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2.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and the severity of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A total of 2,961 patients were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study. The severity of DN was determined by 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE), which was classified as normal (NDN) (UAE <30 mg/24h), microalbuminuria (UAE: 30-299 mg/24h), and macroalbuminuria (≥300 mg/24h). The severity of DR was determined by non-mydriatic retinal photography, and was classified as non-DR (NDR), non-proliferative DR (NPDR), and proliferative DR (PDR). RESULTS: Patients with high SUA levels (≥ 420 µmol/L for males and ≥360 µmol/L for females) had a significantly higher prevalence of DN (UAE ≥30 mg/24h, 39.3% vs. 26.3%; p < 0.001), higher UAE levels (140 ± 297 vs. 63 ± 175 mg/24h; p<0.001), and lower eGFR (79.3 ± 26.8 vs. 96.8 ± 19.6 ml/min/1.73 m; p<0.001), when compared to patients with normal SUA levels. However, the prevalence of DR, NPDR, or PDR did not differ. Furthermore, the concentration of SUA were higher in patients with higher severity of DN (all, p<0.001), and patients with PDR (compared to NDR or NPDR, p<0.05). SUA levels were positively associated with male gender, body mass index, the use of diuretics, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein and UAE levels, while were negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c and eGFR. After adjustment, SUA remained significantly associated with UAE (r = 0.069, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: For patients with T2DM, higher SUA levels are associated with higher UAE, lower eGFR and higher prevalence of DN, but not DR.

3.
BMC Immunol ; 21(1): 13, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is a potent molecular signal for cellular metabolism, mitochondrial function, and migration. Conditions of low oxygen tension trigger regulatory cascades mediated via the highly conserved HIF-1 α post-translational modification system. In the adaptive immune response, B cells (Bc) are activated and differentiate under hypoxic conditions within lymph node germinal centers, and subsequently migrate to other compartments. During migration, they traverse through changing oxygen levels, ranging from 1-5% in the lymph node to 5-13% in the peripheral blood. Interestingly, the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A is known to stimulate prolyl hydroxylase activity, resulting in HIF-1 α destabilization and may alter Bc responses directly. Over 60% of patients taking calcineurin immunosuppressant medications have hypo-gammaglobulinemia and poor vaccine responses, putting them at high risk of infection with significantly increased morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: We demonstrate that O 2 tension is a previously unrecognized Bc regulatory switch, altering CXCR4 and CXCR5 chemokine receptor signaling in activated Bc through HIF-1 α expression, and controlling critical aspects of Bc migration. Our data demonstrate that calcineurin inhibition hinders this O 2 regulatory switch in primary human Bc. CONCLUSION: This previously unrecognized effect of calcineurin inhibition directly on human Bc has significant and direct clinical implications.

4.
Mycoses ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arthroderma uncinatum is a geophilic dermatophyte that occasionally causes superficial infections in humans leading to skin diseases. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the ecology and potential pathogenicty of A. uncinatum, we analyzed its whole genome. We compared A. uncinatum with the genome of the zoophilic dermatophyte Microsporum canis and with the anthropophilic species Trichophyton rubrum. The compared species differ significantly in the frequence of human infection. METHODS: We reported the genome sequence of strain T10 of A. uncinatum based on SMRT (Single Molecule Real Time) technology (PacBio). RESULTS: We obtained a near-complete 23.56 Mb genome; with 7,153 predicted gene models and ~20 % repetitive sequences. We subsequently determined the specific genetic differences between A. uncinatum, M. canis and T. rubrum. The functional enrichment analysis suggests that A. uncinatum is particularly enriched in specific virulence genes. This suggests that the ancestral condition in dermatophytes is with high virulence, which has decreased in the course of evolution to enhance coexistence with animal or human hosts.

