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1.
Eur J Radiol ; 135: 109512, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429302

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a combined nomogram by incorporating the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram and ultrasound (US)-based radiomics score (Radscore) for predicting sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis in invasive breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the ethics committee of our institution, and written informed consent was waived. A total of 452 patients with invasive breast cancer who received SLN Biopsy in a single center were included between January 2016 and December 2019. The patients were divided into a training set (n = 318) and a validation set (n = 134). A total of 1216 features were extracted from the regions of interest (ROIs) of the tumors on conventional ultrasound. The maximum relevance minimum redundancy (mRMR) and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) algorithm were used to build the Radscore. Afterward, the diagnostic performance was assessed and validated. Comparison of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and decision curve analysis (DCA) were performed to evaluate the incremental value of the combined model. RESULTS: Obtained from 18 features, the Radscore indicated a favorable discriminatory capability in the training set with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.834, whereas a value of 0.770 was observed in the validation set. The AUC of the combined model was 0.901 (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI): 0.865-0.938) in the training set and 0.833 (95 % CI: 0.788-0.878) in the validation set. Both of them were superior to MSKCC or imaging Radscore alone (P < 0.05). DCA demonstrated that the combined model was superior to the others in terms of clinical practicability. CONCLUSION: Preoperative US-based Radscore can improve the accuracy of clinical MSKCC nomogram for SLN metastasis prediction in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Nomogramas , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Humanos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico por imagem , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela
2.
Br J Radiol ; : 20200874, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) combined with conventional ultrasound (US) of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) in predicting metastatic ALNs in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: This retrospective study included 259 patients with breast cancer who underwent conventional US and CEUS. The parameters and patterns evaluated on conventional US included short axis diameter (S), long axis/short axis (L/S) ratio, cortical thickness, resistive index (RI), lymph node (LN) morphology of grey-scale US, hilum and vascular pattern. Meanwhile, enhancement pattern, wash-in time, time to peak (TP), maximum signal intensity, and duration of contrast enhancement were evaluated on CEUS. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent factors of ALN status. Three models (conventional US, CEUS, and combined parameters) were established. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were applied to evaluate the accuracy of the three predictive models. RESULTS: On conventional axillary US, LN morphology and vascular pattern were independent factors in predicting metastatic ALNs. On CEUS, maximum signal intensity, duration of contrast enhancement, and TP were independent factors in predicting metastatic ALNs. When combining conventional US and CEUS features, five independent factors obtained from the conventional US and CEUS were associated with ALN status. ROC curve analysis showed that the use of CEUS markers combined with conventional US features (AUC = 0.965) was superior to the use of CEUS markers (AUC = 0.936) and conventional US features alone (AUC = 0.851). CONCLUSION: Combining conventional US and CEUS features can enable discrimination of ALN status better than the use of CEUS and conventional US features alone. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients impacts the treatment decision. Our ultrasonic data demonstrated that CEUS features of ALNs in breast cancer patients could be image markers for predicting ALN status. Combining conventional US and CEUS features of ALNs can improve specificity discrimination of ALN status better than the use of CEUS and the conventional US features alone, which will help the treatment planning optimization.

3.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 46(12): 3179-3187, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907771

RESUMO

This meta-analysis was aimed at investigating the value of using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant soft tissue masses (STMs). Relevant studies published before March 24, 2020 were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane and Web of Science. According to the inclusion criteria, five studies were selected comprising 746 patients. In the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant STMs, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of CEUS were 76% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 71%-81%; heterogeneity [I2] = 74.5%) and 67% (95% CI: 62%-71%; I2 = 36.5%), respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio was 7.37 (95% CI: 3.78%-14.35; I2 = 66.6%). The overall area under the curve was 0.77 (standard error: 0.0392). Subgroup analysis revealed that different index tests of CEUS resulted in different diagnostic performance. Importantly, CEUS is an effective method for the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant STMs.

