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1.
Waste Manag ; 126: 331-339, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798821

RESUMO

The coexistence of plastics and microalgae in the ocean has brought great challenges to the environment. Therefore, co-pyrolysis of microalgae Dunaliella salina (DS) and typical plastics (polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) were investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The results showed that the coating effect of the molten plastics promoted the pyrolysis of DS. The solid residue amounts of DS-PP, DS-PS, and DS-PET blends were reduced by 1.55 wt%, 1.39 wt%, 1.69 wt%, respectively, as a result of the hydrogenation reaction between the unsaturated products generated by plastics and biochar. While for DS-PVC, attributed to the physical and chemical effects during the co-pyrolysis process, the solid residue was increased by 1.36 wt%. For the other three blends, the solid residues were reduced due to the hydrogenation reaction between the unsaturated products generated by plastics and biochar. FTIR analysis of gaseous products indicated the total CO2 production increased significantly for DS-PET. Besides, the alkyls generated by DS reacted with HCl during DS-PVC co-pyrolysis, the resulting products were then fixed in biochar. Kinetic results suggested that due to the co-pyrolysis with DS, the activation energies of PP, PS, and PET were reduced by 1/2, 1/3, and 3/4, respectively, and this value for PVC in its second stage was reduced by 1/4. Our results indicated the advantage to co-pyrolyze the microalgae and marine plastics.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25383, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787645

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diastolic heart failure (DHF) is an important pathological type of heart failure, that involves multiple organ dysfunction and multiple complications. The prevalence of DHF is high, and effective treatments are lacking. Chinese herbs are an alternative therapy for DHF. Shen'ge formula (SGF) is a classical formula from which patients can benefit, but convincing evidence of its efficacy is lacking. Therefore, we designed this randomized controlled trial protocol. METHODS/DESIGN: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial will evaluate the efficacy and safety of SGF in the treatment of DHF. A total of 130 patients with DHF will be enrolled in the trial and treated with SGF granules or placebo for 12 weeks and followed up for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measurement will be to changes in plasma N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide precursor before versus after treatment, while the second primary outcome measurement will be changes in heart function before versus after treatment and the 12-week follow-up period. It will also include echocardiography, a cardiopulmonary exercise test, cardiac function grading, traditional Chinese medicine syndrome score, and the Minnesota Heart Failure Quality of Life Scale. Adverse events will be evaluated throughout the trial. DISCUSSION: The results of this trial will demonstrate whether SGF could alleviate symptoms, improve cardiac function, reduce readmission rates, and improve quality of life of patients with DHF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR2000036533, registered on August 24, 2020.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Ecocardiografia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Placebos/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585048

RESUMO

The pandemic due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the etiological agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused immense global disruption. With the rapid accumulation of SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences, however, thousands of genomic variants of SARS-CoV-2 are now publicly available. To improve the tracing of the viral genomes' evolution during the development of the pandemic, we analyzed single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in 121,618 high-quality SARS-CoV-2 genomes. We divided these viral genomes into two major lineages (L and S) based on variants at sites 8782 and 28144, and further divided the L lineage into two major sublineages (L1 and L2) using SNVs at sites 3037, 14408, and 23403. Subsequently, we categorized them into 130 sublineages (37 in S, 35 in L1, and 58 in L2) based on marker SNVs at 201 additional genomic sites. This lineage/sublineage designation system has a hierarchical structure and reflects the relatedness among the subclades of the major lineages. We also provide a companion website (www.covid19evolution.net) that allows users to visualize sublineage information and upload their own SARS-CoV-2 genomes for sublineage classification. Finally, we discussed the possible roles of compensatory mutations and natural selection during SARS-CoV-2's evolution. These efforts will improve our understanding of the temporal and spatial dynamics of SARS-CoV-2's genome evolution.

