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1.
Redox Biol ; 60: 102610, 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652744

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Rd is an active ingredient in Panax ginseng CA Mey and can be absorbed into the adipose tissue. Adipokines play an important role in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the potential benefit of Rd on heart failure (HF) and the underlying mechanism associated with the crosstalk between adipocytes and cardiomyocytes remains to be illustrated. Here, the results identified that Rd improved cardiac function and inhibited cardiac pathological changes in transverse aortic constriction (TAC), coronary ligation (CAL) and isoproterenol (ISO)-induced HF mice. And Rd promoted the release of omentin from the adipose tissue and up-regulated omentin expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Further, Rd could increase TBK1 and AMPK phosphorylation in adipocytes. And also, the TBK1-AMPK signaling pathway regulated the expression of omentin in LPS-induced adipocytes. Moreover, the omentin mRNA expression was significantly decreased by TBK1 knockdown in LPS-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Additionally, molecular docking and SPR analysis confirmed that Rd had a certain binding ability with TBK1, and co-treatment with TBK1 inhibitors or TBK1 knockdown partially abolished the effect of Rd on increasing the omentin expression and the ratio of p-AMPK to AMPK in adipocytes. Moreover, we found that circulating omentin level diminished in the HF patients compared with healthy subjects. Meanwhile, the adipose tissue-specific overexpression of omentin improved cardiac function, reduced myocardial infarct size and ameliorated cardiac pathological features in CAL-induced HF mice. Consistently, exogenous omentin reduced mtROS levels and restored ΔψM to improve oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cardiomyocytes injury. Further, omentin inhibited the WNT5A/Ca2+ signaling pathway and promoted mitochondrial biogenesis function to ameliorate myocardial ischemia injury. However, WNT5A knockdown inhibited the impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis and partially counteracted the cardioprotective effect of omentin in vitro. Therefore, this study indicated that Rd promoted omentin secretion from adipocytes through the TBK1-AMPK pathway to improve mitochondrial biogenesis function via WNT5A/Ca2+ signaling pathway to ameliorate myocardial ischemia injury, which provided a new therapeutic mechanism and potential drugs for the treatment of HF.

2.
Pharmacol Res ; 188: 106646, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621619

RESUMO

The efficacy of treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has remained limited. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC) is a synthetic double-stranded RNA that serves as a viral mimic and induces an immune response. Intratumoral (IT) poly-ICLC injections can induce an autovaccination effect and prime the immune system, whereas intramuscular (IM) injection of poly-ICLC can attract and maintain tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in tumors. We found that IT injection of poly-ICLC upregulated the expression of CD83 and CD86 on conventional type 1 dendritic cells in tumors. Combination therapy with IT followed by IM injections of poly-ICLC significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased the tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells in two syngeneic mouse models of HCC. Depletion of CD8+ T cells attenuated the antitumor effect. An IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot of purified tumoral CD8+ T cells revealed a significant proportion of tumor-specific T cells. Finally, the sequential poly-ICLC therapy induced abscopal effects in two dual-tumor models. This study provides evidence that the sequential poly-ICLC therapy significantly increased infiltration of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells in the tumors and induced CD8+ T cell-dependent inhibition of tumor growth, as well as abscopal effects.

3.
BMJ ; 380: e072691, 2023 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36696990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify an optimal lifestyle profile to protect against memory loss in older individuals. DESIGN: Population based, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Participants from areas representative of the north, south, and west of China. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 60 years or older who had normal cognition and underwent apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping at baseline in 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were followed up until death, discontinuation, or 26 December 2019. Six healthy lifestyle factors were assessed: a healthy diet (adherence to the recommended intake of at least 7 of 12 eligible food items), regular physical exercise (≥150 min of moderate intensity or ≥75 min of vigorous intensity, per week), active social contact (≥twice per week), active cognitive activity (≥twice per week), never or previously smoked, and never drinking alcohol. Participants were categorised into the favourable group if they had four to six healthy lifestyle factors, into the average group for two to three factors, and into the unfavourable group for zero to one factor. Memory function was assessed using the World Health Organization/University of California-Los Angeles Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and global cognition was assessed via the Mini-Mental State Examination. Linear mixed models were used to explore the impact of lifestyle factors on memory in the study sample. RESULTS: 29 072 participants were included (mean age of 72.23 years; 48.54% (n=14 113) were women; and 20.43% (n=5939) were APOE ε4 carriers). Over the 10 year follow-up period (2009-19), participants in the favourable group had slower memory decline than those in the unfavourable group (by 0.028 points/year, 95% confidence interval 0.023 to 0.032, P<0.001). APOE ε4 carriers with favourable (0.027, 95% confidence interval 0.023 to 0.031) and average (0.014, 0.010 to 0.019) lifestyles exhibited a slower memory decline than those with unfavourable lifestyles. Among people who were not carriers of APOE ε4, similar results were observed among participants in the favourable (0.029 points/year, 95% confidence interval 0.019 to 0.039) and average (0.019, 0.011 to 0.027) groups compared with those in the unfavourable group. APOE ε4 status and lifestyle profiles did not show a significant interaction effect on memory decline (P=0.52). CONCLUSION: A healthy lifestyle is associated with slower memory decline, even in the presence of the APOE ε4 allele. This study might offer important information to protect older adults against memory decline. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03653156.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína E4 , Transtornos Cognitivos , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Testes Neuropsicológicos
4.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677670