4.
Plant Sci ; 299: 110611, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900448

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses threaten the productivity and quality of economically important perennial fruit crops such as apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). WRKY transcription factors play various roles in plant responses to abiotic stress, but little is known regarding WRKY genes in apple. Here, we carried out functional characterization of an apple Group IIa WRKY gene (MdWRKY30). qRT-PCR analysis found that MdWRKY30 expression was induced by salt and drought stress. A subcellular localization assay showed that MdWRKY30 is localized to the nucleus. A transactivation assay found that MdWRKY30 has no transcriptional activation activity. A Y2H assay indicated that MdWRKY26, MdWRKY28, and MdWRKY30 interact with each other to form heterodimers and homodimers. Transgenic analysis revealed that the overexpression of MdWRKY30 in Arabidopsis enhanced salt and osmotic tolerance in the seedling stage, as well as during the seed germination and greening cotyledon stages. MdWRKY30 overexpression enhanced tolerance to salt and osmotic stresses in transgenic apple callus through transcriptional regulation of stress-related genes. Together, our results demonstrate that MdWRKY30 is an important regulator of salinity and osmotic stress tolerance in apple.

5.
Tree Physiol ; 40(11): 1509-1519, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816019

RESUMO

Soil alkalization affects apple production in northwest China. Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative protein pathway in eukaryotes. Autophagy in plants can be activated by various abiotic factors. We previously identified the positive role of the autophagy-related gene MdATG18a in drought, nitrogen deficiency and resistance to Diplocarpon mali infection in apple. However, it is still unclear whether ATG18a is related to alkaline stress. In this study, we used hydroponic culture to simulate alkaline stress and found that the overexpression of MdATG18a significantly improved the tolerance of apple to alkaline stress. The overexpression of MdATG18a increased biomass, photosynthetic rate and antioxidant capacity of transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants under alkaline stress. The overexpression of MdATG18a promoted γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt via an increase in glutamate (GABA precursor) and GABA contents and upregulation of GABA shunt-related genes. In addition, the overexpression of MdATG18a significantly upregulated the expression of other core ATG genes and increased the formation of autophagosomes under alkaline stress. In conclusion, these results suggest that the overexpression of MdATG18a in apple enhances alkaline tolerance and the GABA shunt, which may be owing to the increase in autophagic activity.

6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1100-1106, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588794

RESUMO

The emergence and spread of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to the frontline treatment artemisinin-based combination therapies in Southeast Asia require close monitoring of the situation. Here, we collected 36 clinical samples of P. falciparum from the China-Myanmar border in 2014-2016, adapted these parasites to continuous culture, and performed in vitro drug assays on seven antimalarial drugs. Data for 23 parasites collected in 2010 and 2012 from the same area reported in an early study were used to assess longitudinal changes in drug sensitivity. Parasites remained highly resistant to chloroquine (CQ) and pyrimethamine, whereas they were generally sensitive to mefloquine (MFQ), lumefantrine (LMF), naphthoquine (NQ), and pyronaridine (PND). Parasites showed a similar temporal trend in sensitivity to CQ, NQ, and PND, with gradual reduction in the half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) after 2012. The IC50s to the aminoalcohol drugs MFQ, LMF, and quinine (QN) all significantly declined in 2014, followed by various degrees of increase in 2016. Pyrimethamine displayed a continuous increase in IC50 over the years. The Dd2-like P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant transporter mutations were fixed or nearly fixed in the parasite population. The P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 F1226Y mutation was detected in 80% parasites in 2016 and associated with reduced sensitivity to LMF and QN (P < 0.05). The N51I in P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and K540E/N and A581G in P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase that are associated with antifolate resistance were either fixed or were approaching fixation in recent years. This study provides an updated picture and temporal trend of antimalarial drug resistance in the China-Myanmar border region, which will serve as a reference for antimalarial treatment.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Artemisininas/farmacologia , China/epidemiologia , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Lumefantrina/farmacologia , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Mefloquina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimetamina/farmacologia , Quinina/farmacologia
7.
Arch Virol ; 165(8): 1827-1835, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507978

