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1.
Future Oncol ; 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069254

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is one of the most malignant cancers worldwide, and efforts have been made to elucidate the mechanism of colorectal carcinogenesis. Cellular senescence is a physiological process in cell life, but it is also found in cancer initiation and progression. Lines of evidence show that senescence may influence the development and progression of colorectal carcinogenesis. Here, the authors review the characteristics of senescence and the recent findings of a relationship between senescence and colorectal cancer.


Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide; out of the top ten most common cancers in 2020, the incidence and mortality rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) ranked third and second, respectively. Based on statistics, it was estimated that more than 1.9 million CRC cases occurred in 2020. In terms of CRC, a prominent risk factor is age, and studies suggest that the aging process plays a role in CRC initiation and progression. This review discusses how aging contributes to CRC carcinogenesis and summarizes recent findings on potential therapeutics.

2.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169875

RESUMO

Chinese medicine (CM) has thousands of years of experience in prevention of diseases. As for CM, people's constitution is closely related to their health status, thus recognition of CM constitution is the fundamental and core content of research on constitution types. With development of technologies such as sensors, artificial intelligence and big data, objectification of the four diagnostic methods of CM has gradually matured, bringing changes in the mindset and innovations in technical means for recognition of CM constitution. This paper presents a systematic review of the latest research trends in constitution recognition based on objectification of diagnostic methods in CM.

3.
Foods ; 11(16)2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36010535

RESUMO

As an effective tool for genetically modified organism (GMO) quantification in complex matrices, digital PCR (dPCR) has been widely used for the quantification of genetically modified (GM) canola events; however, little is known about the quantification of GM canola events using endogenous reference gene (ERG) characteristics by dPCR. To calculate and quantify the content of GM canola using endogenous reference gene (ERG) characteristics, the suitability of several ERGs of canola, such as cruciferin A (CruA), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (BnAcc), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP), cruciferin storage (BnC1), oleoyl hydrolase (Fat(A)), and high-mobility-group protein I/Y (HMG-I/Y), was investigated by droplet dPCR. BnAcc and BnC1 were more specific and stable in copy number in the genome of Brassica napus L. than the other genes. By performing intra-laboratory validation of the suitability of ERG characteristics for the quantification of GM canola events, the ddPCR methods for BnAcc and BnC1 were comprehensively demonstrated in dPCR assays. The methods could provide technical support for GM labeling regulations.

4.
Front Surg ; 9: 879593, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937597

RESUMO

Background: There is an increasing interest in preoperative strength training for promoting post-operative rehabilitation, but the effectiveness of preoperative strength training for clinical outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial. Objective: This study aims to systematically evaluate the effect of preoperative strength training on clinical outcomes before and after TKA. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases from the inception to November 17, 2021. The meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of preoperative strength training on clinical outcomes before and after TKA. Results: Seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included (n = 306). Immediately before TKA, the pooled results showed significant improvements in pain, knee function, functional ability, stiffness, and physical function in the strength training group compared with the control group, but not in strength (quadriceps), ROM, and WOMAC (total). Compared with the control group, the results indicated strength training had a statistically significant improvement in post-operative knee function, ROM, and functional ability at less than 1 month and 3 months, and had a statistically significant improvement in post-operative strength (quadriceps), stiffness, and WOMAC (total) at 3 months, and had a statistically significant improvement in post-operative pain at 6 months. However, the results indicated strength training had no statistically significant improvement in post-operative strength (quadriceps) at less than 1 month, 6, and 12 months, had no statistically significant improvement in post-operative pain at less than 1 month, 3, and 12 months, had no statistically significant improvement in post-operative knee function at 6 and 12 months, and had no statistically significant improvement in post-operative physical function at 3 months. Conclusions: Preoperative strength training may be beneficial to early rehabilitation after TKA, but the long-term efficacy needs to be further determined. At the same time, more caution should be exercised when interpreting the clinical efficacy of preoperative strength training for TKA.