RESUMO

Cocrystallization is currently an attractive technique for tailoring the physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Flavonoids are a large class of natural products with a wide range of beneficial properties, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antioxidant properties, which makes them extensively studied. In order to improve the properties of flavonoids, such as solubility and bioavailability, the formation of cocrystals may be a feasible strategy. This review discusses in detail the possible hydrogen bond sites in the structure of APIs and the hydrogen bonding networks in the cocrystal structures, which will be beneficial for the targeted synthesis of flavonoid cocrystals. In addition, some successful studies that favorably alter the physicochemical properties of APIs through cocrystallization with coformers are also highlighted here. In addition to improving the solubility and bioavailability of flavonoids in most cases, flavonoid cocrystals may also alter their other properties, such as anti-inflammatory activity and photoluminescence properties.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica , Flavonoides , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cristalização , Disponibilidade Biológica , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Solubilidade
5.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 42, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nursing experts regularly visited the community to deliver safety education on the prevention of unintentional injuries in children to the parents of children aged 0-6 years and to pregnant women in a maternity school. This was undertaken to explore the effects of the measure on preventing unintentional injuries in children in Chizhou, China. METHODS: Using the convenience sampling method, the guardians(it means mother in this study)of children were investigated. The nursing experts visited communities in which the number of nursing experts is declining. Data on unintentional injuries in children in the previous year were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: After the nursing experts delivered safety education to the community, the scores of the questionnaire on unintentional injury prevention knowledge completed by children's guardians increased significantly (p < 0.01). Among the children whose guardians completed the questionnaire, there were 157 cases of unintentional injury in 2020 and 103 cases in 2021 (p < 0.05). The types of unintentional injuries included scratches, falls, sharp object injuries, swallowing of foreign bodies, burns and traffic accidents; there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05). However, there were significant differences in terms of gender ratio and location (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In conjunction with the maternity school for pregnant women and the vaccination programme, nursing experts delivered safety education regarding unintentional injuries in children; this may have promoted safety and protection awareness in the children's guardians and reduced unintentional injuries.


Assuntos
Lesões Acidentais , Queimaduras , Ferimentos e Lesões , Gravidez , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidentes de Trânsito , Participação da Comunidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 637: 193-206, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36701865

RESUMO

Nucleus targeting is tremendously important in cancer therapy. Cationic carbon dots (CCDs) are potential nanoparticles which might enter cells and penetrate nuclear membranes. Although some CCDs have been investigated in nucleus targeting and applied in nuclear imaging, the CCDs derived from drugs, that are able to target the nucleus, bind with DNA and inhibit the growth of cancer cells have not been reported. In this project, 1, 2, 4, 5-benzenetetramine (Y15, a focal adhesion kinase inhibitor) derived cationic carbon dots (Y15-CDs) were prepared via a hydrothermal approach utilizing Y15, folic acid and 1,2-ethylenediamine as precursors. Based on the structural, optical, and morphologic characterizations, Y15-CDs possess rich amine groups and nitrogen in structure, an excitation-dependent photoluminescence emission, and a small particle size of 2 to 4 nm. The DNA binding experiments conducted through agarose gel electrophoresis, UV-vis absorption, fluorescence emission, and circular dichroism spectroscopies, prove that Y15-CDs might bind with DNA via electrostatic interactions and partially intercalative binding modes. In addition, the cell imaging and cytotoxicity studies in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF), prostate cancer (PC3) and osteosarcoma cells (U2OS) indicate the nucleus targeting and anticancer abilities of Y15-CDs. Most interestingly, Y15-CDs exhibit a higher cytotoxicity to cancer cells (PC3 and U2OS) than to normal cells (HFF), inferring that Y15-CDs might be potentially applied in cancer therapy.

