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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633809

RESUMO

Memory impairment is becoming a potential health issue with the delicacy of diet and social stress. Sea cucumber peptides (SCP) prevent memory impairment, as previously reported. In this study, further research was performed using hippocampal lysine-acetylome to explore molecular regulation mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were treated with scopolamine via intraperitoneal injection to simulate memory impairment. To determine the influence of SCP on the total acetylated-protein level of the hippocampus, acetylated-proteomics was performed. SCP increased the acetylation level of histone (H3 and H4). Meanwhile, for non-histones, the differentially acetylated proteins were involved in multiple memory-related pathways, as shown by KEGG enrichment analysis. Additionally, long-term potentiation was confirmed by western blotting. Finally, a combined analysis of proteome and lysine acetylome revealed that SCP contributed to synaptic vesicle cycle regulation and dopamine metabolism. Consequently, our findings revealed that SCP was potentially neuroprotective by regulating post-transcriptional hippocampal protein acetylation.

3.
Opt Express ; 29(19): 30337-30347, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614759

RESUMO

A Mach-Zehnder interferometer system based on weak measurement was set up to determinate the concentration variation of molecule by measuring the phase difference change between the two optical paths. The spectrum of the light was recorded to monitor the concentration of trastuzumab (Herceptin), which is a humanised monoclonal antibody, targeted to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The trastuzumab targeting to HER2 was real-time detected and continuously monitored, the HER2 numbers of COS7 cells on a coverslip was determined at pico-molar level. Our weak measurement enabled method proposes an alternative approach for the concentration detection of molecules, providing a promising functional tool for the quantification of HER2 in cancer cells, possibly promoting fields such as the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

4.
Plant Physiol ; 187(1): 361-377, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618136

RESUMO

Photoperiod strictly controls vegetative and reproductive growth stages in soybean (Glycine max). A soybean GmRAV (Related to ABI3/VP1) transcription factor containing both AP2 and B3 domains was shown to be a key component of this process. We identified six polymorphisms in the GmRAV promoter that showed significant association with flowering time and maturity of soybean in one or multiple environments. Soybean varieties with minor polymorphism exhibited a longer growth period contributing to soybean adaptation to lower latitudes. The cis-acting element GT1CONSENSUS motif of the GmRAV promoter controlled the growth period, and the major allele in this motif shortened duration of late reproductive stages by reducing GmRAV expression levels. Three GmRAV-overexpressing (GmRAV-ox) transgenic lines displayed later flowering time and maturity, shorter height and fewer numbers of leaves compared with control plants, whereas transgenic inhibition of GmRAV expression resulted in earlier flowering time and maturity and increased plant height. Combining DNA affinity purification sequencing and RNA sequencing analyses revealed 154 putative target genes directly bound and transcriptionally regulated by GmRAV. Two GmRAV binding motifs [C(A/G)AACAA(G/T)A(C/T)A(G/T)] and [C(T/A)A(C)C(T/G)CTG] were identified, and acting downstream of E3E4, GmRAV repressed GmFT5a transcriptional activity through binding a CAACA motif, thereby delaying soybean growth and extending both vegetative and reproductive phases.

5.
Adipocyte ; 10(1): 424-434, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506234

RESUMO

Increasing evidence shows that immune-related genes (IRGs) play an important role in bariatric surgery (BS). We identified differentially expressed immune-related genes (DEIRGs) of adipose tissue after BS by analysing the two expression profiles of GEO (GSE59034 and GSE29409). Subsequently, enrichment analysis, GSEA and PPI networks were examined to identify the hub IRGs and related pathways. The performance of the signature was evaluated by area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). CIBERSORT algorithm was used to evaluate the relative abundance of infiltrated immune cells.42 DEIRGs were found between the GSE59034 and GSE29409 datasets. The AUC of the signature was 0.904 and 0.865 in the GSE58979 and GSE48452, respectively. Interestingly, the signature also showed good performance in diagnosing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (AUC was 0.834 and 0.800, respectively). The number of neutrophils, macrophages M2, macrophages M0 and dendritic cells activated decreased significantly. After BS, the infiltration of T cells regulatory, monocytes, mast cells resting and plasma cells in adipose tissue increased. The novel proposed IRGs signature reveals the underlying immune mechanism of BS and is a promising biomarker for distinguishing the severity of NAFLD. This will provide new insights into strategies for treating obesity and NAFLD.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520340