4.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 24, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596990

RESUMO

Avian coccidiosis caused by Eimeria leads to huge economic losses on the global poultry industry. In this study, microneme adhesive repeat regions (MARR) bc1 of E. tenella microneme protein 3 (EtMIC3-bc1) was used as ligand, and peptides binding to EtMIC3 were screened from a phage display peptide library. The positive phage clones were checked by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Competitive ELISA was applied to further verify the binding capability between the positive phages and recombinant EtMIC3-bc1 protein or sporozoites protein. The inhibitory effects of target peptides on sporozoites invasion of MDBK cells were measured in vitro. Chickens were orally administrated with target positive phages and the protective effects against homologous challenge were evaluated. The model of three-dimensional (3D) structure for EtMIC3-bc1 was conducted, and molecular docking between target peptides and EtMIC3-bc1 model was analyzed. The results demonstrated that three selected positive phages specifically bind to EtMIC3-bc1 protein. The three peptides A, D and W effectively inhibited invasion of MDBK cells by sporozoites, showing inhibited ratio of 71.8%, 54.6% and 20.8%, respectively. Chickens in the group orally inoculated with phages A displayed more protective efficacies against homologous challenge than other groups. Molecular docking showed that amino acids in three peptides, especially in peptide A, insert into the hydrophobic groove of EtMIC3-bc1 protein, and bind to EtMIC3-bc1 through intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Taken together, the results suggest EtMIC3-binding peptides inhibit sporozoites entry into host cells. This study provides new idea for exploring novel strategies against coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Esporozoítos/imunologia , Animais , Bacteriófagos , Ceco/patologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547605

RESUMO

How to satisfy food production sustainably in the rapid urbanizing process is a vital problem for major grain-producing areas. Taking two national grain-producing regions in China, Shandong and Dongting Lake Region as examples, this study uses step-by-step prediction and a double-objective linear programming model to analyze the dilemma of land scarcity, food demand, and environmental load. It is found that food demand by 2030 will induce partial regional cropland deficiency and heterogeneous agro-environmental risk among cities. The double-objective linear programming model finds possible solutions in different scenarios: on the premise of keeping the current cropland area unchanged, the upper threshold of crop yield by 2030 will be 2539.06 × 104 t in Dongting and 7175.13 × 104 t in Shandong, respectively. On the condition of guaranteeing food self-sufficiency and minimizing the environmental load, the lower threshold of arable land area should be 99.47 × 104 ha in Dongting and 436.85 × 104 ha in Shandong. Pollutant reduction will be realized by reallocation of agro-production task and optimized practices. The food carbon impact can be reduced by up to 1.27 kg CO2 eq/kg. This study contributes to feasible pathways towards adequate agro-production, lessened land scarcity, and minimal environmental risk for rapid urbanizing cities in a sustainable way.

6.
Neural Plast ; 2020: 8833134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273906

RESUMO

Acting as a brain stimulant, coffee resulted in heightening alertness, keeping arousal, improving executive speed, maintaining vigilance, and promoting memory, which are associated with attention, mood, and cognitive function. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a noninvasive optical method to monitor brain activity by measuring the absorption of the near-infrared light through the intact skull. This study is aimed at acquiring brain activation during executing task performance. The aim is to explore the effect of coffee on cognitive function by the fNIRS neuroimaging method, particularly on the prefrontal cortex regions. The behavioral experimental results on 31 healthy subjects with a Stroop task indicate that coffee can easily and effectively modulate the execute task performance by feedback information of the response time and accuracy rate. The findings of fNIRS showed that apparent hemodynamic changes were detected in the bilateral VLPFC regions and the brain activation regions varied with different coffee conditions.

7.
Vet Parasitol ; 289: 109320, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248421

RESUMO

Avian coccidiosis leads to severe economic losses on the global poultry industry. Immune mapped protein-1 (IMP1) is a novel membrane protein, and was reported to be a candidate protective antigen. However, production and utilization modes of IMP1 using Lactococcus lactis as delivery vector were not reported untill now. In the present study, Eimeria tenella IMP1 (EtIMP1) protein was expressed in L. lactis under the nisin-inducible promoter, and EtIMP1 protein was produced in cytoplasmic, cell wall-anchored and secreted forms. Each chicken was orally immunized with one of the three live EtIMP1-expressing lactococci three times at 2 weeks intervals (immunized group), or with live bacteria harboring empty vector (immunized control group). Chickens in immunized and immunized control group were challenged with E. tenella sporulated oocysts to assess the immune responses. The results showed that proliferative responses of peripheral blood T lymphocytes, mRNA expression levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ in spleen tissues, levels of serum IgG and secretory IgA (sIgA) in cecal lavage fluids from chickens in immunized group were all significantly elevated compared to that in immunized control group. All three the live EtIMP1-expressing lactococci significantly decreased oocyst shedding, alleviated pathological damage in cecum and improved weight gain compared with bacteria harboring empty vector. These results suggested EtIMP1 protein delivered by L. lactis might be a promising candidate in developing novel vaccines against Eimeria infection.

