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1.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114272, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135434

RESUMO

We used the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to simulate elemental carbon (EC) concentrations in Thailand in 2017. The goals were to quantify the respective contributions of local emissions and regional transport outside Thailand to EC pollution in Thailand, and to identify the most effective emission control strategy for decreasing EC pollution. The simulated EC concentrations in Chiang Mai, Bangkok, and Phuket were comparable with the observation data. The correlation coefficient between the simulated and observed EC concentrations was 0.84, providing a good basis for evaluating EC sources in Thailand. The simulated mean EC concentration over the whole country was the highest (1.38 µg m-3) in spring, and the lowest (0.51 µg m-3) in summer. We conducted several sensitivity simulations to evaluate EC sources. Local emissions (including anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions) and regional transport outside Thailand contributed 81.2% and 18.8% to the annual mean EC concentrations, respectively, indicating that local sources played the dominant role for EC pollution in Thailand. Among the local sources, anthropogenic emissions (including the industry, power plant, residential, and transportation sectors) and biomass burning contributed 75.1% and 6.1% to the annual mean EC concentrations, respectively. As the anthropogenic emissions dominated the EC pollution, we performed four sensitivity simulations by reducing 30% of the emissions from each of the industry, power plant, residential, and transportation sectors in Thailand. The results indicated that controlling transportation emissions in Thailand was the most effective way in reducing the EC pollution. The 30% reduction of transportation emissions decreased the annual mean EC concentrations by 12.1%. In contrast, 30% reductions of the residential, industry, and power plant emissions caused 8.4%, 6.4%, and 4.0% decreases in the annual mean EC concentrations, respectively. The model results could potentially provide useful information for air pollution control strategies in Thailand.

2.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208665

RESUMO

With the ever-increasing growth in next-generation flexible and wearable electronics, fiber-shaped zinc-air batteries have attracted considerable attention due to their advantages of high energy density and low cost, the development of which however has been seriously hampered by the unavailability of efficient electrocatalysts. In this work, we designed a trimetallic nitride electrocatalyst in an unusual molecular sheet form, which was stabilized by metallic titanium carbide sheets. Besides of expected elevation in catalytic activity toward oxygen evolution reaction, the material simultaneously unlocked excellent catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction with the half-wave potential as small as 0.84 V. A flexible fiber-shaped zinc-air battery, employing the designed electrocatalyst as the air cathode and a gel as the electrolyte, demonstrated an enhanced and durable electrochemical performance, outputting a competitive energy density of 627 Wh kgzn-1. The work opens new avenues for utilizing two-dimensional sheets in future wearable and portable device applications.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1531, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210233

RESUMO

Vesicle associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2/synaptobrevin2), a core SNARE protein residing on synaptic vesicles (SVs), forms helix bundles with syntaxin-1 and SNAP25 for the SNARE assembly. Prior to the SNARE assembly, the structure of VAMP2 is unclear. Here, by using in-cell NMR spectroscopy, we describe the dynamic membrane association of VAMP2 SNARE motif in mammalian cells, and the structural change of VAMP2 upon the change of intracellular lipid environment. We analyze the lipid compositions of the SV membrane by mass-spectrometry-based lipidomic profiling, and further reveal that VAMP2 forms distinctive conformations in different membrane regions. In contrast to the non-raft region, the membrane region of cholesterol-rich lipid raft markedly weakens the membrane association of VAMP2 SNARE motif, which releases the SNARE motif and facilitates the SNARE assembly. Our work reveals the regulation of different membrane regions on VAMP2 structure and sheds light on the spatial regulation of SNARE assembly.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150391

RESUMO

Brown carbon (BrC), an aerosol carbonaceous matter component, impacts atmospheric radiation and global climate because of its absorption in the near-ultraviolet-visible region. Simultaneous air sampling was conducted in two megacities of Xi'an (northern) and Hong Kong (southern) in China in winter of 2016-2017. The aim of this study is to determine and characterize the BrC compounds in collected filter samples. Characteristic absorption peaks corresponding to aromatic C-C stretching bands, organo-nitrates, and C═O functional groups were seen in spectra of Xi'an samples, suggesting that the BrC was derived from freshly smoldering biomass and coal combustion as well as aqueous formation of anthropogenic secondary organic carbon. In Hong Kong, the light absorption of secondary BrC accounted for 76% of the total absorbances of BrC. The high abundance of strong C═O groups, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and atmospheric oxidants suggest secondary BrC was likely formed from photochemical oxidation of BVOCs in Hong Kong. Several representative BrC molecular markers were detected using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and their absorption properties were simulated by quantum chemistry. The results demonstrate that light absorption capacities of secondary anthropogenic BrC with nitro-functional groups were stronger than those of biogenic secondary BrC and anthropogenic primary BrC.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140931