RESUMO

The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of devastating gray mold diseases in many economically important fruits, vegetables, and flowers, leading to serious economic losses worldwide. In this study, a novel actinomycete NEAU-LD23T exhibiting antifungal activity against B. cinerea was isolated, and its taxonomic position was evaluated using a polyphasic approach. Based on the genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, it is concluded that the strain represents a novel species within the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces botrytidirepellens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-LD23T (=CCTCC AA 2019029T=DSM 109824T). In addition, strain NEAU-LD23T showed a strong antagonistic effect against B. cinerea (82.6±2.5%) and varying degrees of inhibition on nine other phytopathogenic fungi. Both cell-free filtrate and methanol extract of mycelia of strain NEAU-LD23T significantly inhibited mycelial growth of B. cinerea. To preliminarily explore the antifungal mechanisms, the genome of strain NEAU-LD23T was sequenced and analyzed. AntiSMASH analysis led to the identification of several gene clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of bioactive secondary metabolites with antifungal activity, including 9-methylstreptimidone, echosides, anisomycin, coelichelin and desferrioxamine B. Overall, this research provided us an excellent strain with considerable potential to use for biological control of tomato gray mold.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , Streptomyces , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Botrytis , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Streptomyces/genética
7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580681

RESUMO

Semiconductor photocatalysts, using sunlight to stimulate various photocatalytic reactions, are promising materials for solving the energy crisis and environmental problems. However, the low photocatalytic efficiency and high cost pose major challenges for their widespread application. Mimicking the natural photosynthesis system, we propose a direct Z-scheme photocatalyst based on a Janus van der Waals heterostructure (vdWH) comprising SnC and Janus SeSnS monolayers. From first-principles calculations, the intrinsic built-in electric field of Janus SeSnS and the charge transfer from the SnC to the SeSnS layer give rise to a type-II band alignment. Such a band alignment benefits the formation of spatially separated reductive and oxidative active sites and the reduction of the global bandgap of the Janus vdWH. The proposed material increases the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency to 60.8%. Besides, we also find that the light absorption coefficient is stacking configuration controllable and strain-tunable, e.g., the tensile strain promotes photocatalytic efficiency. Moreover, because Sn, S, and Se are environmentally benign and inexpensive elements, SnC/SeSnS vdWH is a promising noble-metal-free direct Z-scheme photocatalyst.

8.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(5)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549308

RESUMO

MicroRNA (miR)­125a­5p represses tafazzin phospholipid­lysophospholipid transacylases (TAFAZZIN) expression and inhibits the epithelial­mesenchymal transition (EMT) of ovarian cancer cells. EMT was found to have a crucial role in the acquisition of chemoresistance. Thus, the present study aimed to determine whether miR­125a­5p reverses EMT and restores drug sensitivity by negatively regulating TAFAZZIN in breast cancer. The expression of miR­125a­5p/TAFAZZIN and its association with chemotherapy response were determined in tissue samples from patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, the effects of miR­125a­5p on breast cancer cells were elucidated using cell proliferation and cell apoptosis assays. Then, the regulatory mechanism of miR­125a­5p in breast cancer was investigated by reverse transcription­quantitative PCR, western blotting, dual­luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation assays. The results demonstrated that miR­125a­5p inhibited the EMT of MCF­7/adriamycin (Adr) breast cancer cells, as well as decreased the proliferation and increased the apoptosis of breast cancer cells treated with Adr/docetaxel. In addition, miR­125a­5p downregulated the expression levels of TAFAZZIN, Transglutaminase 2, phosphorylated­AKT, N­cadherin, vimentin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and significantly increased those of E­cadherin, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax in MCF7/Adr cells. Similar results were obtained with small interfering RNA­TAFAZZIN. Moreover, TAFAZZIN was identified as a direct target of miR­125a­5p in MCF7/Adr breast cancer cells. In addition, increased miR­125a­5p expression was observed in breast tumors from patients exhibiting a chemotherapy response, and TAFAZZIN mRNA expression was elevated in patients with no chemotherapy response. Hence, miR­125a­5p expression was negatively correlated with TAFAZZIN mRNA expression in breast cancer tissues. All these data suggested that miR­125a­5p reverses EMT and restores drug sensitivity by negatively regulating TAFAZZIN in breast cancer and, therefore, has potential as a novel therapeutic target for this disease.