7.
Equine Vet J ; 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are used as an indicator of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), but other factors that may influence ACTH need to be understood, if diagnostic reference ranges for ACTH are to be used with confidence. Insulin dysregulation (ID) could be one such factor, as insulin affects pituitary hormones in other species. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that a relationship exists between high insulin and high ACTH in aged (>15-year-old) animals with no clinical signs of PPID. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study. METHODS: Thirteen horses and eleven ponies (17-25 years-old; mares and geldings) were clinically examined for signs of PPID in the spring (November 2020) and autumn (April 2021). On the same day, blood samples were taken before and 2 h after an oral glucose test (OGT). Concentrations of insulin, glucose, ACTH and cortisol were measured. RESULTS: There was no association between ACTH and cortisol. However, there was a positive linear correlation between ACTH and post-OGT (insulin in the autumn (r = 0.427, p = 0.04). Two horses and six ponies had ACTH above the cut-off value for PPID diagnosis, and of these eight animals, six also had insulin concentrations above the cut-off value for ID. MAIN LIMITATIONS: The cohort was small and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation tests were not performed. CONCLUSIONS: In autumn, high ACTH was associated with ID, when no clinical signs of PPID were present. Because ACTH is used in PPID diagnosis, further work is required to understand this interaction.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 15(3): 4835-4844, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642925

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) woven Ag nanowire (AgNW) grids have great potential for enhancing the mechanical stabilities, conductivity, and transmittance of flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs). However, it is a great challenge to control the formation of 3D woven AgNW grids on various substrates, especially the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrate. This work presents a microtransfer-printing method for preparing a high-wettability poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrate to control the formation of 3D woven AgNW grids. The as-prepared PDMS substrate shows a high wettability performance. The surface structures of the PDMS substrate can control the sharp shrinkage of the ink membrane to give rise to a uniform liquid membrane evaporation behavior, which is the key factor for preparing a uniform 3D woven nanowire network. A thin uniform 3D woven AgNW network with a low sheet resistance of 24.3 Ω/□ and high transmittance of 92% was coated on the PDMS substrate. The networks directly coated the surface of the replicated PDMS, which simplified the peeling process and protected the networks from peeling strain and mechanical deformations. Moreover, the increment of resistance retained a small value (∼5%) when bending cycles reached 9,000. An alternating current electroluminescent (ACEL) device was prepared, and the uniform electroluminescence implies that a defect-free electrode has been fabricated. These results indicate that the as-prepared FTEs have excellent mechanical performance and great potential for flexible optoelectronic applications.

9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 20, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596779

RESUMO

An ongoing randomized, double-blind, controlled phase 2 trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a mosaic-type recombinant vaccine candidate, named NVSI-06-09, as a booster dose in subjects aged 18 years and older from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), who had administered two or three doses of inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV at least 6 months prior to enrollment. The participants were randomly assigned with 1:1 to receive a booster dose of NVSI-06-09 or BBIBP-CorV. The primary outcomes were immunogenicity and safety against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant, and the exploratory outcome was cross-immunogenicity against other circulating strains. Between May 25 and 30, 2022, 516 adults received booster vaccination with 260 in NVSI-06-09 group and 256 in BBIBP-CorV group. Interim results showed a similar safety profile between two booster groups, with low incidence of adverse reactions of grade 1 or 2. For immunogenicity, by day 14 post-booster, the fold rises in neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) from baseline elicited by NVSI-06-09 were remarkably higher than those by BBIBP-CorV against the prototype strain (19.67 vs 4.47-fold), Omicron BA.1.1 (42.35 vs 3.78-fold), BA.2 (25.09 vs 2.91-fold), BA.4 (22.42 vs 2.69-fold), and BA.5 variants (27.06 vs 4.73-fold). Similarly, the neutralizing GMTs boosted by NVSI-06-09 against Beta and Delta variants were also 6.60-fold and 7.17-fold higher than those by BBIBP-CorV. Our findings indicated that a booster dose of NVSI-06-09 was well-tolerated and elicited broad-spectrum neutralizing responses against divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron and its sub-lineages.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Adulto , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle
11.
Cell Biol Int ; 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640422

