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1.
FEBS J ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606682

RESUMO

Here, we describe a novel interaction between the RNA helicase DDX3 and the deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific peptidase 9 X-linked (USP9X) in human cells. Domain mapping studies reveal that the C-terminal region of DDX3 interacted with the N terminus of USP9X. USP9X was predominantly localized in the cytoplasm where the interaction between DDX3 and USP9X occurred. USP9X was not visibly enriched in cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs) under oxidative stress conditions, whereas overexpression of GFP-DDX3 induced SG formation and recruited USP9X to SGs in HeLa cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that depletion of USP9X had no significant effect on DDX3-mediated translation. Given that DDX3 is not ubiquitinated upon ubiquitin overexpression, it is unlikely that DDX3 serves as a substrate of USP9X. Importantly, we found that ubiquitinated MCL1 was accumulated upon depletion of USP9X and/or DDX3 in MG132-treated cells, suggesting that USP9X and DDX3 play a role in regulating MCL1 protein stability and anti-apoptotic function. This study indicates that DDX3 exerts anti-apoptotic effects probably by coordinating with USP9X in promoting MCL1 deubiquitination.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553325

RESUMO

In our previous study, the chitosanase AqCoA and the chitooligosaccharides it produced were found to exhibit significant protective effects against fungal diseases. In this study, we enhanced the expression of AqCoA using the novel pMC-GAP that enables stable transformation of Escherichia coli, and built an integrated model based on the gene copy number, molecular chaperones, and protein production of AqCoA. In terms of gene dosage, the highest hydrolase activity was 0.32 U/ml in the strain with four copies, which was 1.78-fold higher than that of the strain with only one copy (0.18 U/ml). In addition, we found the chaperones such as PDI, ERO1, HAC1, YDJ1, SSE1, SSA4, and SSO2 improved protein expression. Furthermore, the PDI/ERO1, SSA4/SSE1, and YDJ1/SSO2 pairs synergistically increased the expression levels by 61%, 31%, and 42%, respectively. Finally, we investigated the combined effects of gene copy numbers and molecular chaperones on protein expression. The highest activity reached 2.32 U/ml in the strain with six integrated molecular chaperone expression cassettes and sixteen copies of the target gene, which was 13-fold higher than that of the control strain with only one copy (GAP-1AqCoA). Combined optimization of gene dosage and molecular chaperone combinations significantly increased the expression level of AqCoA, providing a powerful strategy to improve the expression of other heterologous proteins in P. pastoris.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487387

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections is increasing. Complete device and lead removal are recommended for all patients with definite CIED system infection. In patients with pacemaker dependency, temporary pacing before reimplantation is necessary. In this study, temporary pacing using active fixation leads (TPAFL) was evaluated. METHODS: We reviewed data from consecutive patients implanted with TPAFL after transvenous lead extraction at our center between November 2014 and October 2020. RESULTS: TPAFL were placed in 334 patients. The mean age was 64.5 ± 16.4 years and 76.3% were males. Two hundred and forty (72%) were treated due to local pocket infection and 94 (28%) systemic infection. The indication for temporary pacing was sick sinus syndrome in 135 (40.4%) patients and complete or high-grade atrioventricular (AV) block in 199 (59.6%) patients. The most common access site for lead implantation was the ipsilateral subclavian or axillary vein (78.9%). A new permanent CIED was reimplanted at 10.3 ± 9.2 days (median 10, range: 2-70) after implantation of the temporary pacing. There were five (1.5%) adverse events related to the temporary pacing during hospitalization. The median follow-up duration was 23.1 months (interquartile range [IQR], 7.2-43.4 months). Only one patient (0.3%) developed recurrent CIED infection. CONCLUSION: TPAFL is safe and effective in pacemaker-dependent patients after infected CIED removal. The rate of temporary pacing-related complications, including lead dislodgment and reinfection of CIED is relatively low.