5.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(1): 73-78, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the overall distribution of pregnancy outcomes in women with elevated second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP), and to determine the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) by MS-AFP level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 429 women with elevated MS-AFP (≥2.5 multiple of the median (MOM)) and 1555 women with normal MS-AFP (0.5-2.49MOM) from a total of 46,741 prenatally screened singleton pregnant women. The overall distribution of APOs of the two groups, the risk of APOs by MS-AFP level, and the predictive value of elevated MS-AFP to APOs were analyzed. RESULTS: The incidence rate of APOs in elevated MS-AFP group was significantly higher than that in normal MS-AFP group (42.89 vs. 8.23%). In elevated MS-AFP group, the top three APOs, in term of incidence rate, were structural fetal abnormalities (7.93%), spontaneous abortion (7.46%) and preterm birth (7.23%); regarding to the risk, the top three APOs were stillbirth, spontaneous abortion and early-onset preeclampsia (odds ratio 35.98, 20.81 and 8.58 respectively). For structural fetal abnormalities, MS-AFP had predictive values for fetal open neural tube defects (ONTDs), gastroschisis and multiple malformations. CONCLUSION: Elevated MS-AFP is associated with increased risks of APOs. ONTDs complicate merely a small proportion of pregnancies with elevated MS-AFP, and the rest of them have high risks of obstetric complications. MS-AFP can help to identify these women at high risk of APOs in earlier second-trimester.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022611

RESUMO

Purpose: To explore the clinical efficacy and long-term outcomes of accessory hepatic vein (AHV) recanalization as a means of treating hepatic vein (HV)-type Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS).Methods: Between January 2011 and December 2018, a total of 46 symptomatic HV-type BCS patients were treated by AHV recanalization in our hospital. The technical and clinical success of this treatment, as well as associated long-term patient prognosis was assessed herein.Results: The AHV recanalization approach was technically successful in 100% of patients, without any instances of complications associated with the operation. This procedure was 95.7% (44/46) clinically successful and resultant. AHV re-obstruction occurred in 12 patients. The cumulative primary one-, two-, and five-year patency rates were 77.3%, 71.7%, and 71.7%, respectively. The secondary cumulative one-, two-, and five-year patency rates were 97.7, 87.1, and 87.1%, respectively. The five-year patency rates did not differ significantly between patients treated with balloons and stents (p = .674). Based on Cox-regression analysis, younger age was an independent predictor of re-obstruction (p = .005). The cumulative one-, two-, and five-year survival rates were 97.7, 92.2, and 92.2%, respectively.Conclusions: AHV recanalization is a safe and effective treatment for HV-type BCS.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19090, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049812

RESUMO

Jaw phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMTs) are a rare neoplasm with uncertain histogenesis. This study aimed to clarify the clinical and pathological features of jaw PMTs.We reviewed the clinical records of 39 patients diagnosed with PMTs in the jaws, and investigated clinical and morphologic characteristics, histologic subtypes, and immunophenotypes of all cases.Microscopic analyses revealed 2 major histologic tumor subtypes: "phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors of mixed epithelial and connective tissue" (PMTMECT), and "phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors of mixed connective tissue" (PMTMCT). PMTMECTs and PMTMCTs accounted for 29 and 10 cases of PMTs, respectively. Most PMTMECT diagnoses were made predominantly in males aged <45 years, and the incidence was similar in both the mandible and maxilla. In contrast, patients with PMTMCTs are predominantly females aged ≥45 years, and all tumors were in the mandible. Histologically, PMTMECT had lower cellularity and a more elongated and spindled mesenchymal component with less elaborate intrinsic microvasculature than PMTMCT. Immunohistochemically, the epithelia of all PMTMECTs was immunoreactive for AE1/AE3. Other immunohistochemical staining of PMTMECTs revealed positive expression of vimentin, SATB2, ERG, CD99, Bcl-2, CD56, S-100, D2-40, CD68, SMA, and CD34 in either one or both components. Immunohistochemical staining of PMTMCTs was diffusely positive for vimentin and a varied ratio of positivity for SATB2, ERG, CD99, Bcl-2, CD56, S-100, D2-40, CD68, SMA, and CD34, but negative for AE1/AE3. Most patients were cured by complete resection, except 2 patients who had repeated recurrences, one of which also had multiple metastasis.Jaw PMT can be divided into 2 major histological subtypes. PMTMECTs are more common than are PMTMCTs, and can transform into malignant PMTMCTs during the progression. PMTMECTs were more commonly observed in males and the incidence was similar in both the maxilla and mandible. PMTMCTs were almost always observed in the mandible of females. Compared with PMTMCTs, PMTMECTs have an admixture of epithelial components with less prominent vasculature and lower cellularity. There were no statistically significant differences in the expression of immunohistochemical markers except AE1/AE3 between PMTMECTs and PMTMCTs. However, immunohistochemical markers have great significance for differentiating other mesenchymal tumors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Maxilomandibulares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Maxilomandibulares/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Maxilomandibulares/cirurgia , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2249, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042048