RESUMO

Glutaric acid is an important organic acid applied widely in different fields. Most previous researches have focused on the production of glutaric acid in various strains using the 5-aminovaleric acid (AMV) or pentenoic acid synthesis pathways. We previously utilized a five-step reversed adipic acid degradation pathway (RADP) in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) to construct strain Bgl146. Herein, we found that malonyl-CoA was strictly limited in this strain, and increasing its abundance could improve glutaric acid production. We, therefore, constructed a malonic acid uptake pathway in E. coli using matB (malonic acid synthetase) and matC (malonic acid carrier protein) from Clover rhizobia. The titer of glutaric acid was improved by 2.1-fold and 1.45-fold, respectively, reaching 0.56 g/L and 4.35 g/L in shake flask and batch fermentation following addition of malonic acid. Finally, the highest titer of glutaric acid was 6.3 g/L in fed-batch fermentation at optimized fermentation conditions.

6.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-9, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083954

RESUMO

Aim: This retrospective study was designed to investigate the independent risks and specific biomarker for breast cancer-related ischemic stroke (BCRS).Methods: Clinical features and laboratory findings were compared between BCRS group and breast cancer group without stroke, and further multivariate analyses were performed to predict independent risks factors for BCRS patients. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was configured to estimate the diagnostic efficacy of each independent risk and the product of these risks and to obtain the optimal cut-off value of diagnosis, which was termed the BCRS Index.Results: BCRS patients had elevated plasma D-dimer and CA153 levels and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), as well as more patients received endocrine therapy (all p < 0.05). Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that D-dimer levels (odds ratio [OR]: 1.002; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.001-1.003; p = 0.000), CA153 levels (OR: 1.005; 95% CI: 1.001-1.008; p = 0.007), PLR (OR: 1.010; 95% CI: 1.004-1.015; p = 0.001), and endocrine therapy (OR: 1.268; 95% CI: 1.087-1.479; p = 0.003) were identified as independent risks of BCRS. Furthermore, ROC analysis displayed that the product of risks had the best diagnostic efficacy, of which the area under the curve was 0.846 ± 0.28. The optimum cut-off point was 2.37 × 106/mL, which was termed the BCRS Index with higher diagnostic accuracy and validity.Conclusions: Endocrine therapy, as well as elevated plasma D-dimer and CA153 levels and PLR values may be independent risks for BCRS. Furthermore, BCRS Index should be served as a novel specific biomarker for BCRS, which is useful to distinguish BCRS for clinicians.

7.
Genomics ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057912

RESUMO

Inbreeding depression of chicken reproduction is a major concern in the conservation of chicken genetic resources. To investigate the potential DNA methylation sites involved in the inbreeding depression of chicken reproduction, we carried out whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) of hypothalamus and ovary tissues from the strongly and weakly inbred Langshan chickens, respectively. 5948 and 4593 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified in the hypothalamus and ovary between the strongly and weakly inbred Langshan chickens, respectively. Large numbers of DMR-related genes (DMGs) were enriched in reproduction-related pathways. By combining the WGBS and transcriptome data, two DMRs in SRD5A1 and CDC27 genes were inferred as the most likely biomarkers of inbreeding depression of reproduction in Langshan chicken. Our study provides the first systematic investigation of the DNA methylation changes in strongly inbred chickens, and extends our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying inbreeding depression in chicken reproduction.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 198, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932628

RESUMO

NOD-like receptors (NLRs) localize in the cytosol to recognize intracellular pathogen products and initialize the innate immune response. However, the ligands and ligand specificity of many NLRs remain unclear. One such NLR, NLRP6, plays an important role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and protecting against various intestinal diseases such as colitis and intestinal tumorigenesis. Here, we show that the major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), binds NLRP6 directly and induces global conformational change and dimerization. Following stimulation by ATP, the NLRP6 homodimer can further assemble into a linear molecular platform, and ASC is recruited to form higher molecular structures, indicative of a step-by-step activation mechanism. Our study sheds light on the mystery of LPS-induced inflammasome initiation, reveals the architecture and structural basis of potential pre-inflammasome, and suggests a novel molecular assembly pattern for immune receptors.