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection causes high morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients and can remain in a latent state in host cells. Expression of the immediate-early (IE) genes sustains HCMV replication and reactivation. As a novel genome-editing tool, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system has been extensively utilized to modify and edit genomic DNA. In the present study, the CRISPR/Cas9 system was used to target the IE region of the HCMV genome via specific single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs). Infection with CRISPR/Cas9/sgRNA lentiviral constructs significantly reduced viral gene expression and virion production in HFF primary fibroblasts and inhibited viral DNA production and reactivation in the THP-1 monocytic cell line. Thus, the CRISPR/Cas9/sgRNA system can accurately and efficiently target HCMV replication and reactivation and represents a novel therapeutic strategy against latent HCMV infection.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Citomegalovirus/genética , Endonucleases/genética , Genes Virais/genética , Replicação Viral/genética , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Fibroblastos/virologia , Edição de Genes/métodos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , RNA Guia/genética , Células THP-1
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008255, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vivax malaria is an important public health problem in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), including the China-Myanmar border. Previous studies have found that Plasmodium vivax has decreased sensitivity to antimalarial drugs in some areas of the GMS, but the sensitivity of P. vivax to antimalarial drugs is unclear in the China-Myanmar border. Here, we investigate the drug sensitivity profile and genetic variations for two drug resistance related genes in P. vivax isolates to provide baseline information for future drug studies in the China-Myanmar border. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 64 P. vivax clinical isolates collected from the China-Myanmar border area were assessed for ex vivo susceptibility to eight antimalarial drugs by the schizont maturation assay. The medians of IC50 (half-maximum inhibitory concentrations) for chloroquine, mefloquine, pyronaridine, piperaquine, quinine, artesunate, artemether, dihydroartemisinin were 84.2 nM, 34.9 nM, 4.0 nM, 22.3 nM, 41.4 nM, 2.8 nM, 2.1 nM and 2.0 nM, respectively. Twelve P. vivax clinical isolates were found over the cut-off IC50 value (220 nM) for chloroquine resistance. In addition, sequence polymorphisms in pvmdr1 (P. vivax multidrug resistance-1), pvcrt-o (P. vivax chloroquine resistance transporter-o), and difference in pvmdr1 copy number were studied. Sequencing of the pvmdr1 gene in 52 samples identified 12 amino acid substitutions, among which two (G698S and T958M) were fixed, M908L were present in 98.1% of the isolates, while Y976F and F1076L were present in 3.8% and 78.8% of the isolates, respectively. Amplification of the pvmdr1 gene was only detected in 4.8% of the samples. Sequencing of the pvcrt-o in 59 parasite isolates identified a single lysine insertion at position 10 in 32.2% of the isolates. The pvmdr1 M908L substitutions in pvmdr1 in our samples was associated with reduced sensitivity to chloroquine, mefloquine, pyronaridine, piperaquine, quinine, artesunate and dihydroartemisinin. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings depict a drug sensitivity profile and genetic variations of the P. vivax isolates from the China-Myanmar border area, and suggest possible emergence of chloroquine resistant P. vivax isolates in the region, which demands further efforts for resistance monitoring and mechanism studies.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
9.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 113: 111018, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487417

RESUMO

Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (Ti2448) alloy is a novel low elastic modulus ß-titanium alloy without toxic elements. It also has the advantage of high strength, so it has potential application prospects for implantation. To develop its osteogenic effects, it can be modified by electrochemical, and physical processes. The main research aim of this study was to explore the bioactivity of Ti2448 alloy modified by sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA), micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and anodic oxidation (AO), and to determine which of the three surface modifications is the best way for developing the osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). In vitro studies, the cytoskeleton, focal adhesion and proliferation of BMMSCs showed that both pure titanium and Ti2448 alloy have good biocompatibility. The osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs with the Ti2448 alloy were examined by detecting alkaline phosphatase (ALP), mineralization nodules and osteogenic proteins and were better than that with pure titanium. These results showed that the Ti2448 alloy treated by SLA has a better effect on osteogenesis than pure titanium, and AO is the best way of three surface treatments to improve osteogenesis in this study.

10.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 46(8): 1941-1948, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451195

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine whether incorporation of the ultrasound (US) features of the primary tumor and axillary lymph node (ALN) could improve the prediction of high axillary nodal burden (HNB) and, thus, avoid unnecessary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). A total of 347 patients with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System US category 4 or 5 breast cancer lesions were included. Their pre-operative US features and post-operative pathologic results were collected. The patients were then divided into the following groups based on surgical histology: limited nodal burden (LNB: 0-2 LNs involved) and heavy nodal burden (HNB: ≥3 metastatic LNs). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the most valuable variables for HNB prediction. Receiver operating characteristic curves were obtained to assess their values. We found that a non-circumscribed margin, cortical thickness (≥3 mm) and number (≥3) of suspicious ALNs are indicators for HNB prediction. The false-negative rate (FNR) in model 1 (cortical thickness + number of suspicious ALNs) was 15.5% versus 3.4% in model 2 (non-circumscribed margin + cortical thickness + number of suspicious ALNs). Our results indicate that combining the US features of the primary tumor and ALNs can reduce the FNR during HNB prediction.