RESUMO

Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α could be stabilized by Grx1 deletion, which is implicated critical in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Until now, the stabilization of HIF-1α by glutathionylation to regulate the pulmonary microcirculation in BPD is not well addressed. In this study, we investigated whether the HIF-1α stabilization modulated by Grx1 ablation could ameliorate the pathological changes in the mouse model of BPD, including angiogenesis and alveolar formation. We found that depletion of Grx1 increased levels of GSH-protein adducts, which was associated with the improvement in the numbers of alveoli, the capillary density in the pulmonary microcirculation and the survival rate in the littermates with hyperoxic exposure. Grx1 ablation could promote HIF-1α glutathionylation by increasing GSH adducts to stabilize HIF-1α and to induce VEGF-A production in the lung tissue. The above phenotype of capillary density and VEGF-A production was removed by the pharmacological administration of YC-1, the HIF-1α inhibitor, suggesting the HIF-1α dependent manner for pulmonary microcirculatory perfusion. These data indicate that HIF-1α stabilization plays an critical role in modification pulmonary microcirculatory perfusion, which is associated with the pathological damage under hyperoxic conditions, suggesting that targeting with HIF-1α stabilization should be a potential clinical and therapeutic strategy for BPD treatment.

12.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 34(1): 5-14, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656090

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Black sexual minority men (BSMM), including those with HIV, have disproportionate rates of syphilis infection. This study examines the associations of social network characteristics on syphilis testing, given that social network approaches are well established as effective methods to establish health-promoting social norms. We analyzed baseline data from a sexual health behavioral intervention. Using multivariable logistic regression, we modeled individual and social network characteristics on syphilis testing. Of the 256 participants, 37% tested for syphilis in the past year. In the adjusted model controlling for individual factors, odds of syphilis testing increased 89% for each increase in network member participants being encouraged to get a syphilis test (95% confidence interval [1.19-3.00]). Feeling comfortable accompanying a friend for HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing was associated with 2.47 increased odds of syphilis testing. Encouraging and training individuals to discuss sexual health topics with their network members may lead to the establishment of testing in social networks of Black sexual minority men.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Sífilis , Masculino , Humanos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Comportamento Sexual , Homossexualidade Masculina , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Baltimore , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Rede Social , Prevalência , Rede Social
13.
Pharmaceutics ; 15(1)2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678844

RESUMO

The blocking of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in tumor cells represents a powerful strategy in cancer immunotherapy. Using viral vectors to deliver the cargo for inactivating the PD-L1 gene could be associated with host cell genotoxicity and concomitant immune attack. To develop an alternative safe gene delivery method, we designed a unique combination for miRNA34a delivery using a transgene carrier in the form of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IONPs) via magnetofection to downregulate PD-L1 expression in cancer cells. We synthesized IONPs of multiple shapes (IONRs (iron oxide nanorods), IONSs (iron oxide nanospheres), and ITOHs (iron oxide truncated octahedrons)), surface-functionalized with polyethyleneimine (PEI) using the ligand exchange method, as gene delivery systems. Under the guidance of an external magnetic field, PEI@IONPs loaded with plasmid DNA (DNA/PEI@IONPs) encoding GFP showed high transfection efficiency at different weight ratios and time points in A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, the DNA/PEI@IONPs with miRNA34a inserts under a static magnetic field resulted in significant knockdown of the PD-L1 gene, as demonstrated via immunoblotting of the PD-L1 protein. Among the three shapes of IONPs, IONRs showed the highest PD-L1 knockdown efficiency. The genetic expression of miRNA34a was also studied using qPCR and it showed high expression of miRNA in cells treated with PEI@IONRs. Flow cytometry and a live/dead assay confirmed apoptosis after transfection with miRNA34a. To conclude, in this paper, a promising transgene carrier with low cost, negligible cytotoxicity, and high transfection efficiency has been successfully established for miRNA gene delivery in the context of cancer immunotherapy.