8.
J Int Med Res ; 48(10): 300060520961260, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors of early postoperative recurrence in patients with single and small (≤3 cm) hepatitis B virus-associated primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC). METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed patients with single and small HBV-HCC. All patients were followed up for 1 year after surgery. RESULTS: Among 182 patients, 54 patients had early recurrence within 1 year. The recurrence group had higher proportions of men, drinking history, Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class C, patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) >10 ng/mL as well as higher gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels and lower total protein (TP) and CD8+ T lymphocyte levels than the no recurrence group. Cox multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that drinking history (HR, 1.312; 95% CI, 1.042-1.652), CTP class C (HR, 1.236; 95% CI, 1.037-1.473), TACE treatment (HR, 1.241; 95% CI, 1.026-1.501), GGT (HR, 1.138; 95% CI, 1.042-1.243), TP (HR, 0.729; 95% CI, 0.555-0.957), and AFP (HR, 2.519; 95% CI, 1.343-4.726) were independently associated with early postoperative recurrence. CONCLUSION: Drinking history, CTP class C, TACE, serum AFP, GGT, and TP levels were independently associated with early postoperative recurrence in patients with single and small HBV-HCC.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy is a standard regimen for advanced or relapsed biliary tract cancer (BTC) with a 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of approximately 5% and a median OS of less than a year. Targeted therapies and immunotherapy aimed at providing more personalized treatments for BTCs have been tested. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of targeted therapy and immunotherapy on advanced BTC patients. METHODS: Twenty-four advanced/relapsed BTC patients were enrolled and examined with next-generation sequencing (NGS). Eight of them received NGS-guided targeted or immunotherapy, and the other 16 patients underwent routine chemotherapy. Comparison analysis of OS and objective response rate (ORR) was performed. RESULTS: IDH1, BRCA2, MAP2K1, and BRAF (V600E) were the major actionable genes mutated in this cohort. Patients who received NGS-guided therapy exhibited higher OS (not achieved vs. 6.5 months, p < 0.001) and ORR (87.5% vs. 25%, p < 0.001) than those without targetable mutations and who received first-line chemotherapy. BTCs harboring mutations in IDH1, ATM/BRCA2, or MAP2K1/BRAF (V600E) received treatment with dasatinib, olaparib, or trametinib, respectively. Three of the patients had high tumor mutation burden (TMB-H) and were treated with immune-checkpoint inhibitors and chemotherapy. All these patients achieved complete response or partial response. CONCLUSIONS: NGS-guided targeted therapy and immunotherapy are promising personalized therapies for advanced or relapsed BTCs. TMB is a useful biomarker for predicting immunotherapy efficacy.

10.
Small ; 16(30): e2001942, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602255

RESUMO

Understanding the conformation effect on molecular packing, miscibility, and photovoltaic performance is important to open a new avenue for small-molecule acceptor (SMA) design. Herein, two novel acceptor-(donor-acceptor1-donor)-acceptor (A-DA1D-A)-type asymmetric SMAs are developed, namely C-shaped BDTP-4F and S-shaped BTDTP-4F. The BDTP-4F-based polymer solar cells (PSCs) with PM6 as donor, yields a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.24%, significantly higher than that of the BTDTP-4F-based device (13.12%). The better PCE for BDTP-4F-based device is mainly attributed to more balanced charge transport, weaker bimolecular recombination, and more favorable morphology. Additionally, two traditional A-D-A-type SMAs (IDTP-4F and IDTTP-4F) are also synthesized to investigate the conformation effect on morphology and device performance. Different from the device result above, here, IDTP-4F with S-shape conformation outperforms than IDTTP-4F with C-shape conformation. Importantly, it is found that for these two different types of SMA, the better performing binary blend has similar morphological characteristics. Specifically, both PM6:BDTP-4F and PM6:IDTP-4F blend exhibit perfect nanofibril network structure with proper domain size, obvious face-on orientation and enhance donor-acceptor interactions, thereby better device performance. This work indicates tuning molecular conformation plays pivotal role in morphology and device effciciency, shining a light on the molecular design of the SMAs.