9.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387411

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of insulin degludec/liraglutide (IDegLira) versus insulin degludec (degludec) in Chinese people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with basal insulin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In DUAL II China, a randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, treat-to-target trial, Chinese adults with T2D and HbA1c of 7.5% or more on basal insulin and metformin, with or without other oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs), were randomized 2:1 to 26 weeks of treatment with either IDegLira (max. dose 50 U degludec/1.8 mg liraglutide) or degludec (max. 50 U/day), respectively, combined with metformin. At 26 weeks, superiority of IDegLira over degludec was assessed for change in HbA1c (primary endpoint), and body weight and number of severe or blood glucose (BG)-confirmed hypoglycaemic episodes (confirmatory secondary endpoints). RESULTS: Overall, 453 participants were randomized to IDegLira (n = 302) or degludec (n = 151). Superiority was confirmed for IDegLira over degludec in HbA1c change (-1.9% vs. -1.0%, respectively, estimated treatment difference [ETD] [95% confidence interval]: -0.92% [-1.09; -0.75], P < .0001), body weight change (-0.7 vs. +0.4 kg, respectively, ETD [95% CI]: -1.08 kg [-1.63; -0.52], P = .0002) and severe or BG-confirmed hypoglycaemia (estimated rate ratio [95% CI]: 0.53 [0.30; 0.94], P = .0297). The odds of achieving HbA1c less than 7.0% without hypoglycaemia and/or weight gain were greater with IDegLira than degludec (P < .0001 for all). Daily insulin dose at 26 weeks was lower for IDegLira (34.3 U) than degludec (37.4 U) (P = .0014). No unexpected safety signals were observed. CONCLUSIONS: IDegLira may be an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment intensification option for Chinese people with T2D uncontrolled on basal insulin and OADs.

10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 696370, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386006

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a novel zoonotic coronavirus. Emerging evidence indicates that preexisting humoral immunity against other seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) plays a critical role in the specific antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. However, current work to assess the effects of preexisting and cross-reactive anti-HCoVs antibodies has been limited. To address this issue, we have adapted our previously reported multiplex assay to simultaneously and quantitatively measure anti-HCoV antibodies. The full mPlex-CoV panel covers the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins of three highly pathogenic HCoVs (SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, MERS) and four human seasonal strains (OC43, HKU1, NL63, 229E). Combining this assay with volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS), we measured the anti-HCoV IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies in fingerstick blood samples. The results demonstrate that the mPlex-CoV assay has high specificity and sensitivity. It can detect strain-specific anti-HCoV antibodies down to 0.1 ng/ml with 4 log assay range and with low intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (%CV). We also estimate multiple strain HCoVs IgG, IgA and IgM concentration in VAMS samples in three categories of subjects: pre-COVID-19 (n=21), post-COVID-19 convalescents (n=19), and COVID-19 vaccine recipients (n=14). Using metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis, HCoVs IgG concentrations in fingerstick blood samples were well separated between the pre-COVID-19, post-COVID-19 convalescents, and COVID-19 vaccine recipients. In addition, we demonstrate how multi-dimensional scaling analysis can be used to visualize IgG mediated antibody immunity against multiple human coronaviruses. We conclude that the combination of VAMS and the mPlex-Cov assay is well suited to performing remote study sample collection under pandemic conditions to monitor HCoVs antibody responses in population studies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Coronavirus/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Imunoensaio/métodos , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano 229E/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano NL63/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano OC43/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444512