14.
Plants (Basel) ; 12(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679080

RESUMO

The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) monooxygenase superfamily, which is involved in the biosynthesis pathways of many primary and secondary metabolites, plays prominent roles in plant growth and development. However, systemic information about CYP450s in Brassica napus (BnCYP450) was previously undiscovered and their biological significance are far from understood. Members of clan 86 CYP450s, such as CYP704Bs, are essential for the formation of pollen exine in plant male reproduction, and the targeted mutagenesis of CYP704B genes has been used to create new male sterile lines in many crops. In the present study, a total of 687 BnCYP450 genes were identified in Brassica napus cultivar "Zhongshuang 11" (ZS11), which has nearly 2.8-fold as many CYP450 members as in Arabidopsis thaliana. It is rationally estimated since Brassica napus is a tetraploid oil plant with a larger genome compared with Arabidopsis thaliana. The BnCYP450 genes were divided into 47 subfamilies and clustered into nine clans. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that CYP86 clan consists of four subfamilies and 109 BnCYP450s. Members of CYP86 clan genes display specific expression profiles in different tissues and in response to ABA and abiotic stresses. Two BnCYP450s within the CYP704 subfamily from CYP86 clan, BnCYP704B1a and BnCYP704B1b, display high similarity to MS26 (Male Sterility 26, also known as CYP704B1). These two BnCYP704B1 genes were specifically expressed in young buds. We then simultaneously knocked-out these two BnCYP704B1 genes through a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) genome engineering system. The edited plants displayed a pollenless, sterile phenotype in mature anthers, suggesting that we successfully reproduced genic male sterility (GMS, also known as nuclear male sterility) lines in Brassica napus. This study provides a systemic view of BnCYP450s and offers a strategy to facilitate the commercial utility of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for the rapid generation of GMS in rapeseed via knocking-out GMS controlling genes.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639348

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies in men; recently, PCa-related mortality has increased worldwide. Although androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard treatment for PCa, patients often develop aggressive castration-resistant PCa (CRPC), indicating the presence of an alternative source of androgen. Clostridium scindens is a member of the gut microbiota and can convert cortisol to 11ß-hydroxyandrostenedione (11ß-OHA), which is a potent androgen precursor. However, the effect of C. scindens on PCa progression has not been determined. In this study, androgen-dependent PCa cells (LNCaP) were employed to investigate whether C. scindens-derived metabolites activate androgen receptor (AR), which is a pivotal step in the development of PCa. Results showed that cortisol metabolites derived from C. scindens-conditioned medium promoted proliferation and enhanced migration of PCa cells. Furthermore, cells treated with these metabolites presented activated AR and stimulated AR-regulated genes. These findings reveal that C. scindens has the potential to promote PCa progression via the activation of AR signaling. Further studies on the gut-prostate axis may help unravel an alternative source of androgen that triggers CRPC exacerbation.

16.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although increasing evidence indicates that cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may be beneficial in the treatment of dysphagia, its clinical efficacy is still uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of high-frequency cerebellar rTMS on poststroke dysphagia. METHODS: This was a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind trial. A total of eighty-four study participants were randomly assigned into the cerebellum and control groups. The cerebellum group received bilateral 10 Hz rTMS treatment of the pharyngeal motor area of the cerebellum. The control group was administered with sham rTMS of the pharyngeal motor area of the cerebellum. All patients underwent the same conventional swallowing rehabilitation training after the intervention 5 days a week for a total of 10 days. Assessment of swallowing function was done before treatment (baseline), after treatment (2 weeks), and during follow-up (2 weeks after treatment) using the Fiberoptic Endoscopic Dysphagia Severity Scale (FEDSS) and the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). RESULTS: The interaction between time and intervention had a significant effect on PAS (P <  0.001) and FEDSS (P <  0.001). Compared to the control group, the cerebellum group exhibited significantly improved clinical swallowing function scores (PAS: P = 0.007, FEDSS: P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Bilateral cerebellar rTMS is a potential new neurorehabilitation technique for post-stroke dysphagia. Studies should aim at investigating the therapeutic mechanism of cerebellar rTMS and improve this technique.