5.
PeerJ ; 10: e13850, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945939

RESUMO

Fungal contamination of animal feed can severely affect the health of farm animals, and result in considerable economic losses. Certain filamentous fungi or molds produce toxic secondary metabolites known as mycotoxins, of which aflatoxins (AFTs) are considered the most critical dietary risk factor for both humans and animals. AFTs are ubiquitous in the environment, soil, and food crops, and aflatoxin B1(AFB1) has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the most potent natural group 1A carcinogen. We reviewed the literature on the toxic effects of AFB1 in humans and animals along with its toxicokinetic properties. The damage induced by AFB1 in cells and tissues is mainly achieved through cell cycle arrest and inhibition of cell proliferation, and the induction of apoptosis, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy. In addition, numerous coding genes and non-coding RNAs have been identified that regulate AFB1 toxicity. This review is a summary of the current research on the complexity of AFB1 toxicity, and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms as well as the phenotypic characteristics.

6.
Theor Appl Genet ; 135(8): 2875-2890, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802144

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A melon gene MSO1 located on chromosome 10 by map-based cloning strategy, which encodes an ARGONAUTE 7 protein, is responsible for the development of shoot organization. Plant endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) are involved in various plant developmental processes. In Arabidopsis, sRNAs combined with ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which functions in RNA silencing or biogenesis of trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs). However, their roles in melon (Cucumis melo L.) are still unclear. Here, the melon shoot organization 1 (mso1) mutant was identified and shown to exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes in leaf morphology and plant architecture. Positional cloning of MSO1 revealed that it encodes a homologue of Arabidopsis AGO7/ZIPPY, which is required for the production of ta-siRNAs. The AG-to-C mutation in the second exon of MSO1 caused a frameshift mutation and significantly reduced its expression. Ectopic expression of MSO1 rescued the Arabidopsis ago7 phenotype. RNA-seq analysis showed that several genes involved in transcriptional regulation and plant hormones were significantly altered in mso1 compared to WT. A total of 304 and 231 miRNAs were identified in mso1 and WT by sRNA sequencing, respectively, and among them, 42 known and ten novel miRNAs were differentially expressed. cme-miR390a significantly accumulated, and the expression levels of the two ta-siRNAs were almost completely abolished in mso1. Correspondingly, their targets, the ARF3 and ARF4 genes, showed dramatically upregulated expression, indicating that the miR390-TAS3-ARF pathway has conserved roles in melon. These findings will help us better understand the molecular mechanisms of MSO1 in plant development in melon.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Cucurbitaceae , MicroRNAs , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Cucurbitaceae/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
7.
Neuroimage ; 259: 119420, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777634

RESUMO

Multimodal neuroimaging plays an important role in neuroscience research. Integrated noninvasive neuroimaging modalities, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), allow neural activity and related physiological processes in the brain to be precisely and comprehensively depicted, providing an effective and advanced platform to study brain function. Noncryogenic optically pumped magnetometer (OPM) MEG has high signal power due to its on-scalp sensor layout and enables more flexible configurations than traditional commercial superconducting MEG. Here, we integrate OPM-MEG with EEG and fNIRS to develop a multimodal neuroimaging system that can simultaneously measure brain electrophysiology and hemodynamics. We conducted a series of experiments to demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of our MEG-EEG-fNIRS acquisition system. The complementary neural and physiological signals simultaneously collected by our multimodal imaging system provide opportunities for a wide range of potential applications in neurovascular coupling, wearable neuroimaging, hyperscanning and brain-computer interfaces.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Magnetoencefalografia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Neuroimagem
8.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 947072, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35845671

RESUMO

Golden2, ARR-B, Psr1 (GARP) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors that play vital and diverse roles in plants. However, systematic research on the GARP gene family in plants, including tea plant (Camellia sinensis), is scarce. In this study, a total of 69 GARP genes were identified and characterized from the tea plant genome based on the B-motif sequence signature. The CsGARP genes were clustered into five subfamilies: PHR1/PHL1, KAN, NIGT1/HRS1/HHO, GLK and ARR-B subfamilies. The phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, chromosomal locations, conserved motifs and regulatory cis-acting elements of the CsGARP family members were comprehensively analyzed. The expansion of CsGARP genes occurred via whole-genome duplication/segmental duplication, proximal duplication, and dispersed duplication under purifying selective pressure. The expression patterns of the CsGARP genes were systematically explored from various perspectives: in different tissues during different seasons; in different leaf color stages of tea plant; under aluminum treatment and nitrogen treatment; and in response to abiotic stresses such as cold, drought and salt and to biotic stress caused by Acaphylla theae. The results demonstrate that CsGARP family genes are ubiquitously expressed and play crucial roles in the regulation of growth and development of tea plant and the responses to environmental stimuli. Collectively, these results not only provide valuable information for further functional investigations of CsGARPs in tea plant but also contribute to broadening our knowledge of the functional diversity of GARP family genes in plants.