11.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(4): 548-554, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155344

RESUMO

The Qing-Tibet Plateau is characterized by low oxygen pressure, which is an important biomedical and ecological stressor. However, the variation in gene expression during periods of stay on the plateau has not been well studied. We recruited eight volunteers to stay on the plateau for 3, 7, and 30 days. Human Clariom D arrays were used to measure transcriptome changes in the mRNA expression profiles in these volunteers' blood. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that 699 genes were significantly differentially expressed in response to entering the plateau during hypoxic exposure. The genes with changes in transcript abundance were involved in the terms phosphoprotein, acetylation, protein binding, and protein transport. Furthermore, numerous genes involved in hematopoietic functions, including erythropoiesis and immunoregulation, were differentially expressed in response to hypoxia. This phenomenon may be one of reasons why the majority of people entering the plateau do not have excessive erythrocyte proliferation and are susceptible to infection.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Doença da Altitude/genética , Doença da Altitude/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Altitude , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritropoese/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Leucopoese/genética , Masculino , Oxigênio , Tibet
12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(2): 315-322, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the potential antiobesity effect of genetically modified Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN-GM) in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: The mice were randomly divided into six groups: a normal diet group (ND), a HFD group, a HFD + EcN group, and three HFD + EcN-GM groups. The effects of EcN-GM on body weight, food intake, fat pad and organ weight, and an oral glucose tolerance test were measured, in addition to hepatic biochemistry and histological analysis. The mRNA expression of neuropeptides related to food intake regulation in the hypothalamus was also detected. RESULTS: The results showed that EcN-GM decreased body weight, body weight gain, food intake, fat pad weight, and hepatic weight of HFD mice. There were beneficial effects of EcN-GM on blood glucose, hepatic biochemistry, and hepatic histological alterations. A dramatic switch of food intake-regulating gene expression in the hypothalamus was also observed in mice. CONCLUSIONS: This work has revealed that a modified live bacterial therapeutic, EcN-GM, has potential beneficial effects on obesity. This effect may be related to the regulating of the neuropeptide expression of energy intake and expenditure in the hypothalamus. This study demonstrates a successful example of engineered EcN-GM as a novel approach for weight management.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imported cases of infectious disease provide invaluable information about epidemiological conditions abroad, and should guide treatment decisions at home and abroad. Here, we examined cases of malaria imported from Africa to China for mutations eroding the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), sometimes used as an intermittent preventive treatment during for pregnant women and infants. METHODS: A total of 208 blood samples were collected from P. falciparum-infected workers who had returned from Western and Central Africa to Guangxi Province Frequency distribution. Samples were analyzed for the mutations in dhfr and dhps genes by PCR -sequencing. The prevalence of dhfr and dhps polymorphisms was analyzed. Among the isolates, polymorphisms were detected in mutants N51I, C59R, S108N and I164L of Pfdhfr and I431V, S436 A/F, A437G, K540 E/N, A581G and A613T of pfdhps. RESULTS: Mutations promoting drug resistance were widespread in this cohort. For pfdhfr and pfdhps, wild types were equally rare among patients returned from Western Africa and Central Africa. A triple-mutant dhfr haplotype was most prevalent (>70%). We report for the first time mutation I164L-dhfr and I431V-dhps in Ghana, and for the first time we found A581G to exceed a clinically-relevant threshold that may counter-indicate current clinical practices. For Pfdhps, the double-mutant IAGKAA was high prevalent haplotype in Ghana, Western Africa. The single-mutant ISGKAA was a majority haplotype in Cameroon. Alarmingly, a "super resistance" quintuple mutant was detected, for the first time, in parasites of West African origin (defined by IAGKAA/IRNI in combination with pfdhps 581G and dhfr I164L). This may limit the efficacy of this drug combination for even intermittent clinical applications. CONCLUSIONS: These data are cause for great concern and call for continued surveillance of the efficacy of SP in source and recipient populations, and should be considered when developing treatment policy for imported malaria cases in China and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Pirimetamina/farmacologia , Sulfadoxina/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África Central , África Ocidental , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto Jovem
14.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 36: 101499, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chloroquine (CQ) and primaquine (PQ) remain the frontline drugs for radical cure of uncomplicated P. vivax malaria in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). Recent reports of decreased susceptibility of P. vivax to CQ in many parts of the GMS raise concerns. METHODS: From April 2014 to September 2016, 281 patients with uncomplicated P. vivax infection attending clinics in border settlements for internally displaced people in northeast Myanmar were recruited into this study. Patients were treated with standard regimen of 3-day CQ and concurrent 14-day PQ (3.5 mg/kg total dose) as directly observed therapy, and followed for recurrent parasitemia within 28 days post-patency. RESULTS: Within the 28-day follow-up period, seven patients developed recurrent parasitemia, resulting in a cumulative rate of parasite recurrence of 2.6%. Five of the seven parasitemias recurred within two weeks, and two of those failed to clear within seven days, indicating high-grade resistance. CONCLUSION: Although failure of CQ/PQ treatment of P. vivax was relatively infrequent in northeast Myanmar, this study nonetheless confirms that CQ/PQ-resistant strains do circulate in this area, some of them of a highly resistant phenotype. It is thus recommended that patients who acquire vivax malaria in Myanmar be treated an artemisinin-combination therapy along with hypnozoitocidal primaquine therapy to achieve radical cure.