4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(18): 6793-6803, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477943

RESUMO

Some microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), like glucan oligosaccharides, can be recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of plant to elicit further immunity response. In this study, a novel glycoside hydrolase family 55 ß-1,3-glucanase (AcGluA) from Archangium sp. strain AC19 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Among the reported ß-1, 3-glucanases from the glycoside hydrolase 55 family, the purified AcGluA exhibited the highest activity on laminarin at pH 6.0 and 60 °C with 112.3 U/mg. Activity of AcGluA was stable in the range of pH 4.0-9.0 and at temperatures below 60 °C. The Km and Vmax of AcGluA for laminarin were 3.5 mg/ml and 263.5 µmol/(ml·min). AcGluA hydrolyzed laminarin into a series of oligosaccharides, suggesting it was an endo-ß-1,3-glucanase. The high dose of oligosaccharides (1600 mg/l) had conspicuous biocontrol efficacy on the defense of rice seedlings to Magnaporthe oryzae, which provided a new idea for the development of green biopesticide.Key points• The AcGluA was determined bacteria-derived ß-1,3-glucanases in the GH55 family.• The AcGluA showed the highest activity towards laminarin among reported GH55 family.• The hydrolysates of laminarin showed conspicuous biocontrol efficacy to M. oryzae.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Especificidade por Substrato
5.
Sci Adv ; 7(39): eabj0349, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559569

RESUMO

[Figure: see text].

6.
Life Sci ; 283: 119866, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352257

RESUMO

AIMS: Morphine, a commonly used drug for anesthesia, affects lipid metabolism in different tissues, but the mechanism is currently unclear. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the first step of triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis. Here we aim to investigate whether ATGL phosphorylation is involved in morphine-induced TG accumulation. MAIN METHODS: Oil red O staining and TG content analysis were used to detect the effect of morphine on lipid storage. A series of ATGL phosphoamino acid site mutant plasmids were constructed by gene synthesis and transfected to HL-1 cells to evaluate the phosphorylation levels of ATGL phosphoamino acid in morphine-treated HL-1 cells with immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting assay. KEY FINDINGS: Morphine acute treatment induced excessive accumulation of TG and decreased the phosphorylation level of ATGL Ser406 in HL-1 cells. Of note, the phosphorylation positive mutation of ATGL Ser406 to aspartic acid effectively reversed morphine-induced excessive accumulation of TG in HL-1 cells. SIGNIFICANCE: This discovery will help to fully understand the lipid regulation function of morphine in a new scope. In addition, it will expand the phosphorylation research of ATGL more comprehensively and provide powerful clues for lipid metabolism regulation.


Assuntos
Lipase/metabolismo , Morfina/farmacologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Masculino , Camundongos , Morfina/farmacocinética , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443570

RESUMO

CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) has become significantly crucial to the petroleum industry, in particular, CO2 miscible flooding can greatly improve the efficiency of EOR. Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) is a vital factor affecting CO2 flooding, which determines the yield and economic benefit of oil recovery. Therefore, it is important to predict this property for a successful field development plan. In this study, a novel model based on molecular dynamics to determine MMP was developed. The model characterized a miscible state by calculating the ratio of CO2 and crude oil atoms that pass through the initial interface. The whole process was not affected by other external objective factors. We compared our model with several famous empirical correlations, and obtained satisfactory results-the relative errors were 8.53% and 13.71% for the two equations derived from our model. Furthermore, we found the MMPs predicted by different reference materials (i.e., CO2/crude oil) were approximately linear (R2 = 0.955). We also confirmed the linear relationship between MMP and reservoir temperature (TR). The correlation coefficient was about 0.15 MPa/K in the present study.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, targeted therapy combined with traditional chemoradiotherapy and surgery has brought new opportunities for cancer treatment. However, the complex characteristics of cancer, such as heterogeneity and diversity, limit the clinical success of targeted drugs. The discovery of new cancer targets and deepening the understanding of their functional mechanisms will bring additional promising application prospects for the research and development of personalized cancer-targeted drugs. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to summarize the role of the Rho GTPase activating protein 9 (ARHGAP9) gene in tumorigenesis and development to discover therapeutic targets for cancer in the future. METHODS: For this review, we collected patents from the databases of Espacenet and WIPO and articles from PubMed that were related to the ARHGAP9 gene. RESULTS: Genetic/epigenetic variations and abnormal expression of the ARHGAP9 gene are closely associated with a variety of diseases, including cancer. ARHGAP9 can inactivate Rho GTPases by hydrolyzing GTP into GDP and regulate cancer cellular events, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration and invasion, by inhibiting JNK/ERK/p38 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. In addition to reviewing these mechanisms, we assessed various patents on ARHGAP9 to determine whether ARHGAP9 might be used as a predictive biomarker for diagnosis/prognosis evaluation and a druggable target for cancer treatment. CONCLUSION: In this review, the current knowledge of ARHGAP9 in cancer is summarized with an emphasis on its molecular function, regulatory mechanism and disease implications. Its characterization is crucial to understanding its important roles during different stages of cancer progression and therapy as a predictive biomarker and/or target.