10.
Phytomedicine ; 104: 154284, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lonicera rupicola Hook.f.et Thoms (LRH) is used as a customary medicinal herb in Tibetans. And LRH flavonoids have excellent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pharmacological activities. However, the specific effects of LRH and its mechanism remain unknown, and there is a deficiency of systematic research, leading to the waste of LRH as a medicinal resource. PURPOSE: In this study, in an attempt to rationalize the development and utilization of Tibetan herbal resources, the therapeutic efficacy and the underlying molecular mechanisms of LRH flavonoids on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) were investigated, establishing the favorable basis for the pharmacodynamic material basis of LRH and providing a scientific basis for the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of UC. METHODS: Firstly, ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used for identification and detection of the flavonoid components of LRH. Meanwhile, their potential targets, biological functions and signaling pathways were predicted with the assistance of network pharmacology analysis. Subsequently, pharmacological efficacy of LRH were evaluated by body weight loss, colon length, disease activity index (DAI), histology observation and the expression levels of inflammatory mediators, messenger RNA (mRNA) and tight junction proteins. Moreover, in the present investigation, we also profiled the gut microbiome via high-throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 region of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for bacterial community composition and diversity by Illumina MiSeq platforms. Finally, the key regulatory proteins in the PI3K/AKT pathways were measured to investigate their underlying molecular mechanisms. RESULTS: A total of 37 LRH flavonoid components were identified and detected by UPLC-MS/MS, and 12 potential active components were obtained after screening. 137 of their common targets with UC were further predicted. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and molecular docking experiments demonstrated that LRH flavonoids could interfere with UC through "multi-component-multi-target-multi-pathway". In the animal experiments, LRH flavonoids could significantly attenuate UC as demonstrated by reducing the body weight loss and DAI, restoring colon length, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the intestinal epithelial cell barrier. The mRNA and proteins expression levels of inflammatory mediators were returned to dynamic balance following LRH flavonoids treatment. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that LRH flavonoids promoted the recovery of gut microbiome. And the PI3K/AKT pathway was significantly suppressed by LRH flavonoids. CONCLUSIONS: LRH flavonoids exhibited multifaceted protective effects against DSS-induced UC in mice through mitigating colon inflammation and oxidative stress, restoring epithelial barrier function, and improving the gut microenvironment potentially through modulation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. This finding demonstrated that LRH flavonoids possessed great potential for becoming an excellent drug for the treatment of UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lonicera , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/patologia , DNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , DNA Ribossômico/farmacologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lonicera/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Redução de Peso
11.
Phytopathology ; 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35906768

RESUMO

Gummy stem blight (GSB), caused by the Didymella bryoniae (Auersw.) Rehm, is a devastating fungal disease of melon worldwide. Breeding GSB-resistant cultivars with host resistance genes is considered to be the most economic and effective strategy to control this disease. In this study, 260 melon germplasm resources were screened for resistance to GSB, and an inbred line H55R exhibited immunity to GSB was identified. To further understand the resistance mechanism of H55R against GSB, an F2 population was obtained from a cross between the GSB-susceptible line A15 and H55R, and genetic analysis indicated that the GSB resistance in H55R was controlled by a single dominant gene, tentatively named Gsb-7(t). The Gsb-7(t) gene was finally delimited to a 140 kb interval on chromosome 7 using bulked-segregant analysis and chromosome walking strategies. Ten putative genes were annotated in this region that contains a wall-associated receptor kinase (WAK) gene MELO3C010403. The MELO3C010403 gene contains two alternative transcripts, MELO3C010403-T1 and MELO3C010403-T2, with five and seven non-synonymous mutation sites, respectively. Gene expression analysis showed that expression of MELO3C010403-T2 but not the MELO3C010403-T1 was significantly induced by the D. bryoniae at 24 hours post-inoculation (hpi), indicating that the MELO3C010403-T2 transcript of MELO3C010403 was the most likely candidate gene of Gsb-7(t). Our results offer new genetic resources and will be helpful for the development of GSB-resistant melon cultivars in the future.

