies a correlation between gene activity and changes in metabolism and energy production in the rumen epithelium, which occur at weaning when transitioning from glucose use to VFA use by epithelium during the weaning.

11.
Prog Brain Res ; 265: 119-137, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560920

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cinobufotalin was extracted from the skin of Chinese giant salamander or black sable with good clinical effect against tumor. This study aims to explore the mechanism of Cinobufotalin components and predict the target of action of Cinobufotalin on glioma. METHODS: The active components of Cinobufotalin were screened by the Chinese medicine pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP), PubChem database, etc. The potential molecular components and targets were identified and enrichment analysis was conducted through the construction of related networks and analysis of their characteristics. Relevant targets of glioma were searched through TTD, DRUGBANK, and other databases, and the intersection was found and the key targets were found too. RESULTS: A total of 21 active components and 184 target genes of Cinobufotalin were found. According to the enrichment analysis results, the pharmacological mechanism of Cinobufotalin mainly includes inhibition of the cell cycle, promotion of cell apoptosis, and regulation of immunity. On this basis, RAC1, FOS, and NOS3 can be preliminarily predicted as potential targets of Cinobufotalin in the treatment of glioma. CONCLUSIONS: The screening of active ingredients and target prediction based on network pharmacology can provide a new research idea for the multi-target treatment of glioma with Cinobufotalin.

12.
Prog Brain Res ; 265: 249-315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560923

RESUMO

Military personnel often exposed to high summer heat are vulnerable to heat stroke (HS) resulting in abnormal brain function and mental anomalies. There are reasons to believe that leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) due to hyperthermia and development of brain edema could result in brain pathology. Thus, exploration of suitable therapeutic strategies is needed to induce neuroprotection in HS. Extracts of Gingko Biloba (EGb-761) is traditionally used in a variety of mental disorders in Chinese traditional medicine since ages. In this chapter, effects of TiO2 nanowired EGb-761 and BN-52021 delivery to treat brain pathologies in HS is discussed based on our own investigations. We observed that TiO2 nanowired delivery of EGb-761 or TiO2 BN-52021 is able to attenuate more that 80% reduction in the brain pathology in HS as compared to conventional drug delivery. The functional outcome after HS is also significantly improved by nanowired delivery of EGb-761 and BN-52021. These observations are the first to suggest that nanowired delivery of EGb-761 and BN-52021 has superior therapeutic effects in HS not reported earlier. The clinical significance in relation to the military medicine is discussed.

13.
Prog Brain Res ; 265: 377-383, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor and it will always recur. To date, various multimodal imaging including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) was used to differentiate the diagnosis of true tumor recurrent (TuR) and treatment-related effects (TrE) in glioma patient but with no overall conclusion. In this study, SROC curve and Bayesian network meta-analysis will be used to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the results of different clinical reports, and assess the efficacy of multimodal imaging in difference TuR and TrE. METHODS: To find more comprehensive information about the application of multimodal imaging in glioma patients, we searched the EMBASE, Pubmed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for relevant clinical trials. We also reviewed their reference lists to avoid omissions. QUADAS-2, RevMan software, Stata, and R software will be used. RESULTS: This study will provide reliable evidence for the efficacy of multimodal imaging in the differential diagnosis of TuR and TrE in glioma patients. CONCLUSION: We will evaluate the effectiveness of different and rank each imaging method in glioma patients to provide a decision-making reference on which method to choose for clinicians. Protocol registration number: CRD42020217861.

14.
Prog Brain Res ; 265: 407-414, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560927

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and the most aggressive primary malignant brain tumor in adults. Although tumor recurrence is inevitable, leptomeningeal spread is relatively rare. We describe a case of leptomeningeal spread recurrent GBM treated with anlotinib in this report. When the recurrent GBM patient had leptomeningeal spread was administered anlotinib 10mg p.o. once every day and added oral temozolomide chemotherapy 100mg/m2 (days 1-7, days 15-21, 28-day cycle) after 3 months. The patient's overall survival time was more than 5 months and developed oral ulcer and acute cerebral infarction during his oral administration of anlotinib. This patient showed a favorable clinic outcome for treatment of leptomeningeal spread recurrent GBM with anlotinib and didn't show serious side effects.