9.
J Neurosci ; 41(36): 7532-7545, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326141

RESUMO

Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first metabolite of ethanol, is implicated in several of ethanol's actions, including the reinforcing and aversive effects. The neuronal mechanisms underlying ACD's aversive effect, however, are poorly understood. The lateral habenula (LHb), a regulator of midbrain monoaminergic centers, is activated by negative valence events. Although the LHb has been linked to the aversive responses of several abused drugs, including ethanol, little is known about ACD. We, therefore, assessed ACD's action on LHb neurons in rats. The results showed that intraperitoneal injection of ACD increased cFos protein expression within the LHb and that intra-LHb infusion of ACD induced conditioned place aversion in male rats. Furthermore, electrophysiological recording in brain slices of male and female rats showed that bath application of ACD facilitated spontaneous firing and glutamatergic transmission. This effect of ACD was potentiated by an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) inhibitor, disulfiram (DS), but attenuated by the antagonists of dopamine (DA) receptor (DAR) subtype 1 (SCH23390) and subtype 2 (raclopride), and partly abolished by the pretreatment of DA or DA reuptake blocker (GBR12935; GBR). Moreover, application of ACD initiated a depolarizing inward current (I ACD) and enhanced the hyperpolarizing-activated currents in LHb neurons. Bath application of Rp-cAMPs, a selective cAMP-PKA inhibitor, attenuated ACD-induced potentiation of EPSCs and I ACD Finally, bath application of ZD7288, a selective blocker of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, attenuated ACD-induced potentiation of firing, EPSCs, and I ACD These results show that ACD exerts its aversive property by exciting LHb neurons via multiple cellular mechanisms, and new treatments targeting the LHb may be beneficial for alcoholism.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Acetaldehyde (ACD) has been considered aversive peripherally and rewarding centrally. However, whether ACD has a central aversive property is unclear. Here, we report that ACD excites the lateral habenula (LHb), a brain region associated with aversion and negative valence, through multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms. Intra-LHb ACD produces significant conditioned place aversion. These results suggest that ACD's actions on the LHb neurons might contribute to its central aversive property and new treatments targeting the LHb may be beneficial for alcoholism.

10.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309914

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE?: Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is a serious complication of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that is diagnosed in approximately 3%-5% of patients. LM occurs more frequently in patients with NSCLC harbouring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements and is usually accompanied by a poor prognosis, with a median overall survival (OS) of several months if patients receive conventional treatments. However, tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy after LM diagnosis is an independent predictive factor for extended survival. Here, we aim to summarize the latest advances in targeted therapy for LM and provide patients with better treatment options. METHODS: By reviewing the recent progress of targeted therapy in NSCLC with LM, especially the efficacy of newer generation TKIs, we aim to provide clinicians with a reference to further optimize patient treatment plans. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Osimertinib was confirmed to have a several-fold higher CNS permeability than other EGFR-TKIs and was recommended as the preferred choice for patients with EGFR-positive LM whether or not they harboured the T790M mutation. Second-generation ALK-TKIs have a higher rate of intracranial response and can be positioned as front-line drugs in NSCLC with LM. However, the sequence in which ALK-TKIs are administered for effective disease control requires further evaluation. In addition, targeted therapy revealed a potential choice in patients with LM and rare mutations, such as ROS1 and BRAF. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSIONS?: The development of therapeutic agents with greater CNS penetration is vital for the management of CNS metastasis from NSCLC, particularly in the EGFR-mutant and ALK-rearranged subtypes. Systemic therapy with newer generation TKIs is preferred as the initial intervention. This is because newer generation TKIs are designed to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and possess significantly higher intracranial activities. However, their further effectiveness is limited by inadequate blood-brain barrier penetration and acquired drug resistance. Further studies are needed to further understand the mechanisms underlying resistance to treatment.