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the clinicopathologic features and prognosis in patients with Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). In total, 8083 RCCs were screened at five centres from January 2007 to December 2018, including 8001 adults (≥18 years) and 82 children (<18 years). Finally, 73 adults and 17 children were identified as Xp11 translocation RCCs, accounting for 1.1% (90 of 8083) of the RCCs. However, 4 children and 1 adult were excluded because of loss to follow-up when performing the survival analysis. The proportion of paediatric and adult Xp11 translocation RCCs was 20.7% (17 of 82) and 0.9% (73 of 8001) of RCCs, respectively, and the incidence in children and adults was significantly different (P < 0.01). Lymph node positivity (LN+) most commonly occurred in children (58.8%) compared with adults (28.8%; P = 0.02), but children with LN+ showed significantly higher five-year overall survival and progression-free rates (OS: 75.0%; PFS: 64.8%) than adult patients (OS: 40.3%; PFS: 0%) (log-rank PPFS < 0.01; POS = 0.04). Multivariable analysis indicated that local lymph node metastasis was associated with both PFS (HR = 0.10; 95% CI 0.02-0.51; P = 0.01) and OS (HR = 0.11; 95% CI 0.01-0.98; P = 0.04) in adults. Adult patients with LN+ may indicate a worse prognosis than paediatric patients.

9.
Mol Immunol ; 120: 23-31, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045771

RESUMO

Acne is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, and the inflammation immune response runs through all stages of acne lesions. In this study, we use a combination of multiplex-PCR and high-throughput sequencing technologies to analyze T cell receptor ß chain CDR3 (complementarity-determining region 3) in peripheral blood isolated from severe acne patients. Once compared with healthy controls, we propose to identify acne-relevant CDR3 peptides. Our results reveal that the diversity of T cell receptor ß chain (TRB) CDR3 sequences in the peripheral blood of the severe acne vulgaris (SA) group differed from that of the control group. In addition, we find 10 TRB CDR3 sequences, amino acid sequences and V-J combinations with significantly different expressions between the SA group and the non-acne (NA) group (P < 0.0001). These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the role of immunity in the pathogenesis of acne and may serve as biomarkers for evaluating risk or prognosis of severe acne disease in future.

10.
Mitochondrion ; 51: 88-96, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923469

RESUMO

Beauveria bassiana, Cordyceps militaris and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycotina) are traditional Chinese medicines. Here, mitogenomes of these three Ascomycotina fungi were sequenced and de-novo assembled using single-molecule real-time sequencing. The results showed that their complete mitogenomes were 31,258, 31,854 and 157,584 bp, respectively, with sequencing depth approximately 278,760×, 326,283× and 69,385×. Types of repeat sequences were mainly (AA)n, (AAT)n, (TA)n and (TATT)n. DNA methylation motifs were revealed in DNA modifications of these three fungi. We discovered new models of RNA editing through analysis of transcriptomes from B. bassiana and C. militaris. These data lay a solid foundation for further genetic and biological studies about these three fungi, especially for elucidating the mitogenome evolution and exploring the regulatory mechanism of adapting environment.

11.
Autophagy ; : 1-19, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983283

RESUMO

Macroautophagy/autophagy is indispensable for testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells (LCs), and here we report a negative association between m6A modification and autophagy in LCs during testosterone synthesis. A gradual decrease of METTL14 (methyltransferase like 14) and an increase of ALKBH5 (alkB homolog 5, RNA demethylase) were observed in LCs during their differentiation from stem LCs to adult LCs. These events led to reduced mRNA methylation levels of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and enhanced autophagy in LCs. Similar regulation of METTL14, ALKBH5, and m6A was also observed in LCs upon treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (HsCG). Mechanistically, m6A modification promoted translation of PPM1A (protein phosphatase 1A, magnesium dependent, alpha isoform), a negative AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulator, but decreased expression of CAMKK2 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta), a positive AMPK regulator, by reducing its RNA stability. Thus, m6A modification resulted in reduced AMPK activity and subsequent autophagy inhibition. We further demonstrated that ALKBH5 upregulation by HsCG was dependent on enhanced binding of the transcriptional factor CEBPB (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein [C/EBP], beta) and the TFEB (transcription factor EB) to its gene promoter. Moreover, HsCG treatment decreased METTL14 by reducing its stability. Collectively, this study highlights a vital role of m6A RNA methylation in the modulation of testosterone synthesis in LCs, providing insight into novel therapeutic strategies by exploiting m6A RNA methylation as targets for treating azoospermatism and oligospermatism patients with reduction in serum testosterone.Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; ACTB: Actin, beta; ALKBH5: alkB homolog 5, RNA demethylase; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; CAMKK2: calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta; CEBPB: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP), beta; ChIP: chromatin immunoprecipitation; FTO: fat mass and obesity associated; HsCG: human chorionic gonadotropin; HSD3B: 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; LCs: Leydig cells; m6A: N6-methyladenosine; METTL14: methyltransferase like 14; METTL3: methyltransferase like 3; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; PPM1A: protein phosphatase 1A, magnesium dependent, alpha isoform; PRKAA: 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STK11/LKB1: serine/threonine kinase 11; TFEB: transcription factor EB; ULK1: unc-51-like kinase 1; WTAP: Wilms tumor 1-associating protein; YTHDF: YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein.