11.
Appl Bionics Biomech ; 2020: 7839049, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676127

RESUMO

In nature, fish not only have extraordinary ability of underwater movement but also have high mobility and flexibility. The low energy consumption and high efficiency of fish propulsive method provide a new idea for the research of bionic underwater robot and bionic propulsive technology. In this paper, the swordfish was taken as the research object, and the mechanism of the caudal fin propulsion was preliminarily explored by analyzing the flow field structure generated by the swing of caudal fin. Subsequently, the influence of the phase difference of the heaving and pitching movement, the swing amplitude of caudal fin, and Strouhal number (St number) on the propulsion performance of fish was discussed. The results demonstrated that the fish can obtain a greater propulsion force by optimizing the motion parameters of the caudal fin in a certain range. Lastly, through the mathematical model analysis of the tail of the swordfish, the producing propulsive force principle of the caudal fin and the caudal peduncle was obtained. Hence, the proposed method provided a theoretical basis for the design of a high-efficiency bionic propulsion system.

12.
Poult Sci ; 99(6): 2967-2975, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475431

RESUMO

Avian coccidiosis causes significant economic losses on the global poultry breeding industry. Exploration of new-concept vaccines against coccidiosis has gradually become a research hotspot. In this study, an Enterococcus faecalis strain (MDXEF-1) showing excellent performance isolated from chicken intestinal tract was used as a vector to deliver Eimeria target protein. The plasmid pTX8048-SP-DCpep-NAΔ3-1E-CWA harboring dendritic cell-targeting peptide (DCpep) fusion with Eimeria tenella NAΔ3-1E gene (3-1E protein-coding gene without start codon ATG and terminator codon TAA) was electrotransformed into MDXEF-1 to generate the recombinant bacteria MDXEF-1/pTX8048-SP-DCpep-NAΔ3-1E-CWA in which NAΔ3-1E protein was covalently anchored to the surface of bacteria cells by cell wall anchor (CWA) sequence. The expression of target fusion protein DCpep-NAΔ3-1E-CWA was detected by Western blot. Each chicken was immunized 3 times at 2-wk intervals with live E. faecalis expressing DCpep-NAΔ3-1E fusion protein (DCpep-NAΔ3-1E group), live E. faecalis expressing NAΔ3-1E protein (NAΔ3-1E group), and live E. faecalis containing empty vector only. The 3 immunized groups were then challenged with homologous E. tenella sporulated oocyst after immunizations, and the immune response and protective efficacy in each group were evaluated. The results showed that serum IgG levels, secretory IgA levels in cecal lavage, proportion of CD4+ and CD8α+ cells in peripheral blood, and mRNA expression levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ in the spleen were significantly higher in chickens in the DCpep-NAΔ3-1E group than in chickens of the NAΔ3-1E group (P < 0.05). Oral immunization to chickens with live E. faecalis expressing DCpep-NAΔ3-1E offered more protective efficacy against homologous challenge including significant improved body weight gain, increased oocyst decrease ratio, and reduced average lesion scores in cecum compared with chickens with live E. faecalis expressing NAΔ3-1E protein. These results suggest that recombinant E. faecalis expressing dendritic cell-targeting peptide fusion with E. tenella 3-1E protein could be a potential approach for prevention of Eimeria infection.

13.
Oncologist ; 25(5): 375-379, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045060

RESUMO

Here, we report a case of postoperative recurrence of gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) in a patient who declined systemic chemotherapy. ATM S1905Ifs*25 and STK11 K262Sfs*25 mutations were detected by next-generation sequencing. Oral administration of olaparib was initiated. One month later, the patient experienced relief of clinical symptoms, a decrease in CA19-9 level, and a reduction in abnormal signal in the subcapsular region. The tumor response remained stable for approximately 13 months. This is the first case to demonstrate the clinical benefits of olaparib treatment in a patient with GBC harboring an ATM-inactivating mutation. This observation helps to better inform treatment options to enhance the care of patients with advanced GBC. KEY POINTS: A patient with gallbladder carcinoma harboring an ATM-inactivating mutation responded to olaparib with a progression-free survival of 13 months. This is the first report that demonstrates the clinical benefits of olaparib treatment in a patient with gallbladder carcinoma with an ATM-inactivating mutation. It also highlights the importance of next-generation sequencing, which can provide valuable information for planning effective targeted therapies for gallbladder carcinoma. Evidence-based decisions help determine the best choice of treatment for individualized patient care.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(11): 13068-13076, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106672