11.
Support Care Cancer ; 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few mortality-scoring models are available for solid tumor patients who are predisposed to develop Escherichia coli-caused bloodstream infection (ECBSI). We aimed to develop a mortality-scoring model by using information from blood culture time to positivity (TTP) and other clinical variables. METHODS: A cohort of solid tumor patients who were admitted to hospital with ECBSI and received empirical antimicrobial therapy was enrolled. Survivors and non-survivors were compared to identify the risk factors of in-hospital mortality. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were adopted to identify the mortality-associated predictors. Risk scores were assigned by weighting the regression coefficients with corresponding natural logarithm of the odds ratio for each predictor. RESULTS: Solid tumor patients with ECBSI were distributed in the development and validation groups, respectively. Six mortality-associated predictors were identified and included in the scoring model: acute respiratory distress (ARDS), TTP ≤ 8 h, inappropriate antibiotic therapy, blood transfusion, fever ≥ 39 °C, and metastasis. Prognostic scores were categorized into three groups that predicted mortality: low risk (< 10% mortality, 0-1 points), medium risk (10-20% mortality, 2 points), and high risk (> 20% mortality, ≥ 3 points). The TTP-incorporated scoring model showed excellent discrimination and calibration for both groups, with AUC being 0.833 vs 0.844, respectively, and no significant difference in the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (6.709, P = 0.48) and the chi-square test (6.993, P = 0.46). Youden index showed the best cutoff value of ≥ 3 with 76.11% sensitivity and 79.29% specificity. TTP-incorporated scoring model had higher AUC than no TTP-incorporated model (0.837 vs 0.817, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our TTP-incorporated scoring model was associated with improving capability in predicting ECBSI-related mortality. It can be a practical tool for clinicians to identify and manage bacteremic solid tumor patients with high risk of mortality.

12.
J Cell Commun Signal ; 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125393

RESUMO

Chondrocyte production of catabolic and inflammatory mediators participating in extracellular matrix degradation has been regarded as a central event in osteoarthritis (OA) development. During OA pathogenesis, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) decreases the mRNA expression and protein levels of transforming growth factor-ß receptor type-2 (TGFBR2), thus disrupting transforming growth factor-ß signaling and promoting OA development. In the present study, we attempted to identify the differentially expressed genes in OA chondrocytes upon IL-1ß treatment, investigate their specific roles in OA development, and reveal the underlying mechanism. As shown by online data analysis and experimental results, TGFBR2 expression was significantly downregulated in IL-1ß-treated human primary OA chondrocytes. IL-1ß treatment induced degenerative changes in OA chondrocytes, as manifested by increased matrix metalloproteinase 13 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 proteins, decreased Aggrecan and Collagen II proteins, and suppressed OA chondrocyte proliferation. These degenerative changes were significantly reversed by TGFBR2 overexpression. miR-302c expression was markedly induced by IL-1ß treatment in OA chondrocytes. miR-302c suppressed the expression of TGFBR2 via direct binding to its 3'- untranslated region. Similar to TGFBR2 overexpression, miR-302c inhibition significantly improved IL-1ß-induced degenerative changes in OA chondrocytes. Conversely, TGFBR2 silencing enhanced IL-1ß-induced degenerative changes and significantly reversed the effects of miR-302c inhibition in response to IL-1ß treatment. In conclusion, the miR-302c/TGFBR2 axis could modulate IL-1ß-induced degenerative changes in OA chondrocytes and might become a novel target for OA treatment.

13.
Environ Microbiol ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817959

RESUMO

In oligotrophic oceans, low bioavailability of Fe is a key factor limiting primary productivity. However, excessive Fe in cells leads to the Fenton reaction, which is toxic to cells. Cyanobacteria must strictly maintain intracellular Fe homeostasis. Here, we knocked out a series of genes encoding efflux systems in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and found eight genes that are required for high Fe detoxification. Unexpectedly, the HlyBD-TolC efflux system plays an important role in the adaptation of Synechocystis under Fe-deficient conditions. Mutants of HlyD and TolC grew worse than the wild-type strain under low-Fe conditions and showed significantly lower intracellular Fe contents than the wild-type strain. We excluded the possibility that the low Fe sensitivity of the HlyBD-TolC mutants was caused by a loss of the S-layer, the main extracellular protein secreted via this efflux system. Inactivation of the HlyD protein influenced type IV pili formation and direct inactivation of type IV pili related genes affected the adaptation to low-Fe conditions. HlyBD-TolC system is likely involved in the formation of type IV pili and indirectly influenced Fe acquisition. Our findings suggest that efflux system in non-siderophore-producing cyanobacteria can facilitate Fe uptake and help cells adapt to Fe-deficient conditions via novel pathways.