18.
Int J Med Sci ; 20(1): 70-78, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36619233

RESUMO

Background: Chest compressions are the basis of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and high-quality chest compressions can improve survival rate in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Although many efforts have been made to improve the quality of CPR in inexperienced adults, the results are still not high, especially during emergencies. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate whether a brief instructional chest compression-only CPR video could improve chest compression quality in inexperienced adults. Methods: One hundred adults with no CPR experience (age: 20.28 ± 2.28 years; women: 50, men: 50) participated in this study. Participants completed body composition and handgrip strength measurements, and performed two CPR quality tests on the Laerdal® Little Anne QCPR Manikin, namely without video-CPR (WV-CPR) and video-CPR (V-CPR). The WV-CPR quality test was performed first. After 2 minutes of continuous chest compression, the participants rested for 10 seconds and repeated 3 cycles (phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3). After resting for more than 72 hours, V-CPR quality test was conducted. During the V-CPR with video intervention, the participants also continued to compress the chest for 2 minutes, and then rested for 10 seconds, repeating 3 cycles. Results: In phase 1, compared with WV-CPR, the V-CPR has a significant increase (p < 0.001) in chest compression fraction (CCF) (56.31 ± 33.22% vs. 41.82 ± 32.30%) and percent of correct compression rate (PCCR) (96.17 ± 8.45% vs. 26.31 ± 37.55%). In addition, the V-CPR has significantly lower (p < 0.001) chest compression rate (CCR) (110.85 ± 2.40 cpm vs. 128.86 ± 24.52 cpm) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (11.89 ± 2.25 vs. 12.87 ± 2.25). For phases 2 through 3, V-CPR and WV-CPR achieved significant differences in CCF, CCD, CCR, PCCR, and RPE (p < 0.01). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in CCF, CCD, chest compression rebound rate, and RPE among the different administration stages of both WV-CPR and V-CPR. Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that a brief instructional chest compression-only CPR video could improve chest compression quality for inexperienced adults by reducing fatigue and CCR, and increasing CCF and PCCR.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Fadiga , Força da Mão , Tórax , Manequins
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 447: 130816, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680896

RESUMO

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate esters (DEHP) has attracted widespread attention due to its ecotoxicological effects on organisms. In this study, wheat seedlings were exposed to DEHP- contaminated soil with 4 concentration gradients (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg kg-1, respectively) for 30 days. The growth index, physiological index, oxidative damage system, and gene expression of wheat seedlings were comprehensively measured and analyzed. The results revealed that DEHP could reduce the germination rate of wheat. Only the 100 mg kg-1 treatment group significantly inhibited root length, but no effect on plant height. At the biochemical level, photosynthetic pigments of wheat seedlings were promoted first and then inhibited, while the soluble sugar content presented a trend of "inhibition - activation - inhibition". The antioxidant enzymes (SOD and POD) presented an approximate parabolic trend, while it was opposite for CAT. Whereas the corresponding antioxidant enzyme genes were up-regulated, and the Hsp70 heat-shock protein gene was down-regulated. Finally, integrated biological response index (IBR) analysis showed that the DEHP toxicity to wheat seedlings was dose dependent. Molecular docking indicated that DEHP could stably bind to GBSS and GST by intermolecular force. Overall, this study provided constructive insights for a comprehensive assessment of the toxicity risk of DEHP to wheat.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674370

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) is Taiwan's second most common lung carcinoma histotype. This study aimed to investigate changes in the long-term trend of the SQC incidence rate in Taiwan. SQC cases between 1985 and 2019 were adopted from Taiwan's Cancer Registry System; the age-adjusted incidence rate was calculated using the World Standard Population in 2000. The long-term trends of the age, period, and birth cohort effect of SQC incidence rates were estimated using the SEER Age-Period-Cohort Web Tool. The results revealed that the incidence of lung carcinoma in Taiwan increased, while the incidence of SQC exhibited a slight decrease during this study period. The age rate ratio (ARR) of the incidence rate in men declined gradually, and the period effect changed more slowly for women than men. The cohort effect formed a bimodal curve. The annual percentage change results for women indicated that the ARR decreased from 1.652 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.422, 1.9192) at 30 to 34 years to 0.559 (95% CI: 0.4988, 0.6265) at 75 to 79 years; the period effect decreased from 1.2204 (95% CI: 1.1148, 1.336) in 1995 to 1999 to 0.608 (95% CI: 0.5515, 0.6704) in 2015 to 2019, with a greater decline in the later period. The cohort effect was unimodal, with the SQC risk value peaking in the 1915 birth cohort and exhibiting a steady decline thereafter. The results of this study suggest that a decrease in the smoking rate may be the reason for the decline in the incidence of SQC, and we observed a similar trend between SQC and the smoking rate in men.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Incidência , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pulmão/patologia
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