RESUMO

In order to assess the radioactive level in the terrestrial and marine organisms in Yangjiang and the adjacent areas, 90Sr, gross beta and gamma-emitting radionuclides (238U, 226Ra, 228Th, 226Ra, 40K, 137Cs, 51Cr, 55Fe, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co and 65Zn) were analyzed from 2011 to 2012. The annual effective doses were estimated in the high natural radioactive background areas in Yangjiang (HBRAYJ). The specific activities of 238U, 228Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs in all organisms were <0.05-5.20, 0.30-14.50, 0.11-3.58, 11.1-148.0 and <0.003-0.088 Bq/kg, whilst 51Cr, 55Fe, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co, 65Zn and 110mAg were below the minimum detectable activity. 90Sr and gross beta specific activities were 20.0-143.0 and 0.021-0.316 Bq/kg. Results show that 228Th was significantly higher than 238U and 226Ra of natural U series in organisms due to the rich-Th soils in the HBRAYJ; 228Th, 226Ra, 40K, 137Cs and 90Sr were greatly lower than the limited concentrations in Chinese foods. The internal dose mainly contributes to natural 40K, 226Ra and 228Th. It is useful to provide some basic data and assess the radiological risk from the HBRAYJ and Yangjiang nuclear power plants in future.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Organismos Aquáticos , China , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
12.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4983-4994, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369274

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Abnormal ovarian folliculogenesis is the main factor responsible for PCOS. Iron metabolism plays a vital role in endocrine disorder. This study aimed to investigate the potentials of iron metabolism in PCOS and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Mice were injected with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to establish the PCOS model in-vivo. H & E staining was performed for histological analysis; qRT-PCR and western blot were employed to determine the mRNA and protein expressions. Immunofluorescence was used for mitochondrial staining. Cellular functions were detected using CCK-8 and PI staining assays. Ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) activates the transferrin receptor (TFRC), increases the iron content, and suppresses the cell viability of the human granulosa-like tumor cell line (KGN). However, TFRC knockdown suppressed ferroptosis of KGN cells. Iron uptake mediated the activation of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) signaling, which induced the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial damage. Moreover, TFRC activated PTEN induced kinase 1 (PINK1) signaling and induced mitophagy; iron-uptake-induced upregulation of acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 4 (ACSL4) was required for mitophagy activation and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) degradation. Additionally, FAC increased iron uptake and suppressed the folliculogenesis in-vivo. In conclusion, TFRC increased the iron content, mediated the release of ROS, activated mitophagy, and induced lipid peroxidation, which further promoted the ferroptosis of KGN cells. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of TFRC/NOX1/PINK1/ACSL4 signaling on folliculogenesis can be a potential target for PCOS.[Figure: see text].