RESUMO

Novel cores for high performance nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs) remain to be developed. In this work, two new n-type nitrogen-containing organic heterocyclic NFAs, namely, BDTN-BF and BDTN-Th, were designed and synthesized based on a new seven fused-ring core (BDTN) with two different end-capping groups. As a result, BDTN-BF possessed similar absorption spectra in solution and solid state to BDTN-Th, but a slightly higher maximum molar extinction coefficient. Manufacturing the polymer solar cells with PM6 as the donor, the photovoltaic performance of BDTN-BF and BDTN-Th was investigated. The PM6:BDTN-BF-based device achieved the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11.54% with a high Jsc of 20.20 mA cm-2, a fill factor (FF) of 61.46%, and a large Voc of 0.93 V, and the energy loss (Eloss) was calculated to be 0.48 eV. Comparatively, the PM6:BDTN-Th-based device achieved the maximum PCE value of only 3.53% because of inadequate Jsc and FF. The higher Jsc and FF for the PM6:BDTN-BF-based device was mainly due to the effective electron transfer from PM6 to BDTN-BF, more balanced µh/µe, higher electron mobility of the neat film, better charge collection and dissociation efficiency, and more favorable morphology. These results demonstrate that the acceptors with nearly identical absorption spectra could result in a significant difference in photovoltaic performance, which stress the importance of end-capping units. Furthermore, few NFA-based devices achieve large Voc and high Jsc simultaneously as one based on PM6:BDTN-BF, indicating that nitrogen hybridization of NFAs may be an efficient strategy to realize high and balanced Voc and Jsc.

15.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1113, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608081

RESUMO

Appropriate planting density and nitrogen (N) supply are critical factors optimizing yield in crop cultivation. To advance the knowledge of maize plants under different density and N rate combinations, responses of canopy apparent photosynthesis (CAP), and assimilate redistribution characters (by 13CO2 stable isotope tracing) were investigated. In this study, two maize varieties DH618 and DH605 were grown at various planting densities (6.75, 8.25, 9.75, and 11.25 pl m-2) and N application rates (0, 180, 270, 360, and 540 kg ha-1) during 2013-2015. Maize grain yield (GY) was maximized at a density of 9.75 pl m-2 with 180-360 kg ha-1 N during the three study years. Maize GY, biomass, CAP, leaf area index (LAI), and 13C-photosynthate reallocation all responded more intensively to density than N rate, but the N response differed between varieties. We established links among CAP, LAI and biomass, and GY and kernel number per unit area (KNA). CAP depended on high LAI and enzyme activities for photosynthesis, yet both N deficiency and N excess had inhibitory effects. Besides, relations between 13C-photosynthate reallocation and yield components were executed. High density increased the 13C-photosynthate distribution in vegetative organs but reduced the allocation in ear, while N supply moderated the response. Based on our results, maize plants with greater CAP, more 13C-photosynthate distribution to ears, and less 13C-photosynthate distribution to stems under different density and N rate combinations could improve KNA and achieve a greater GY consequently.

16.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 180, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881365

RESUMO

Although yield output of maize (Zea mays L.) has improved markedly over the last century, procedures for improving the grain-filling process remain elusive. Our aim in this study was to relate grain-filling variation in maize (including kernels in apical and middle positions in the ears) to plant density and nitrogen (N) application rate using a crossed experimental design. We also investigated changes in zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellic acid (GA) in the kernels during the grain-filling period. Two high-yield maize varieties cultivated extensively in China were field grown under normal (67,500 pl ha-1) and high (97,500 pl ha-1) densities, and supplied with low, normal and high (0, 180, and 360 kg N ha-1) concentrations of N. Kernel weight (KW), the maximum grain-filling rate (Gmax), the average grain-filling rate (Gave), and the kernel weight increment achieving Gmax (Wmax) were all significantly depressed under high density (HD) conditions, but increased N supply partially offset the losses. The apical kernels were more sensitive to density and N application rate than middle kernels. Correlation analysis indicated that plant density and N rate affected KW mainly by influencing the grain-filling rate. Variation in ZR, IAA, and ABA content tracked the variation in KW, but variation in GA content did not. Furthermore, the grain-filling parameters (closely related to TKW) had strong canonical correlation with the content of all hormones across the filling period and ZR content had the strongest relationship. Based on our study, high N supply is beneficial to optimize grain-filling parameters and improve KW of maize kernels under crowded condition.