12.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 121: 122-135, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654503

RESUMO

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) has attracted much attention in drinking water treatment due to its potential to produce nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs). This work was designed to explore the transformation and fate of DON and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in drinking water treatment. The changes of DON and formation of N-DBPs were evaluated along the water treatment route (i.e., pre-ozonation and biological-contact oxidation, delivery pipes' transportation, coagulation-sedimentation, sand filtration, post-ozonation, biological activated carbon, ultrafiltration and disinfection) of drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). The transformation mechanism of DON was comprehensively investigated by molecular weight fractionation, three-dimensional fluorescence, LC-OCD (Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection), total free amino acids. A detailed comparison was made between concentrations and variations of DON and DIN affected by seasons in the drinking water treatment. Regardless of seasonal variation in raw water concentration, the DON removal trends between different treatment processes remain constant in the present study. Compared to other treatment processes, pre-ozonation and coagulation-sedimentation exhibited the dominant DON removal in different seasons, i.e., 11.13%-14.45% and 14.98%-22.49%, respectively. Contrary, biological-contact oxidation and biological activated carbon negatively impacted the DON removal, in which DON increased by 1.76%-6.49% in biological activated carbon. This may be due to the release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) from bacterial metabolism, which was further validated by the rise of biopolymers in LC-OCD.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Carvão Vegetal/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos
14.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 863298, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35755676

RESUMO

CCT transcription factors are involved in the regulation of photoperiod and abiotic stress in Arabidopsis and rice. It is not clear that how CCT gene family expand and regulate heading date in foxtail millet. In this study, we conducted a systematic analysis of the CCT gene family in foxtail millet. Thirty-nine CCT genes were identified and divided into four subfamilies based on functional motifs. Analysis showed that dispersed duplication played a predominant role in the expansion of CCT genes during evolution. Nucleotide diversity analysis suggested that genes in CONSTANS (COL)-like, CCT MOTIF FAMILY (CMF)-like, and pseudoresponse response regulator (PRR)-like subfamilies were subjected to selection. Fifteen CCT genes were colocalized with previous heading date quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) signals. Transgenic plants were then employed to confirm that overexpression of the CCT gene SiPRR37 delayed the heading date and increased plant height. Our study first investigated the characterization and expansion of the CCT family in foxtail millet and demonstrated the role of SiPRR37. These results lay a significant foundation for further research on the function of CCT genes and provide a cue for the regulation of heading date.

15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 868669, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664000

RESUMO

Decidual polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs) are essential to immune tolerance during pregnancy. A reduction in the number of these cells is associated with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (URPL). In our previous study, we reported that PMN-MDSCs are a group of mature neutrophils that are activated by the decidua microenvironment. In the present study, we show that the decidua microenvironment induces substantial lipid accumulation in neutrophils during their differentiation to PMN-MDSCs. Lower levels of lipid accumulation are detected in PMN-MDSCs from URPL patients, and the amount of lipid in the PMN-MDSCs is positively correlated with the proportion of PMN-MDSCs. Next, we demonstrate that decidua-derived IL6 with the presence of arachidonic acid upregulates fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) via the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Fy -60ABP5 then continuously stimulates intracellular lipid accumulation. Increased intracellular lipid accumulation mediates arachidonic acid metabolism, a pathway that is significantly activated by the induction of the decidua microenvironment, to stimulate the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and finally induce the differentiation of PMN-MDSCs. To summarize, decidua-derived IL6 facilitates the differentiation of PMN-MDSCs from neutrophils via the pSTAT3/FABP5/PGE2 pathway. Defects in the process may result in impaired differentiation and dysfunction of PMN-MDSCs in URPL. These findings enhance our understanding of the physiological mechanisms of immune tolerance in pregnancy and provide therapeutic options for URPL.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual , Células Supressoras Mieloides , Aborto Habitual/metabolismo , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Gravidez
16.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 848474, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35599893