13.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153704, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019) has spread widely around the world and impacted human health for millions. The lack of effective targeted drugs and vaccines forces scientific world to search for new effective antiviral therapeutic drugs. It has reported that flavonoids have potential inhibitory activity on SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and anti-inflammatory properties. Dihydromyricetin, as a flavonol, also has antiviral and anti-inflammatory potential. However, the inhibition of dihydromyricetin on SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and the protective effect of dihydromyricetin on pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis have not been proved and explained. PURPOSE: The coronavirus main protease (Mpro) is essential for SARS-CoV-2 replication and to be recognized as an attractive drug target, we expect to find the inhibitor of Mpro. Novel coronavirus infection can cause severe inflammation and even sequelae of pulmonary fibrosis in critically ill patients. We hope to find a drug that can not only inhibit virus replication but also alleviate inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis in patients. METHODS: FRET-based enzymatic assay was used to evaluate the inhibit activity of dihydromyricetin on SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Molecular docking was used to identify the binding pose of dihydromyricetin with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The protective effects of dihydromyricetin against BLM-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis were investigated in C57BL6 mice. BALF and lung tissue were collected for inflammation cells count, ELISA, masson and HE staining, western blotting and immunohistochemistry to analyze the effects of dihydromyricetin on pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. MTT, western blotting, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and wound healing were used to analyze the effects of dihydromyricetin on lung fibrosis mechanisms in Mlg cells. RESULTS: In this study, we found that dihydromyricetin is a potent inhibitor targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with a half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.716 ± 0.419 µM, using molecular docking and the FRET-based enzymatic assay. The binding pose of dihydromyricetin with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro was identified using molecular docking method. In the binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, the dihydrochromone ring of dihydromyricetin interact with the imidazole side chain of His163 through π-π stacking. The 1-oxygen of dihydromyricetin forms a hydrogen bond with the backbone nitrogen of Glu166. The 3-, 7-, 3'- and 4'-hydroxyl of dihydromyricetin interact with Gln189, Leu141, Arg188 and Thr190 through hydrogen bonds. Moreover, our results showed that dihydromyricetin can significantly alleviate BLM-induced pulmonary inflammation by inhibiting the infiltration of inflammation cells and the secretion of inflammation factors in the early process and also ameliorate pulmonary fibrosis by improving pulmonary function and down-regulate the expression of α-SMA and fibronectin in vivo. Our results also showed that dihydromyricetin inhibits the migration and activation of myofibroblasts and extracellular matrix production via transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1/Smad signaling pathways. CONCLUSION: Dihydromyricetin is an effective inhibitor for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and it prevents BLM-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice. Dihydromyricetin will be a potential medicine for the treatment of COVID-19 and its sequelae.


Assuntos
Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Flavonóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases , SARS-CoV-2 , Replicação Viral , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19 , Fibrose , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Nat Immunol ; 22(9): 1127-1139, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413521

RESUMO

Follicular helper T (TFH) cells are a specialized subset of CD4+ T cells that essentially support germinal center responses where high-affinity and long-lived humoral immunity is generated. The regulation of TFH cell survival remains unclear. Here we report that TFH cells show intensified lipid peroxidation and altered mitochondrial morphology, resembling the features of ferroptosis, a form of programmed cell death that is driven by iron-dependent accumulation of lipid peroxidation. Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) is the major lipid peroxidation scavenger and is necessary for TFH cell survival. The deletion of GPX4 in T cells selectively abrogated TFH cells and germinal center responses in immunized mice. Selenium supplementation enhanced GPX4 expression in T cells, increased TFH cell numbers and promoted antibody responses in immunized mice and young adults after influenza vaccination. Our findings reveal the central role of the selenium-GPX4-ferroptosis axis in regulating TFH homeostasis, which can be targeted to enhance TFH cell function in infection and following vaccination.


Assuntos
Ferroptose/fisiologia , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Centro Germinativo/citologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Ovalbumina , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares/imunologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Antibiot (Tokyo) ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408288

RESUMO

Berberine hydrochloride (BH), an active component of Coptis chinensis and other plant taxa, has broad antimicrobial activity and may be useful for the treatment of Candida infections. In this study, the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of BH against Candida albicans were evaluated, with a focus on the high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase (HOG-MAPK) pathway, which regulates multiple physiological functions. BH (256 and 64 µg ml-1) significantly increased intracellular glycerol and ROS levels in C. albicans, inhibited germ tube and hyphal formation, and increased chitin and ß-1,3-glucan exposure on the cell wall. The inhibitory effect of BH was positively correlated with its concentration, and the inhibitory effect of 256 µg ml-1 BH was greater than that of 4 µg ml-1 fluconazole (FLC). Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis showed that 256 and 64 µg ml-1 BH altered the HOG-MAPK pathway in C. albicans. In particular, the upregulation of the core genes, SLN1, SSK2, HOG1, and PBS2 may affect the expression of key downstream factors related to glycerol synthesis and osmotic pressure (GPD1), ROS accumulation (ATP11 and SOD2), germ tube and hyphal formation (HWP1), and cell wall integrity (CHS3 and GSC1). BH affects multiple biological processes in C. albicans; thus, it can be an effective alternative to conventional azole antifungal agents.