17.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics ; 17(6): 576-589, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205176

RESUMO

Uncovering the functionally essential variations related to tumorigenesis and tumor progression from cancer genomics data is still challenging due to the genetic diversity among patients, and extensive inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity at different levels of gene expression regulation, including but not limited to the genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptional levels. To minimize the impact of germline genetic heterogeneities, in this study, we establish multiple primary cultures from the primary and recurrent tumors of a single patient with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multi-omics sequencing was performed for these cultures that encompass the diversity of tumor cells from the same patient. Variations in the genome sequence, epigenetic modification, and gene expression are used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of these cell cultures. We find the discrepancy among the relationships revealed by single nucleotide variations (SNVs) and transcriptional/epigenomic profiles from the cell cultures. We fail to find overlap between sample-specific mutated genes and differentially expressed genes (DEGs), suggesting that most of the heterogeneous SNVs among tumor stages or lineages of the patient are functionally insignificant. Moreover, copy number alterations (CNAs) and DNA methylation variation within gene bodies, rather than promoters, are significantly correlated with gene expression variability among these cell cultures. Pathway analysis of CNA/DNA methylation-related genes indicates that a single cell clone from the recurrent tumor exhibits distinct cellular characteristics and tumorigenicity, and such an observation is further confirmed by cellular experiments both in vitro and in vivo. Our systematic analysis reveals that CNAs and epigenomic changes, rather than SNVs, are more likely to contribute to the phenotypic diversity among subpopulations in the tumor. These findings suggest that new therapeutic strategies targeting gene dosage and epigenetic modification should be considered in personalized cancer medicine. This culture model may be applied to the further identification of plausible determinants of cancer metastasis and relapse.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Epigenômica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Fenótipo , Cultura Primária de Células , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Filogenia
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(70): 9801-9804, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105327

RESUMO

Two fullerene/non-fullerene hybrids were designed and synthesized for polymer solar cells as small molecule acceptors. Polymer solar cells based on J71:A2 achieved a power conversion efficiency of 4.52% with the open circuit voltage at nearly 1.0 V. The success of the hybrids may pave a new way for small molecule acceptors.

19.
Adv Mater ; 30(9)2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29334160

RESUMO

A novel small molecule acceptor MeIC with a methylated end-capping group is developed. Compared to unmethylated counterparts (ITCPTC), MeIC exhibits a higher lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level value, tighter molecular packing, better crystallites quality, and stronger absorption in the range of 520-740 nm. The MeIC-based polymer solar cells (PSCs) with J71 as donor, achieve high power conversion efficiency (PCE), up to 12.54% with a short-circuit current (JSC ) of 18.41 mA cm-2 , significantly higher than that of the device based on J71:ITCPTC (11.63% with a JSC of 17.52 mA cm-2 ). The higher JSC of the PSC based on J71:MeIC can be attributed to more balanced µh /µe , higher charge dissociation and charge collection efficiency, better molecular packing, and more proper phase separation features as indicated by grazing incident X-ray diffraction and resonant soft X-ray scattering results. It is worth mentioning that the as-cast PSCs based on MeIC also yield a high PCE of 11.26%, which is among the highest value for the as-cast nonfullerene PSCs so far. Such a small modification that leads to so significant an improvement of the photovoltaic performance is a quite exciting finding, shining a light on the molecular design of the nonfullerene acceptors.

20.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0187551, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29117265

RESUMO

With the development of high-throughput genomic analysis, sequencing a mouse primary cancer model provides a new opportunity to understand fundamental mechanisms of tumorigenesis and progression. Here, we characterized the genomic variations in a hepatitis-related primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mouse model. A total of 12 tumor sections and four adjacent non-tumor tissues from four mice were used for whole exome and/or whole genome sequencing and validation of genotyping. The functions of the mutated genes in tumorigenesis were studied by analyzing their mutation frequency and expression in clinical HCC samples. A total of 46 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were detected within coding regions. All SNVs were only validated in the sequencing samples, except the Hras mutation, which was shared by three tumors in the M1 mouse. However, the mutated allele frequency varied from high (0.4) to low (0.1), and low frequency (0.1-0.2) mutations existed in almost every tumor. Together with a diploid karyotype and an equal distribution pattern of these SNVs within the tumor, these results suggest the existence of subclones within tumors. A total of 26 mutated genes were mapped to 17 terms describing different molecular and cellular functions. All 41 human homologs of the mutated genes were mutated in the clinical samples, and some mutations were associated with clinical outcomes, suggesting a high probability of cancer driver genes in the spontaneous tumors of the mouse model. Genomic sequencing shows that a few mutations can drive the independent origin of primary liver tumors and reveals high heterogeneity among tumors in the early stage of hepatitis-related primary hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Hepatite Crônica/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Mutação/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Alelos , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Variação Genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite Crônica/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Taxa de Mutação , Filogenia , Ploidias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
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