14.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(9): 1593-1605, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884870

RESUMO

The development of multifunctional molecules that are able to simultaneously interact with several pathological components has been considered as a solution to treat the complex pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, a series of aminomethylindole derivatives were synthesized, and evaluation of their application for antineuroinflammation and promoting neurite outgrowth was disclosed. Our initial screening showed that most of the compounds potently inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated production of NO in microglial cells and potentiated the action of NGF to promote neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. Interestingly, with outstanding NO/TNF-α production inhibition and neurite outgrowth-promoting activities, compounds 8c and 8g were capable of rescuing cells after injury by H2O2. Their antineuroinflammatory effects were associated with the downregulation of the LPS-induced expression of the inflammatory mediators inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay results indicated that the mechanism of their antineuroinflammatory actions involved suppression of the MAPK/NF-κB signal pathways. Further studies revealed that another important reason for the high comprehensive antineuroinflammatory activity was the anti-COX-2 capabilities of the compounds. All these results suggest that the potential biochemical multifunctional profiles of the aminomethylindole derivatives provide a new sight for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Microglia/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 220, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854035

RESUMO

Hyperalgesia, which often occurs in people suffering from alcohol use disorder, may drive excessive drinking and relapse. Emerging evidence suggests that the lateral habenula (LHb) may play a significant role in this condition. Previous research suggests that endocannabinoid signaling (eCBs) is involved in drug addiction and pain, and that the LHb contains core components of the eCBs machinery. We report here our findings in rats subjected to chronic ethanol vapor exposure. We detected a substantial increase in endocannabinoid-related genes, including Mgll and Daglb mRNA levels, as well as monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) protein levels, as well as a decrease in Cnr1 mRNA and type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) protein levels, in the LHb of ethanol-exposed rats. Also, rats withdrawing from ethanol exposure displayed hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal nociceptive stimuli. Conversely, intra-LHb injection of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184, the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597, or the CB1R agonist WIN55,212-2 produced an analgesic effect, regardless of ethanol or air exposure history, implying that alcohol exposure does not change eCB pain responses. Intra-LHb infusion of the CB1R inverse agonist rimonabant eliminated the analgesic effect of these chemicals. Rimonabant alone elicited hyperalgesia in the air-, but not ethanol-exposed animals. Moreover, intra-LHb JZL184, URB597, or WIN55,212-2 reduced ethanol consumption in both homecages and operant chambers in rats exposed to ethanol vapor but not air. These findings suggest that LHb eCBs play a pivotal role in nociception and facilitating LHb eCBs may attenuate pain in drinkers.


Assuntos
Habenula , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Animais , Endocanabinoides , Monoacilglicerol Lipases , Dor , Ratos
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1658403, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860031

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type among primary liver cancers (PLC). With its poor prognosis and survival rate, it is necessary for HCC patients to have a long-term follow-up. We believe that there are currently no relevant reports or literature about nomograms for predicting the cancer-specific mortality of HCC patients. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to develop and evaluate nomograms to predict cancer-specific mortality and overall mortality. Data of 45,158 cases of HCC patients were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program database between 2004 and 2013, which were then utilized to develop the nomograms. Finally, the performance of the nomograms was evaluated by the concordance index (C-index) and the area under the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (td-AUC). The categories selected to develop a nomogram for predicting cancer-specific mortality included marriage, insurance, radiotherapy, surgery, distant metastasis, lymphatic metastasis, tumor size, grade, sex, and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage; while the marriage, radiotherapy, surgery, AJCC stage, grade, race, sex, and age were selected to develop a nomogram for predicting overall mortality. The C-indices for predicted 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific mortality were 0.792, 0.776, and 0.774; the AUC values for 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific mortality were 0.830, 0.830, and 0.830. The C-indices for predicted 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall mortality were 0.770, 0.755, and 0.752; AUC values for predicted 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall mortality were 0.820, 0.820, and 0.830. The results showed that the nomograms possessed good agreement compared with the observed outcomes. It could provide clinicians with a personalized predicted risk of death information to evaluate the potential changes of the disease-specific condition so that clinicians can adjust therapy options when combined with the actual condition of the patient, which is beneficial to patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Nomogramas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Calibragem , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Curva ROC , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922935

RESUMO

A side-by-side electrospinning process characterized by a home-made eccentric spinneret was established to produce the Janus beads-on-a-string products. In this study, ketoprofen (KET) and methylene blue (MB) were used as model drugs, which loaded in Janus beads-on-a-string products, in which polyvinylpyrrolidone K90 (PVP K90) and ethyl cellulose (EC) were exploited as the polymer matrices. From SEM images, distinct nanofibers and microparticles in the Janus beads-on-a-string structures could be observed clearly. X-ray diffraction demonstrated that all crystalline drugs loaded in Janus beads-on-a-string products were transferred into the amorphous state. ATR-FTIR revealed that the components of prepared Janus nanostructures were compatibility. In vitro dissolution tests showed that Janus beads-on-a-string products could provide typical double drugs controlled-release profiles, which provided a faster immediate release of MB and a slower sustained release of KET than the electrospun Janus nanofibers. Drug releases from the Janus beads-on-a-string products were controlled through a combination of erosion mechanism (linear MB-PVP sides) and a typical Fickian diffusion mechanism (bead KET-EC sides). This work developed a brand-new approach for the preparation of the Janus beads-on-a-string nanostructures using side-by-side electrospinning, and also provided a fresh idea for double drugs controlled release and the potential combined therapy.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Celulose/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Cetoprofeno/química , Cetoprofeno/farmacologia , Azul de Metileno/química , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Multifuncionais/química , Nanofibras/química , Polímeros/química , Difração de Raios X/métodos
18.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885320