16.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 313, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blepharochalasis is a rare eyelid disorder but eventually leading to destructive eyelid deformation. Until now the clinical and epidemiological data are unavailable. This study aimed to report the manifestations, epidemiological characteristics and surgical strategy of a large series of blepharochalasis patients with long-term follow-up. The prognosis of different clinical deformities was also investigated. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study, including consecutive patients diagnosed with blepharochalasis in a single center. Blepharoplasty and other surgical approaches were performed according to manifestations, after a 2-year quiescent period with no recurrent attacks and exacerbation of lesions. Prognosis after surgery was recorded. RESULTS: A total of 93 patients, with a mean age of 30.77 ± 14.04 (range: 9.00-70.00) years were included. Of all those 93 patients, 72.04% were females (67, P = 0.02). The mean follow-up was 5.29 ± 2.07 (range: 3-10) years before surgery, and 2.07 (range:1.54-4.22)years follow-up after surgery. The mean age of onset of blepharochalasis symptoms was 10.09 ± 3.32 (range: 5-16) years, and 83.87% patients got symptoms in puberty. With an average of 5 times per year, the mean duration of each acute attack was 28.12 ± 1.01 (rang: 2-192) hours. The mean duration from the onset of acute attack to the quiescent stage lasted for 7.33 ± 2.05 (range: 4-10) years. Most of the cases (88, 94.62%) had more than one manifestation at the end of the last follow-up before surgery. Ptosis (48.39%) was the most common deformity. Followed by lacrimal gland prolapse (44.09%), canthal angle deformity (29.04%), lower eyelid retraction (17.20%). After surgery, the functional and cosmetically acceptable results were achieved in all patients except for overcorrection in 5 (11.90%) patients with ptosis. The lacrimal gland prolapse recurred in two (4.00%) patients at 29 and 36 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Blepharochalasis is rare but mostly occurred in adolescent females. The process from the onset to the stable stage usually lasted for about 7 years, which might be associated with the onset of puberty. Surgical management of clinical manifestations after at least 2-year follow-up period of quiescence would be appropriate in order to observe a great plastic effect, low overcorrection and recurrence rate.


Assuntos
Blefaroplastia , Blefaroptose , Doenças Palpebrais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Blefaroptose/epidemiologia , Blefaroptose/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Palpebrais/diagnóstico , Doenças Palpebrais/epidemiologia , Doenças Palpebrais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(9): e2100308, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259387

RESUMO

Engelhardia roxburghiana Wall. is a traditional Chinese medicine used for treating cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has implicated potential effects of total flavonoids of Engelhardia roxburghiana Wall. (TFER) against hyperlipidemia. The aim of the study is to uncover the effects and underlying mechanisms of TFER on foam cells formation after atherosclerosis. We used high fat diet (HFD) induced Apoe-/- mice and oxidized density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced THP-1 cells to mimic process of atherosclerosis in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Lipid accumulation, inflammation response, autophagosomes formation and expressions of autophagy related target genes were assessed. Our present study demonstrated TFER (500 mg/kg) alleviated macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation in thoracic aortas of HFD-treated mice. In ox-LDL-treated THP-1 cells, MDC staining and Western blot analysis all indicated that the TFER (200 µg/ml) reduced foam cells formation and IL-1ß releasing, activated autophagy through suppressing AKT/mTOR signaling, significantly regulating expressions of AKT, p-AKT, mTOR, p-mTOR, Beclin 1, LC3-II, p62. It is suggested that TFER alleviated atherosclerosis progression in vivo and in vitro through reducing foam cells formation and inflammatory responses, and the possible mechanism may be due to the activation of macrophage autophagy by inhibiting AKT and mTOR phosphorylation.