10.
Microb Pathog ; 140: 103952, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899323

RESUMO

Acyl-homoserine-lactone synthase (AhyI) of Aeromonas hydrophila can produce quorum sensing (QS) auto-inducer 1 (AI-1) type signal molecule, which plays important roles in various biological phenomenons such as biofilm formation, hemolysin production and motility. Previous research revealed that the AhyI of A. hydrophila has acetylation modification on lysine 7 site, but its intrinsic biological function is still largely unknown. To study the effect of AhyI protein and its acetylation modification on the physiological traits of A. hydrophila, the site-directed mutagenesis strains including ΔahyI::ahyI-K7Q and ΔahyI::ahyI-K7R were made in this study. The mutation at K7 site of lysine acetylation in AhyI protein decreased the protease production, but the lysine acetylations do not affect the biofilm formation and hemolysin production. To further study the effect of lysine acetylation on AI-1 signal molecule production, the acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) extraction and bioluminescence quantification were performed. Compared with the rescue strain, the acetylation on K7 of AhyI resulted in a decreased level of AHLs and bioluminescence production. It indicated that the lysine acetylation modification on the AhyI protein can regulate the production of signalling molecules. Overall, the obtained data in this study provide a theoretical basis for further understanding the role of lysine acetylation of AhyI protein and lay a foundation to systematically study the regulatory mechanism of QS.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135210, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821922

RESUMO

Meteorological conditions play a key role in formation of air pollution, determining dispersion or accumulation of air pollutants. Aggressive emission mitigation measures have been taken recently in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH), China, but pervasive and persistent haze still frequently engulfs this region during wintertime. Occurrence frequency of unfavorable meteorological conditions in winter is anticipated to constitute a significantly important factor in driving the heavy haze formation in BTH. Large scale synoptic patterns influencing BTH during the wintertime from 2013 to 2017 are categorized into six types, including "north-low", "southwest-trough", "southeast-high", "southeast-trough", "transition", and "inland-high" using the NCEP reanalysis data. "Southwest-trough" and "southeast-high" are defined as favorable synoptic patterns and the remaining four categories are unfavorable ones based on FLEXPART simulations. Compared to measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in BTH, favorable synoptic conditions generally correspond to the low level or decreasing trend of PM2.5 concentrations while under unfavorable conditions PM2.5 concentrations are high or increasing. Occurrence of wintertime haze episodes in BTH correlates well with the evolution trend of unfavorable synoptic patterns from 2013 to 2017 although the anthropogenic emissions have substantially decreased. PM2.5 concentrations also exhibit correlations with local meteorological elements, including winds, temperature, and relative humidity, which are ultimately steered by large scale synoptic situations. The WRF-Chem model simulations further reveal the critical role of large-scale synoptic patterns in the heavy haze formation. Overall, under unfavorable synoptic situations, emission mitigation is the best choice to improve the air quality in BTH.

12.
Crit Rev Anal Chem ; 50(2): 136-160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900462

RESUMO

Recently, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has attracted considerable attention for their application in food analysis. The use of supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2), as a mobile phase for SFC, with its low viscosity and high molecular diffusiveness, results in shorter analysis time and lower consumption of organic solvents as compared to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, with recent improvements in its detection system, SFC has shown satisfactory selectivity and sensitivity. Thus, although the composition of food is complex, SFC remains a powerful tool in food analysis with some simple sample pretreatment techniques, such as liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, and QuEChERS. Here, we summarize the applications of SFC in food quality and safety from 2012 to 2018, and mainly focus on sample pretreatment strategies and analysis conditions.

13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(1): 325-332, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867970

RESUMO

Biomolecules often undergo large-scale conformational transitions when carrying out their functions. However, it is still challenging for conventional molecular dynamics simulations to provide adequate structural dynamics information to interpret associated mechanisms. Here, we present a combined elastic network model and enhanced sampling-based strategy (iterANM-IaMD) by adopting iterANM to construct initial conformation space and enhanced sampling IaMD to explore the free energy landscape along specific large-scale conformational transitions. We applied this strategy to three functionally and structurally distinct proteins (adenylate kinase, calmodulin, and p38α kinase), which undergo striking conformational change upon ligand binding. The simulation results for both free and ligand-bound proteins show qualitative and quantitative agreement with existing studies, suggesting iterANM-IaMD as an accurate and efficient tool to investigate structural dynamics involved in complicated biological processes. Our work also provides insights into the relationship between the dynamics and functionality of biomolecules.