12.
Investig Clin Urol ; 61(1): 75-80, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942466

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine associations if any between changes in voiding function, hematuria, and bladder ultrasonography metrics in murine cyclophosphamide-induced chemical cystitis. Materials and Methods: Cystitis was induced in 6 female mice by an intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (300 mg/kg). Voiding frequency, void volume, hematuria assessment, and ultrasonographic measurements of the bladder were obtained at baseline, days 1 to 5, and days 9, 11, and 13. Voiding was induced with preferred sweet drinking solution and voiding data collected using an automated data collection system in 135 minute sessions. Bladder wall thickness, lumen volume, and vascular Doppler were acquired using a high definition ultrasound system. Spearman's correlation was used to analyze the association between the voiding changes, hematuria, and ultrasound findings. Results: Hematuria was present 24 hours after cyclophosphamide injection. All animals displayed increased bladder vascularity, bladder wall thickness, and void frequency that was associated with concurrent decreased total and average void volumes. Increased bladder wall vascularity was correlated with the presence of hematuria (r=0.59, p<0.01) and bladder wall thickness (r=0.79, p<0.01). Hematuria correlated with increased void frequency (r=0.34, p<0.01). Average void volume was negatively correlated with hematuria (r=-0.50, p<0.01) and frequency (r=-0.38, p<0.01). Conclusions: High-definition ultrasound imaging permits in vivo monitoring of changes in bladder morphology associated with voiding function in relation to cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Ultrasound imaging of the bladder may assist in differential diagnosis of bladder dysfunction.

13.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(3): e1900629, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943763

RESUMO

Engelhardia roxburghiana Wall. leaves are widely used to develop herbal teas in southeast of China due to medicinal use for diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. Studies have demonstrated that the total flavonoids of E. roxburghiana leaves (TFER) exhibited regulatory effects on blood glucose and lipids. To clarify the active ingredients of TFER and their targets in treating atherosclerosis, the present study integrated chemical analysis, network pharmacology analysis and animal experimental studies. Firstly, high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) was utilized to identify components of TFER. Then, active ingredients were screened by oral bioavailability (OB) and drug-likeness (DL) index. Thirdly, network was constructed to predict major targets of active ingredients against atherosclerosis. Finally, to verify parts of predicted signaling, Apoe-/- mice were used to develop atherosclerosis. Atherosclerotic plaques in aorta were evaluated by echocardiography. Then, serum lipids, target genes expressions in thoracic aorta were determined by qRT-PCR and ELISA methods. Chemical analysis revealed 10 components in TFER sample, 7 of which acted as active ingredients, including naringenin, kaempferol, quercetin, isoengeletin, engeletin, astilbin and quercitrin. KEGG pathway analysis highly enriched in some inflammatory signalings, including NF-κB signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling and TNF signaling. The animal studies indicated that TFER reduced atherosclerotic plaques size in aorta and significantly decreased the serum lipids, down-regulated NF-κB signaling by decreasing mRNA level of NF-κB p65 subunit, TNF-α and VCAM-1, as well as IL-1ß expressions in thoracic aorta, eventually alleviating atherosclerosis progression, which was in consistent with our prediction.