15.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(12)2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817831

RESUMO

Arid and semiarid apple producing areas suffer from severe alkalinity of soil, which strongly affects the yield and quality of apples. Dopamine (DA) is involved in metabolic activities in response to abiotic stress in plants. To detect the effects of exogenous DA application on the adaption of apple (Malus hupehensis) seedlings to alkali stress and as a protection from oxidative stress, 0.1 mM DA was identified as the most suitable concentration by hydroponic culture. Further experimentation showed that the growth and photosynthesis of apple seedlings were significantly inhibited under alkali stress, and more reactive oxygen species accumulated, compared with control. However, exogenous DA application suppressed the loss of the plant height, root length, chlorophyll levels, and photosynthetic capacity of apple seedlings that were caused by alkali stress. In the leaves of alkali stressed seedlings, the catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities were lower and hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels were higher than in the untreated plants. The presence of DA significantly alleviated such effects of alkali stress. In addition, exogenous DA application increased the antioxidant capacity of apple seedlings under alkali stress by increasing the level of chlorogenic acid. These results are significant for improving the alkali tolerance of apple in apple-producing areas with alkalized soil.

16.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(11)2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717908

RESUMO

Soluble sugars and organic acids are the main determinants of fruit organoleptic quality. To investigate the genes responsible for the soluble sugar and organic acid contents of apple fruits, a label-free proteomic analysis involving liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS was conducted with the fruits of two Malus species, M. sargentii and M. niedzwetzkyana, which exhibit significant differences in soluble sugar and organic acid contents. A total of 13,036 unique peptides and 1,079 differentially-expressed proteins were identified. To verify the LC-MS/MS results, five candidate proteins were further analyzed by parallel reaction monitoring. The results were consistent with the LC-MS/MS data, which confirmed the reliability of the LC-MS/MS analysis. The functional annotation of the differentially-expressed proteins, based on the gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, revealed that they were mainly related to biological processes and cellular components. Additionally, the main enriched KEGG pathways were related to metabolic processes. Moreover, 31 proteins involved in soluble sugar metabolism, organic acid metabolism, and H+-transport were identified. The results of this study may be useful for the comprehensive characterization of the complex mechanism regulating apple fruit-soluble sugar and organic acid contents.

17.
PeerJ ; 7: e7943, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681516

RESUMO

In the Chinese Han population, prolonged exposure to hypoxic conditions can promote compensatory erythropoiesis which improves hypoxemia. However, Tibetans have developed unique phenotypes, such as downregulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway through EPAS1 gene mutation, thus the mechanism of adaption of the Han population should be further studied. The results indicated that, under plateau hypoxic conditions, the plains population was able to acclimate rapidly to hypoxia through increasing EPAS1 mRNA expression and changing the hemoglobin conformation. Furthermore, the mutant genotype frequencies of the rs13419896, rs1868092 and rs4953354 loci in the EPAS1 gene were significantly higher in the Tibetan population than in the plains population. The EPAS1 gene expression level was lowest in the Han population carrying the A-A homozygous mutant of the rs13419896 locus but that it increased rapidly after these individuals entered the plateau. At this time, the hemoglobin content was lower in the homozygous mutant Han group than in the wild-type and heterozygous mutant populations, and the viscosity of blood was reduced in populations carrying the A-A haplotypes in rs13419896 and rs1868092 Among Tibetans, the group carrying homozygous mutations of the three SNPs also had lower hemoglobin concentrations than the wild-type. The Raman spectroscopy results showed that exposure of the Tibetan and Han population to hypoxic conditions changed the spatial conformation of hemoglobin and its binding ability to oxygen. The Tibetan population has mainly adapted to the plateau through genetic mutations, whereas some individuals adapt through changes in hemoglobin structure and function.