Assuntos
Elasticidade , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas/química , Conformação Proteica
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109669, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766100

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is closely associated to the onset and progression of many human diseases. Activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway using naturally-derived molecules is an efficient strategy for alleviating the intracellular oxidative insults, and thus blocking the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-induced diseases. In the present study, a naturally-derived isopimarane-type diterpenoid sphaeropsidin C (SC) was identified to be an activator of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. Our data indicated that SC was able to stimulate Nrf2-mediated defensive system through promoting Nrf2 translocation, inhibiting Nrf2 ubiquitination, and enhancing Nrf2 stability in normal human lung epithelial Beas-2B cells. Furthermore, SC-induced Nrf2 activation required the involvement of protein kinases, exemplified by protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K). It alleviated sodium arsenite [As(III)]-induced intracellular oxidative stress in an Nrf2-dependent manner. These results suggested that SC displayed potential application for the prevention and therapy against oxidative stress-induced diseases. Moreover, isopimarane-type diterpenoid represents a promising skeleton for developing Nrf2 activators.

15.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796890

RESUMO

Many medical centers in the United States have implemented pharmacogenomics (PGx) programs to integrate PGx into clinical practice. The roles of pharmacists in optimizing medication use based on genetic testing results are emergently evolving. A literature search was conducted to assess pharmacists' roles in pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics or precision/personalized medicine programs. Fifteen PGx pharmacy practice models implemented in eleven hospitals and one community pharmacy in the U.S. were selected for evaluation. Pharmacists perform results interpretation, genotype-guided medication selection and adjustment, medication acquisition, adverse reactions monitoring, and patient education. Institutions that are interested in implementing a PGx program should plan the strategies to overcome the challenges, such as educational knowledge gaps, informatics, and reimbursement issues. Strong institutional support, well-defined goals, standardized procedures, and strategies to educate clinicians and patients are the prerequisites to comprehensively deliver genomic data for individualized drug therapy.

16.
PeerJ ; 7: e8064, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824757

RESUMO

Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites regulating plant growth response. To date, the evolutionary history of the PAL family in Rosaceae plants remains unclear. In this study, we identified 16 PAL homologous genes in five Rosaceae plants (Pyrus bretschneideri, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, Prunus persica, and Malus × domestica). We classified these PALs into three categories based on phylogenetic analysis, and all PALs were distributed on 13 chromosomes. We tracked gene duplication events and performed sliding window analysis. These results revealed the evolution of PALs in five Rosaceae plants. We predicted the promoter of the PbPALs by PLANT CARE online software, and found that the promoter region of both PbPAL1 and PbPAL3 have at least one AC element. The results of qRT-PCR analysis found that PbPAL1 and PbPAL2 were highly expressed in the stems and roots, while expression level of PbPAL3 was relatively low in different tissues. The expression of PbPAL1 and PbPAL2 increased firstly and then decreased at different developmental periods of pear fruit. Among them, the expression of PbPAL1 reached the highest level 55 days after flowering. Three PbPALs were induced by abiotic stress to varying degrees. We transfected PbPAL1 and PbPAL2 into Arabidopsis thaliana, which resulted in an increase in lignin content and thickening of the cell walls of intervascular fibres and xylem cells. In summary, this research laid a foundation for better understanding the molecular evolution of PALs in five Rosaceae plants. Furthermore, the present study revealed the role of PbPALs in lignin synthesis, and provided basic data for regulating lignin synthesis and stone cells development in pear plants.

17.
Viruses ; 11(11)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703327

RESUMO

Typical viral propagation involves sequential viral entry, uncoating, replication, gene transcription and protein synthesis, and virion assembly and release. Some viral proteins must be transported into host nucleus to facilitate viral propagation, which is essential for the production of mature virions. During the transport process, nuclear localization signals (NLSs) play an important role in guiding target proteins into nucleus through the nuclear pore. To date, some classical nuclear localization signals (cNLSs) and non-classical NLSs (ncNLSs) have been identified in a number of viral proteins. These proteins are involved in viral replication, expression regulation of viral genes and virion assembly. Moreover, other proteins are transported into nucleus with unknown mechanisms. This review highlights our current knowledge about the nuclear trafficking of cellular proteins associated with viral propagation.