RESUMO

As a new generation of light sources, GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have wide applications in lighting and display. Heat dissipation in LEDs is a fundamental issue that leads to a decrease in light output, a shortened lifespan, and the risk of catastrophic failure. Here, the temperature spatial distribution of the LEDs is revealed by using high-resolution infrared thermography, and the piezo-phototronic effect is proved to restrain efficaciously the temperature increment for the first time. We observe the temperature field and current density distribution of the LED array under external strain compensation. Specifically, the temperature rise caused by the self-heating effect is reduced by 47.62% under 0.1% external strain, which is attributed to the enhanced competitiveness of radiative recombination against nonradiative recombination due to the piezo-phototronic effect. This work not only deepens the understanding of the piezo-phototronic effect in LEDs but also provides a novel, easy-to-implement, and economical method to effectively enhance thermal management.

19.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178(12): 2496-2515, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pancreatic cancer is an exceptionally fatal disease. However, therapeutic drugs for pancreatic cancer have presented a serious shortage over the past few decades. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is persistently activated in many human cancers where it promotes tumour development and progression. Natural products serve as an inexhaustible source of anticancer drugs. Here, we identified the natural product trienomycin A (TA), an ansamycin antibiotic, as a potential inhibitor of the STAT3 pathway with potent activity against pancreatic cancer. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Effects of trienomycin A on transcriptional activity of STAT3 were assessed by the STAT3-luciferase (STAT3-luc) reporter system. In vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity of TA against pancreatic cancer made use of molecular docking, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay, MTS assay, colony formation assay, transwell migration/invasion assay, flow cytometric analysis, immunofluorescence staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blotting, tumour xenograft model, haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS: Trienomycin A directly bound to STAT3 and inhibited STAT3 (Tyr705) phosphorylation, thus inhibiting the STAT3 pathway. Trienomycin A also inhibited colony formation, proliferation, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Trienomycin A also markedly blocked pancreatic tumour growth in vivo. More importantly, trienomycin A did not show obvious toxicity at the effective dose in mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Trienomycin A exerted anti-neoplastic activity by suppressing STAT3 activation in pancreatic cancer. This natural product could be a novel therapeutic candidate for pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Apoptose , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
20.
RNA Biol ; : 1-17, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749516

RESUMO

Telomere is a specialized DNA-protein complex that plays an important role in maintaining chromosomal integrity. Shelterin is a protein complex formed by six different proteins, with telomeric repeat factors 1 (TRF1) and 2 (TRF2) binding to double-strand telomeric DNA. Telomeric DNA consists of complementary G-rich and C-rich repeats, which could form G-quadruplex and intercalated motif (i-motif), respectively, during cell cycle. Its G-rich transcription product, telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), is essential for telomere stability and heterochromatin formation. After extensive screening, we found that acridine derivative 2c and acridine dimer DI26 could selectively interact with TRF1 and telomeric i-motif, respectively. Compound 2c blocked the binding of TRF1 with telomeric duplex DNA, resulting in up-regulation of TERRA. Accumulated TERRA could bind with TRF1 at its allosteric site and further destabilize its binding with telomeric DNA. In contrast, DI26 could destabilize telomeric i-motif, resulting in down-regulation of TERRA. Both compounds exhibited anti-tumour activity for A549 cells, but induced different DNA damage pathways. Compound 2c significantly suppressed tumour growth in A549 xenograft mouse model. The function of telomeric i-motif structure was first studied with a selective binding ligand, which could play an important role in regulating TERRA transcription. Our results showed that appropriate level of TERRA transcript could be important for stability of telomere, and acridine derivatives could be further developed as anti-cancer agents targeting telomere. This research increased understanding for biological roles of telomeric i-motif, TRF1 and TERRA, as potential anti-cancer drug targets.

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