18.
Malar J ; 18(1): 309, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive malaria transmission along international borders is a significant impediment to malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) of Southeast Asia. Passive case detection (PCD) was used to study the dynamics and trends of malaria transmission at the China-Myanmar border to provide epidemiologic information for improved malaria control. METHODS: PCD was conducted in one hospital and 12 clinics near the Laiza town in northeast Myanmar from 2011 to 2016. Clinical malaria was diagnosed by microscopy and demographic information was captured using a structured questionnaire at the time of the patient's presentation for care. RESULTS: Over the study period, 6175 (19.7%) malaria cases were confirmed by microscopy from 31,326 suspected cases. The four human malaria parasite species were all identified, with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum accounting for 5607 (90.8%) and 481 (7.8%) of the confirmed cases, respectively. In contrast to the steady decline of malaria in the general GMS, the study site had an upward trend of malaria incidence with vivax malaria outbreaks in 2013 and 2016. Adult males, children under the age of 15, and those with occupations such as farming, being a soldier or student, had significantly higher risks of clinical malaria compared to having fevers from other aetiologies. A self-reported history of clinical malaria was also associated with a higher risk of confirmed malaria. CONCLUSIONS: The China-Myanmar border area has experienced an overall upward trend of malaria incidence in recent years with P. vivax becoming the predominant species. Evidence-based control strategies need to focus on high-risk populations.


Assuntos
Malária/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/classificação , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hortic Res ; 6: 75, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231533

RESUMO

Drought stress can negatively impact apple fruit quality and yield. Apple microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in apple tree and fruit development, as well as in biotic stress tolerance; however, it is largely unknown whether these molecules are involved in the drought response. To identify drought-responsive miRNAs in Malus, we first examined the drought stress tolerance of ten F1 progenies of R3 (M. × domestica) × M. sieversii. We performed Illumina sequencing on pooled total RNA from both drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive plants. The sequencing results identified a total of 206 known miRNAs and 253 candidate novel miRNAs from drought-tolerant plants and drought-sensitive plants under control or drought conditions. We identified 67 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in drought-tolerant plants compared with drought-sensitive plants under drought conditions. Under drought stress, 61 and 35 miRNAs were differentially expressed in drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive plants, respectively. We determined the expression levels of seven out of eight miRNAs by stem-loop qPCR analysis. We also predicted the target genes of all differentially expressed miRNAs and identified the expression of some genes. Gene Ontology analyses indicated that the target genes were mainly involved in stimulus response and cellular and metabolic processes. Finally, we confirmed roles of two miRNAs in apple response to mannitol. Our results reveal candidate miRNAs and their associated mRNAs that could be targeted for improving drought tolerance in Malus species, thus providing a foundation for understanding the molecular networks involved in the response of apple trees to drought stress.

20.
Med Ultrason ; 21(2): 144-151, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063517

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the factors influencing ultrasound breast tumor size assessment accuracy. MATERIAL AND METHODS:  Five factors (tumor type, molecular subtype, histological size, histological grade, and breast density) were used to assess the measurement accuracy of breast ultrasound in tumor size. Size underestimation was defined as ultrasound index lesion diameter < histological size by at least 5 mm. RESULTS: Breast ultrasound underestimated tumor size significantly, especially in cases with intraductal components (p=0.002). There was a tendency for higher size underestimation in breast cancer tumors with high-histological grade (p=0.03), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer tumors (p=0.02) and hormone receptor (HR)-/HER2+ breast cancer tumors (p=0.008). Furthermore, core biopsy revealedhigher probability of size underestimation with intraductal components (p=0.002). Size underestimation was more frequent with larger histological size (p<0.001). Masses in non-dense breasts were significantly underestimated (p=0.036) compared to dense breasts. CONCLUSIONS: The size underestimation was influenced by pathological type, molecular subtype, and histological size. The pathological results of core biopsy were conducive for predicting tumor size pre-surgery in precise breast cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carga Tumoral , Ultrassonografia Mamária/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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