18.
Toxicology ; 459: 152860, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280466

RESUMO

Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is considered as a potential modifier of puberty. However, different results indicate that DBP plays an accelerated, delayed, or neutral role in the initiation of puberty. Furthermore, whether the effect of DBP on puberty will disrupt the function of reproductive system in the adults is still ambiguous. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of maternal exposure to DBP on the onset of puberty in male offspring mice and the subsequent changes in the development of reproductive system. Here, pregnant mice were treated with 0 (control), 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg/day DBP in 1 mL/kg corn oil administered daily by oral gavage from gestation day (GD) 12.5 to parturition. Compared with the control group, the 50 mg/kg/day DBP group accelerated puberty onset and testicular development were quite remarkable in male offspring mice during early puberty. Furthermore, in 22-day male offspring mice, 50 mg/kg/day DBP induced increased levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone in serum, and promoted the expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in the testes. Testicular Leydig cells (LCs) were isolated from the testes of 3-week-old mice and treated with 0 (control), 0.1, 1 mM monobutyl phthalate (MBP, the active metabolite of DBP) for 24 h. Consistent with the in vivo results, the expression of steroidogenesis-related genes and testosterone production were increased in LCs following exposure to 0.1 mM MBP. In adulthood, testes of the male offspring mice exposed to all doses of DBP exhibited adverse morphology compared with the control group. These results demonstrated that maternal exposure to 50 mg/kg/day DBP induced earlier puberty and precocious development of the testis, and eventually damaged the reproductive system in the later life.


Assuntos
Dibutilftalato/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Barreira Hematotesticular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/análise , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ácidos Ftálicos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/biossíntese
19.
mBio ; 12(4): e0044921, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225490

RESUMO

Prime-boost vaccinations of humans with different H5 strains have generated broadly protective antibody levels. However, the effect of an individual's H5 exposure history on antibody responses to subsequent H5 vaccination is poorly understood. To investigate this, we analyzed the IgG responses to H5 influenza A/Indonesia/5/2005 (Ind05) virus vaccination in three cohorts: (i) a doubly primed group that had received two H5 virus vaccinations, namely, against influenza A/Vietnam/203/2004 (Vie04) virus 5 years prior and A/Hong Kong/156/1997 (HK97) 11 years prior to the Ind05 vaccination; (ii) a singly primed group that had received a vaccination against Vie04 virus 5 years prior to the Ind05 vaccination; and (iii) an H5-naive group that received two doses of the Ind05 vaccine 28 days apart. Hemagglutinin (HA)-reactive IgG levels were estimated by a multiplex assay against an HA panel that included 21 H5 strains and 9 other strains representing the H1, H3, H7, and H9 subtypes. Relative HA antibody landscapes were generated to quantitatively analyze the magnitude and breadth of antibody binding after vaccination. We found that short-interval priming and boosting with the Ind05 vaccine in the naive group generated a low anti-H5 response. Both primed groups generated robust antibody responses reactive to a broad range of H5 strains after receiving a booster injection of Ind05 vaccine; IgG antibody levels persisted longer in subjects who had been doubly primed years ago. Notably, the IgG responses were strongest against the first priming H5 strain, which reflects influenza virus immune imprinting. Finally, the broad anti-H5 IgG response was stronger against strains having a small antigenic distance from the initial priming strain. IMPORTANCE The antigenic shift and draft of hemagglutinin (HA) in influenza viruses is accepted as one of the major reasons for immune evasion. The analysis of B cell immune responses to influenza infection and vaccination is complicated by the impact of exposure history and antibody cross-reactions between antigenically similar influenza strains. To assist in such analyses, the influenza "antibody landscape" method has been used to analyze and visualize the relationship of antibody-mediated immunity to antigenic distances between influenza strains. In this study, we describe a "relative antibody landscape" method that calculates the antigenic distance between the vaccine influenza strain and other H5 strains and uses this relative antigenic distance to plot the anti-H5 IgG levels postvaccination. This new method quantitatively estimates and visualizes the correlation between the humoral response to a particular influenza strain and the antigenic distance from other strains. Our findings demonstrate the effect of a subject's H5 exposure history on H5 vaccine responses quantified by the relative antibody landscape method.

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