18.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760092

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulted from airflow obstructions, and there is a driving requirement for novel and effective preventive and therapeutic agents of COPD. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been regarded to be a promising therapeutic target for COPD. Resveratrol is a natural Nrf2 activator with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, however, its application is limited by its relative low efficiency and poor bioavailability. Herein, based on the skeleton of resveratrol, trans-4,4'-dihydroxystilbene (DHS) has been firstly identified to be an Nrf2 activator, which is more potent than the well-known sulforaphane (SF) and resveratrol. Our results indicate that DHS blocks Nrf2 ubiquitylation through specifically reacting with Cys151 cysteine in Keap1 protein to activate Nrf2-regulated defensive response, and thus enhances intracellular antioxidant capability. Furthermore, DHS relieves lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory response via inhibition of NF-κB. Importantly, DHS significantly ameliorates pathological alterations (e.g. infiltration of leukocytes and fibrosis), downregulates the levels of oxidant biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosin (8-oxo-dG), and inhibits the overproductions of inflammatory mediators [e.g. tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)] in a cigarette smoke (CS)-induced pulmonary impairment mice model. Taken together, this study demonstrates that DHS attenuates the CS-induced pulmonary impairments through inhibitions of oxidative stress and inflammatory response targeting Nrf2 and NF-κB in vitro and in vivo, and could be developed into a preventive agent against pulmonary impairments induced by CS.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662780

RESUMO

Nowadays, an increasing number of patients are seriously affected by lung cancer. Si Jun Zi Tang (SJZ), a four-herb Chinese medicine formula first described approximately one thousand years ago, is often prescribed for cancer patients as a complementary therapy. But the research on the effective materials for treating cancer using SJZ was rarely reported. To solve this problem, we evaluate the inhibitory effect of 10 samples of SJZ from different origins on PC9 cells. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) along with canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and bioactivity validation were used to investigate the underlying correlation between the chemical ingredients and the antiproliferative effect of SJZ on PC9 cells. The evaluation indicated that 10 batches of SJZ could inhibit proliferation of PC9 cells and there was a notable difference in pharmacological activity between the different SJZ samples. The results of CCA and multivariate statistical analysis indicated that ginsenoside Ro and ginsenoside Rg1 might be active constituents of the antiproliferative effect as determined by spectrum-effect relationships. The results showed that bioassay and spectrum-effect relationships are suitable to associate sample quality with the active ingredient associated with clinical efficacy. And our finding would provide foundation and further understanding of the quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine decoction.

20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 417, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The content of stone cells and lignin is one of the key factors affecting the quality of pear fruit. In a previous study, we determined the developmental regularity of stone cells and lignin in 'Dangshan Su' pear fruit 15-145 days after pollination (DAP). However, the development of fruit stone cells and lignin before 15 DAP has not been heavily researched. RESULTS: In this study, we found that primordial stone cells began to appear at 7 DAP and that the fruit had formed a large number of stone cells at 15 DAP. Subsequently, transcriptome sequencing was performed on fruits at 0, 7, and 15 DAP and identified 3834 (0 vs. 7 DAP), 4049 (7 vs. 15 DAP) and 5763 (0 vs. 15 DAP) DEGs. During the 7-15 DAP period, a large number of key enzyme genes essential for lignin biosynthesis are gradually up-regulated, and their expression pattern is consistent with the accumulation of lignin in this period. Further analysis found that the biosynthesis of S-type lignin in 'Dangshan Su' pear does not depend on the catalytic activity of PbSAD but is primarily generated by the catalytic activity of caffeoyl-CoA through CCoAOMT, CCR, F5H, and CAD. We cloned PbCCR1, 2 and analysed their functions in Chinese white pear lignin biosynthesis. PbCCR1 and 2 have a degree of functional redundancy; both demonstrate the ability to participate in lignin biosynthesis. However, PbCCR1 may be the major gene for lignin biosynthesis, while PbCCR2 has little effect on lignin biosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that 'Dangshan Su' pear began to form a large number of stone cells and produce lignin after 7 DAP and mainly accumulated materials from 0 to 7 DAP. PbCCR1 is mainly involved in the biosynthesis of lignin in 'Dangshan Su' pear and plays a positive role in lignin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pyrus/genética , Transcriptoma , Aldeído Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lignina/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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