RESUMO

MicroRNA (miRNA) is an essential endogenous post-transcriptional regulatory factor, and foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is an ideal C4 model cereal that is a highly valuable crop in semiarid and arid areas. The Research on comprehensive and high confidence identification and annotation of foxtail millet miRNAs needs to be strengthened, and to our knowledge, there is no information on the regulatory network of foxtail millet miRNA. In this study, 136 high confidence miRNAs were identified through high-throughput sequencing of the small RNAs in seven tissues at the shooting and grain filling stages of foxtail millet. A total of 2,417 target genes were obtained by combining computational biology software and degradome sequencing methods. Furthermore, an analysis using transcriptome sequencing revealed the relationships between miRNAs and their target genes and simultaneously explored key regulatory modules in panicles during the grain filling stage. An miRNA regulatory network was constructed to explore the functions of miRNA in more detail. This network, centered on miRNAs and combining upstream transcriptional factors and downstream target genes, is primarily composed of feed forward loop motifs, which greatly enhances our knowledge of the potential functions of miRNAs and uncovers numerous previously unknown regulatory links. This study provides a solid foundation for research on the function and regulatory network of miRNAs in foxtail millet.

17.
Int J Mol Med ; 49(6)2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514298

RESUMO

Few pharmacological interventions are able to improve the mortality rate of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). The aim of this research was to elucidate whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and c­Jun­N­terminal kinase (JNK)­mitochondria pathways serve important roles in ALI/ARDS and to determine whether the key component Sab is a potential treatment target. The current study investigated the activation of ER stress and the JNK pathway, the content of JNK located on the mitochondria during ER stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)­induced ALI/ARDS by western blot analysis. The treatment effects of Tat­SabKIM1, a selective inhibitor of JNK located on mitochondria were explored by multiple methods including histopathological evaluation, lung cell apoptosis tested by TUNEL assay, mitochondrial membrane permeability and survival analysis. The results verified that ER stress was enhanced during LPS­induced ALI/ARDS and could induce activation of the JNK pathway and JNK­mitochondrial localization as well as mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. Tat­SabKIM1 alleviated LPS injection­induced lung injury and improved mouse survival rates by specifically inhibiting JNK localization to mitochondria and mito­JNK signal activation without affecting cytosolic/nuclear JNK activation. The protective effect of Tat­SabKIM1 against ALI/ARDS was partly caused by inhibition of the excessive activation of mitochondria­mediated apoptosis and autophagy. These results showed the important role of Sab as a treatment target of ALI/ARDS and the potential treatment effect of Tat­SabKIM1. In conclusion, abnormal activation of the JNK­mitochondrial pathway could significantly disrupt the normal physiological function of lung cells, resulting in the occurrence of ALI/ARDS and selective inhibit of JNK located on mitochondria by Tat­SabKIM1 had a protective effect against the mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice with LPS­induced ALI/ARDS.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Animais , Apoptose , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias
18.
Front Physiol ; 13: 798395, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35620603