15.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 712308, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532349

RESUMO

Background: Microcirculatory changes in congenital heart disease (CHD) patients undergoing cardiac surgery are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the changes of retinal microcirculation in CHD patients after cardiac surgery by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and explore the association between retinal microcirculation and surgical outcome. Methods: This prospective observational study consisted of 71 CHD patients aged ≥6 years undergoing cardiac surgery including 19 cyanotic CHD (CCHD) and 52 acyanotic CHD (ACHD). Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) was used to measure vessel density (VD) and capillary density (CD) of radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) and peripapillary, VD of superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP), thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively. Transthoracic echocardiography was conducted to measure macrocirculation. Results: In CCHD patients, VD and CD of RPC and peripapillary increased postoperatively (all P < 0.05). In ACHD patients, VD of peripapillary, CD of RPC and peripapillary, and RNFL thickness increased postoperatively (all P < 0.05). VD of SCP and DCP, and GCC thickness did not change significantly in CHD patients after surgery. Lower preoperative retinal microvascular density was associated with longer cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time and postoperative length of stay (PLOS). No correlation was found between microcirculatory and macrohemodynamic parameters (all P > 0.05). Conclusions: Improved retinal microcirculation was observed after congenital cardiac surgery and impaired preoperative retinal microvasculature was associated with prolonged CPB time and PLOS, which might provide potential information about the outcome of congenital cardiac surgery.

16.
Int J Med Inform ; 155: 104570, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is a great challenge for emergency physicians to early detect the patient's deterioration and prevent unexpected death through a large amount of clinical data, which requires sufficient experience and keen insight. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of machine learning models in quantifying the severity of emergency department (ED) patients and identifying high-risk patients. METHODS: Using routinely-available demographics, vital signs and laboratory tests extracted from electronic health records (EHRs), a framework based on machine learning and feature engineering was proposed for mortality prediction. Patients who had one complete record of vital signs and laboratory tests in ED were included. The following patients were excluded: pediatric patients aged < 18 years, pregnant woman, and patients died or were discharged or hospitalized within 12 h after admission. Based on 76 original features extracted, 9 machine learning models were adopted to validate our proposed framework. Their optimal hyper-parameters were fine-tuned using the grid search method. The prediction results were evaluated on performance metrics (i.e., accuracy, area under the curve (AUC), recall and precision) with repeated 5-fold cross-validation (CV). The time window from patient admission to the prediction was analyzed at 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and entire stay. RESULTS: We studied a total of 1114 ED patients with 71.54% (797/1114) survival and 28.46% (317/1114) death in the hospital. The results revealed a more complete time window leads to better prediction performance. Using the entire stay records, the LightGBM model with refined feature engineering demonstrated high discrimination and achieved 93.6% (±0.008) accuracy, 97.6% (±0.003) AUC, 97.1% (±0.008) recall, and 94.2% (±0.006) precision, even if no diagnostic information was utilized. CONCLUSIONS: This study quantifies the criticality of ED patients and appears to have significant potential as a clinical decision support tool in assisting physicians in their clinical routine. While the model requires validation before use elsewhere, the same methodology could be used to create a strong model for the new hospital.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Aprendizado de Máquina , Criança , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Admissão do Paciente , Alta do Paciente
17.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 223, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of global population suffer from various functional gastrointestinal disorders. Pugionium cornutum (L.) Gaertn. (PCG) is used to relieve indigestive symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine. However, little is known about the effects of bioactive components from PCG extracts on gastrointestinal motility. METHODS: Crude ethanol extract of PCG (EEP) was prepared from Pugionium cornutum (L.) Gaertn. Different solvents were used to prepare fine extracts from EEP, including water extract of PCG (WEP), petroleum ether extract of PCG (PEEP), dichloromethane extract of PCG (DEP) and ethyl acetate extract of PCG (EAEP). Smooth muscle cell model and colonic smooth muscle stripe model were used to test the bioactive effects and mechanisms of different PCG extracts on contraction and relaxation. Diverse chromatographic methods were used to identify bioactive substances from PCG extracts. RESULTS: EEP was found to promote the relaxation of gastric smooth muscle cell and inhibit the contraction of colonic smooth muscle strip. Among the fractions of EEP, EAEP mainly mediated the relaxation effect by stimulating intracellular calcium influx. Further evidences revealed that EAEP was antagonistic to acetylcholine. In addition, COX and NO-GC-PKC pathways may be also involved in EAEP-mediated relaxation effect. Quercetin was identified as a bioactive compound from PCG extract for the relaxation effect. CONCLUSION: Our research supports the notion that PCG extracts promote relaxation and inhibits contraction of gastrointestinal smooth muscle at least partially through the effect from quercetin.