14.
Tob Control ; 29(2): 140-147, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheezing is a symptom of potential respiratory disease and known to be associated with smoking. Electronic cigarette use ('vaping') has increased exponentially in recent years. This study examined the cross-sectional association of vaping with wheezing and related respiratory symptoms and compare this association with smokers and dual users. METHODS: The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study wave 2 data collected from October 2014 to October 2015 with 28 171 adults were used. The cross-sectional association of vaping with self-reported wheezing and related respiratory symptoms relative to smokers and dual users of tobacco and electronic cigarettes were studied using multivariable logistic and cumulative logistic regression models with consideration of complex sampling design. RESULTS: Among the 28 171 adult participants, 641 (1.2%) were current vapers who used e-cigarettes exclusively, 8525 (16.6%) were current exclusive smokers, 1106 (2.0%) were dual users and 17 899 (80.2%) were non-users. Compared with non-users, risks of wheezing and related respiratory symptoms were significantly increased in current vapers (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.67, 95% CI: 1.23 to 2.15). Current vapers had significantly lower risk in wheezing and related respiratory symptoms compared with current smokers (aOR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.53 to 0.87). No significant differences were found between dual users and current smokers in risk of wheezing and related respiratory symptoms (aOR=1.06, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.24). CONCLUSIONS: Vaping was associated with increased risk of wheezing and related respiratory symptoms. Current vapers had lower risk in wheezing and related respiratory symptoms than current smokers or dual users but higher than non-users. Both dual use and smoking significantly increased the risk of wheezing and related respiratory symptoms.

15.
Reproduction ; 159(1): 81-89, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710595

RESUMO

Health risk of human exposure to microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) has drawn more and more attention in recent years. In the present study, MC-LR inhibited miR-3473g expression of mouse granulosa cells both in vitro and in vivo. By dual-luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed miR-3473g is able to bind the 3'-UTR of StAR protein (StAR) mRNA and suppress StAR expression. Thus, downregulation of miR-3473g after MC-LR exposure led to StAR overexpression. Excessive StAR probably transported much more cholesterol into the inner membrane of the mitochondria and finally resulted in overproduction of progesterone. Our results revealed that MC-LR exposure was associated with premature luteinization of granulosa cells and may adversely affect women's fertility.

16.
J Exp Bot ; 71(4): 1585-1597, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740930

RESUMO

The dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 have been shown to play important roles in bud endodormancy; however, their molecular regulatory mechanism in peach is unclear. In this study, by use of yeast one-hybrid screening, we isolated a TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR transcription factor, PpTCP20, in the peach cultivar 'Zhongyou 4' (Prunus persica var. nectarina). The protein was localized in the nucleus and was capable of forming a homodimer. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that PpTCP20 binds to a GCCCR element in the promoters of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, and transient dual luciferase experiments showed that PpTCP20 inhibited the expression of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 as the period of the release of flower bud endodormancy approached. In addition, PpTCP20 interacted with PpABF2 to form heterodimers to regulate bud endodormancy, and the content of abscisic acid decreased with the release of endodormancy. PpTCP20 also inhibited expression of PpABF2 to regulate endodormancy. Taken together, our results suggest that PpTCP20 regulates peach flower bud endodormancy by negatively regulating the expression of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, and by interacting with PpABF2, thus revealing a novel regulatory mechanism in a perennial deciduous tree.

17.
Mycopathologia ; 185(1): 103-112, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538279

RESUMO

Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) is anthropophilic fungus and thus a very common cause of dermatophyte infections around the world. Infection of T. rubrum could result in conditions such as tinea capitis, tinea corporis, tinea inguinalis, tinea manus, tinea unguium, or tinea pedis. Because of this, the resistance of T. rubrum to antifungal therapies has drawn extensive research interest. However, the pathogenic characteristics of T. rubrum, such as site of infections, geographic location and host groups, have yet to be explored. In this study, the whole genome of 48 strains from different regions is resequenced and the population structure and association of single nucleotide polymorphism with resistance to six widely used antifungal drugs are analyzed. A total of 23,394 genomic variations are detected, which cover 2165 genes with only 15.14% of the variations located in exons. The population structure of T. rubrum is monomorphic, and genetic diversity is very low. Population structure analysis shows that the 48 sampled strains can be divided into two sub-populations. The gene TERG_08771 harboring the highest SNPs density is found to be associated with resistance to voriconazole. Although many proteins have yet to be identified and explored, association studies could still be useful to identify drug resistance or drug-susceptible loci, which would warrant further insightful investigations.