RESUMO

Objective: To establish an animal model of noise-induced hidden hearing loss (NIHHL), evaluate the dynamic changes in cochlear ribbon synapses and cochlear hair cell morphology, and observe the involvement of the SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling pathway in NIHHL. Methods: Male guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups: control group, noise exposure group, and resveratrol treatment group. Each group was divided into five subgroups: the control group and 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1 month post noise exposure groups. The experimental groups received noise stimulation at 105 dB SPL for 2 h. Hearing levels were examined by auditory brainstem response (ABR). Ribbon synapses were evaluated by inner ear basilar membrane preparation and immunofluorescence. The cochlear morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy. Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescence was performed to assess the change of SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), ATP and SIRT1 activity were measured using commercial testing kits. Results: In the noise exposure group, hearing threshold exhibited a temporary threshold shift (TTS), and amplitude of ABR wave I decreased irreversibly. Ribbon synapse density decreased after noise exposure, and the stereocilia were chaotic and then returned to normal. The expression and activity of SIRT1 and PGC-1α protein was lower than that in the control group. SOD, CAT and ATP were also influenced by noise exposure and were lower than those in the control group, but MDA showed no statistical differences compared with the control group. After resveratrol treatment, SIRT1 expression and activity showed a significant increase after noise exposure, compared with the noise exposure group. In parallel, the PGC-1α and antioxidant proteins were also significantly altered after noise exposure, compared with the noise exposure group. The damage to the ribbon synapses and the stereocilia were attenuated by resveratrol as well. More importantly, the auditory function, especially ABR wave I amplitudes, was also promoted in the resveratrol treatment group. Conclusion: The SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling pathway and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of NIHHL and could be potential therapeutical targets in the future.

19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1554-1571, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603550

RESUMO

Adaptation to various stresses during infection is important for Salmonella Typhimurium virulence, while the fitness determinants under infection-relevant stress conditions remain unknown. Here, we simulated conditions Salmonella encountered within the host or in the environment by 15 individual stresses as well as two model cell lines (epithelium and macrophage) to decipher the genes and pathways required for fitness. By high-resolution Tn-seq analysis, a total of 1242 genes were identified as essential for fitness under at least one stress condition. The comparative analysis of fitness determinants in 17 stress conditions indicated the essentiality of genes varied in different mimicking host niches. A total of 12 genes were identified as fitness determinants in all stress conditions, including recB, recC, and xseA (encode three exonuclease subunits necessary for DNA recombination repair) and a novel essential fitness gene yheM. YheM is a putative sulfurtransferase subunit that is responsible for tRNA modification, and our results showed that Salmonella lacking yheM accumulated more aggregates of endogenous protein than wild-type. Moreover, we established a scoring scheme for sRNA essentiality analysis and found STnc2080 of unknown function was essential for resistance to LL-37. In summary, we systematically dissected Salmonella gene essentiality profiling and demonstrated the general and specific adaptive requirements in infection-relevant niches. Our data not only provide valuable insights on how Salmonella responds to environmental stresses during infections but also highlight the potential clinical application of fitness determinants in vaccine development.


Assuntos
Agregados Proteicos , Salmonella typhimurium , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Salmonella typhimurium/metabolismo , Virulência/genética
20.
Foods ; 11(9)2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563920

RESUMO

Enhancing the drying rate and dried products quality, as well as energy efficiency, is very tempting for the drying industry. Recently, a lot of investigations have illustrated that the drying temperature, air velocity, and sample thickness have significant influences on the drying process. However, few investigations took into account the relative humidity (RH) as an important hot-air-drying parameter in the drying process. Therefore, in the current work, white radish slabs were used to explore the drying characteristics and quality under the drying condition of a constant RH, decreasing the RH step by step and decreasing RH automatically, together with a constant air velocity of 1 m·s-1 and a drying temperature of 60 °C. Compared to continuous dehumidification, the step-down RH process was conducive to the material center temperature rise in the early stage of drying. When the material central temperature was increased and then the RH was reduced, the drying rate was increased and the overall drying time was shortened. The automatic-down RH control drying process includes three dehumidification processes. The respective RH control values were 40%, 30%, and 20% and the respective durations were 180 min, 90 min, and 60 min. The comprehensive quality evaluation showed that the comprehensive score of the automatic-down RH control process at 60 °C was the highest, which was 0.85. The L* and b* values of the automatic-down RH control were 26.0 and 1.67, respectively, which were better than those of the step-down RH, constant 20% RH, and constant 40% RH. The maximum rehydration ratio was 3.96 under the automatic-down RH control condition, and the quality was good. The lowest energy consumption under the condition of the automatic-down RH control was 0.90 kW·h·kg-1. The present work contributes to a better understanding of the effect of the RH on the drying characteristics and quality of white radish slices, which is useful for enhancing the drying rate and dried products' quality as well as energy efficiency.

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