18.
J Therm Biol ; 100: 103074, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503811

RESUMO

High temperature weather occurs frequently in recent years. As a heat-vulnerable group, sanitation workers suffer great physiological safety risks in high temperature weather. In this paper, a physiological warning index (PWI) is established to quantify the physiological stress of the sanitation workers. Firstly, the dynamic weights of the physiological parameters are calculated by the norm grey correlation method. Secondly, the PWI is established by the efficacy coefficient method and the warning level of the PWI is divided based on the relationships between the PWI and thermal sensation vote (TSV). Finally, the reasonability of the PWI is verified. The results show that the weights of the physiological parameters are dynamic, changing with the environments and the physiological states. The weight ranges of the mean skin temperature (MST), tympanic temperature (TT), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) are 0.036-0.538, 0.000-0.369, 0.000-0.362, 0.018-0.367 and 0.009-0.348. And the MST and DBP are more affected by the high temperature than the TT, SBP and HR. The warning interval of PWI is: (0, 0.25] (no warning), (0.25, 0.45] (mild warning), (0.45, 0.7] (moderate warning), and (0.7, 1.0] (severe warning). The PWI can provide simple real-time physiological warning and guarantee physiological health for sanitation workers in high temperature weather.

19.
Int Wound J ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558192

RESUMO

Mechanical force plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar (HTS). Dermal fibroblasts and myofibroblasts are the key cells involved in HTS. Myofibroblasts in HTS possess different biochemical and biophysical characteristics by which myofibroblasts are often distinguished from fibroblasts. The role of mechanotransducers outside the nucleus in the pathogenesis of HTS has been reported in many studies. However, the role of Nesprin-2 in HTS is not clear. Hence, we aim to construct a cell model of HTS and explore the role of Nesprin-2 in this process. Myofibroblasts and fibroblasts were isolated from HTS and healthy skin tissues of the same patient. Fibroblasts were exposed to cyclic stretch with 10% magnitude and a frequency of 0.1 Hz for 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days, respectively. After the cell model was confirmed, fibroblasts transfected with siRNA targeting human Nesprin-2 were exposed to cyclic stretch. The mechanical behaviour and biochemical reaction of the dermal fibroblasts were analysed. The stretched fibroblasts at day 5 showed the same mechanotransductive and biochemical features as unstretched myofibroblasts. Mechanical strain could induce the myofibroblasts differentiation and a cell model of HTS was established successfully at day 5. The expressions of lamin A/C, alpha-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor beta 1, and collagen type I in fibroblasts were reduced by the silencing of Nesprin-2. Mechanical strain could induce the myofibroblasts differentiation and silencing of Nesprin-2 could block the mechanical stimulation of terminal myofibroblasts differentiation. Nesprin-2 might be a potential target to treat the HTS.

20.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 197, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying hair follicle development is of paramount importance in the genetic improvement of wool-related traits in sheep and skin-related traits in humans. The Merino is the most important breed of fine-wooled sheep in the world. In this study, we systematically investigated the complexity of sheep hair follicle development by integrating transcriptome and methylome datasets from Merino sheep skin. RESULTS: We analysed 72 sequence datasets, including DNA methylome and the whole transcriptome of four gene types, i.e. protein-coding genes (PCGs), lncRNAs, circRNAs, and miRNAs, across four embryonic days (E65, E85, E105, and E135) and two postnatal days (P7 and P30) from the skin tissue of 18 Merino sheep. We revealed distinct expression profiles of these four gene types across six hair follicle developmental stages, and demonstrated their complex interactions with DNA methylation. PCGs with stage-specific expression or regulated by stage-specific lncRNAs, circRNAs, and miRNAs were significantly enriched in epithelial differentiation and hair follicle morphogenesis. Regulatory network and gene co-expression analyses identified key transcripts controlling hair follicle development. We further predicted transcriptional factors (e.g. KLF4, LEF1, HOXC13, RBPJ, VDR, RARA, and STAT3) with stage-specific involvement in hair follicle morphogenesis. Through integrating these stage-specific genomic features with results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of five wool-related traits in 7135 Merino sheep, we detected developmental stages and genes that were relevant with wool-related traits in sheep. For instance, genes that were specifically upregulated at E105 were significantly associated with most of wool-related traits. A phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) demonstrated that candidate genes of wool-related traits (e.g. SPHK1, GHR, PPP1R27, CSRP2, EEF1A2, and PTPN1) in sheep were also significantly associated with dermatological, metabolic, and immune traits in humans. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides novel insights into the molecular basis of hair follicle morphogenesis and will serve as a foundation to improve breeding for wool traits in sheep. It also indicates the importance of studying gene expression in the normal development of organs in understanding the genetic architecture of economically important traits in livestock. The datasets generated here are useful resources for functionally annotating the sheep genome, and for elucidating early skin development in mammals, including humans.

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