18.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(2): E99-E110, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365517

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: To understand the benefits and limitations of surgical management and adjuvant therapies for patients presenting with neurological deficits from vertebral hemangiomas (VH). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: VH is the most common benign spine tumor but rarely causes symptoms. Patients with back pain alone are treated with conservative management (kyphoplasty and radiation therapy), while those with neurological deficits require complex multi-modal treatment plans. METHODS: A PubMed literature search for "symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with spinal cord compression" identified 47 articles. From these articles and their references, 19 observational studies on patients who underwent surgery for VH met inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were performed comparing outcomes of the surgical and adjuvant therapies using Stata13 software. For those with insufficient data for meta-analyses, descriptive analyses of variables were completed. RESULTS: One hundred ninety seven surgical cases of VH with neurologic deficits were identified. Surgery provided a complete remission of symptoms in 84% of patients, however 18% of patients had recurrence of hemangioma. Adjuvant interventions included radiation, embolization, and kyphoplasty. Radiation therapy (XRT) was associated with a lower recurrence rate and an increase in minor transient adverse effects. Preoperative embolization performed in 98 patients was associated with improved symptoms, reduced complications, lower recurrence rate, less blood loss, and higher incidence of pathologic vertebral fractures. Meta-analyses did not yield statistically significant results, likely due to the heterogeneity amongst the studies and small sample sizes, but the results compiled together provide insight on potential benefits of preoperative embolization for symptomatic relief and reduced risk of recurrence with XRT that deserves further study. CONCLUSION: For patients with neurologic deficits from spinal cord or nerve root compression, surgery provides improvement in symptoms. Recurrence of VH and symptoms refractory to surgery can be further reduced by adjuvant therapies such as embolization, kyphoplasty, and radiation with some unique risks to each therapy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2.

19.
Analyst ; 145(3): 897-907, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820748

RESUMO

Raman spectroscopy has been employed for studying the hydrogen bonding states of water molecules for decades, however, Raman imaging data contain thousands of spectra, making it challenging to obtain information on water with different hydrogen bonds. In the current study, a novel method combining confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) imaging with the iterative curve fitting algorithms was developed to determine the distribution of water contents at the cellular level and water states with different hydrogen bonds in apple tissues. Raman imaging data ranging from 2700 to 3800 cm-1 were acquired from whole cells in the apple tissue, which were then decomposed into seven sub-peaks using the fixed-position Gaussian iterative curve fitting (FPGICF) algorithm. The content and hydrogen bonding states of cellular water were calculated as the area sum of the OH stretching vibration and the area ratio of DA-OH over DDAA-OH stretching vibration or the number of hydrogen bonds of each water molecule, respectively. Finally, the area of each sub-peak, the area sum of the OH stretching vibration, and the area ratio of DA-OH over DDAA-OH stretching vibration were used to visualize the distribution of each sub-peak, water contents and water states with different hydrogen bonds, respectively. In addition, it was found that the number of hydrogen bonds of each water molecule could also be considered as a criterion to describe the hydrogen bond states of water in apple tissues. The availability of such information should provide new insights for future study of cellular water in other food materials.

20.
Cell Signal ; 67: 109501, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837464

RESUMO

Inactivation of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1) via hypermethylation is an early and common event in prostate carcinogenesis. Functional inactivation of GSTP1 increases the susceptibility to oxidative stress and enhance progression risk of the prostatic carcinoma. In this study, we hypothesized that the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) could be a sequence-recognition and guidance molecule for induction of promoter methylation of GSTP1 facilitating prostate carcinogenesis. We found that piR-31470 was highly expressed in prostate cancer cells, and piR-31470 could bind to piwi-like RNA-mediated gene silencing 4 (PIWIL4) to form the PIWIL4/piR-31470 complex. This complex could bind to the nascent RNA transcripts of GSTP1, and recruit DNA methyltransferase 1, DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha and methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 to initiate and maintain the hypermethylation and inactivation of GSTP1. Our data demonstrated that the overexpression of piR-31470 inhibited the levels of GSTP1 and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress and DNA damage in human prostate epithelial RWPE1 cells. In conclusion, this study characterized the roles of the PIWIL4/piR-31470 complex in the regulation of the transcription of GSTP1 by methylating the CpG island of GSTP1. This discovery may provide a novel therapeutic strategy by targeting piRNAs for the epigenetic treatment of prostate cancer.

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