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1.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112347, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474897

RESUMO

Although the use of bioactive ions and proteins are crucial for bone defect repair, delivering them in a stable and controlled manner remains challenging. To achieve controlled delivery of osteogenic active factor, we developed a novel double network (DN) hydrogel capable of co-delivering Mg2+ ions and BMP2 in a controlled localized manner. This DN hydrogel was composed of poly (acrylamide) and chitosan, in which the poly (acrylamide) was cross-linked via covalent bond and the chitosan was grafted using bisphosphonate (BP) to form metal coordination bonds with Mg2+ ions. Due to this dynamic dissociation and re-association of the "BP-Mg2+" coordination bond, it was possible to deliver Mg2+ ions in a stable and controlled manner. Additionally, the obtained DN hydrogel exhibited an effective tensile strength (0.62 MPa), perfect stretchability (973% fracture strain), and good creep and recovery properties due to the dynamic cross-linking effect of "BP-Mg2+". Additionally, the hydrogel could synergistically promote the proliferation and differentiation of mouse embryo osteoblast precursor cells (MC3T3-E1 cells) in vitro via the BMP2/Wnt pathway. In the skull defect rat model, this positive delivery government of Mg2+ ions and BMP2 synergistically accelerated bone regeneration. In conclusion, this dynamic cross-linked hydrogel containing Mg2+ ions established a new platform for the sustained release of osteogenesis factor and accelerated the bone regeneration process.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Magnésio , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2 , Regeneração Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Íons , Camundongos , Osteogênese , Ratos
2.
J Knee Surg ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520562

RESUMO

Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is challenging to perform in patients with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) due to the difficulty of eradicating the infection and potential for bone and ligamentous deficits. The current study aimed to evaluate the midterm survival of varus-valgus constrained (VVC) implants used in one-stage revision TKA for chronic PJI at our institution. This retrospective analysis included 132 patients with chronic PJI who underwent one-stage revision using a VVC implant. The average follow-up was 51.6 months (range: 24-85 months). Five-year survival analysis was performed to set recurrent infection and mechanical failure as the end point. Hospital for special surgery (HSS) as functional outcomes was evaluated preoperatively and at the latest follow-up. A total of 12 patients (9.1%) underwent retreatment for reinfection (nine patients) and mechanical failure (three patients). The overall 5-year revision-free survival was 82.7%, the infection-free survival was 91.1%, and the mechanical failure-free survival was 98.3%. The preoperative HSS knee score improved from 35.6 points (range: 24.3-47.7 points) preoperatively to 76.8 points (range: 57.2-87.6 points) at the latest follow-up. Complications were identified in 20 patients (15.2%) which included aseptic osteolysis in 4 cases, acceptable flexion instability in 3 cases, arthrofibrosis in 2 patients, hematomas in 2 cases, calf intermuscular venous thrombosis in 6 patients, and femoral stem tip pain in 3 cases. This is the first study to report the outcomes of one-stage revision using VVC implants for knee PJI. Improved functional outcomes and good midterm survival are demonstrated at an average follow-up of 51.6 months.

3.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 267, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shortcoming of traditional Nuss operation on adults is gradually found in the clinical practice. A new kind of introducer-bar complex was introduced. However, there is limited evidence regarding its safety and efficacy. Therefore, a single center, retrospective study was conducted to address this issue. METHODS: Patients with pectus excavatum who underwent surgery between January 2015 and June 2017 were consecutively enrolled in this study. In all, 52 patients underwent the modified procedure using the introducer-bar complex (new procedure group), whereas 48 underwent the traditional anti-Nuss procedure (traditional procedure group). Outcomes analysis of balanced baseline was performed to compare the intraoperative and postoperative short-term outcomes. RESULTS: All patients in the new procedure group had shorter operation duration (51.54 ± 20.32 vs. 79.45 ± 13.88 min, p = 0.017), postoperative hospitalizations (4.77 ± 1.62 vs. 6.86 ± 2.18 days, p = 0.028), plate removal surgery durations (39.30 ± 8.97 vs. 60.30 ± 10.49 min, p < 0.001), and less blood loss during operation (6.25 ± 4.88 vs. 10.90 ± 5.75 ml, p = 0.003) than patients in the traditional procedure group. There was no significant difference in the length of incision, postoperative Haller index, cost, number of steel bars, postoperative surgical outcome and incidence of complications between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Through the main clinical outcome were similar, our results shown that modified procedure may have the shorter operation time, postoperative hospital stay, and operation time for plate removal and less blood loss, which may bring potential clinical benefits to patients.

4.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) diphosphorylase (UAP) catalyzes the formation of UDP-GlcNAc, the precursor for the production of chitin in ectodermally derived epidermal cells and midgut, for GlcNAcylation of proteins and for generation of glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol anchors in all tissues in Drosophila melanogaster. RESULTS: Here, we identified a putative HvUAP gene in Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata. Knockdown of HvUAP at the second-, third- and fourth-instar stages impaired larval development. Most resultant HvUAP hypomorphs showed arrested development at the third-, fourth-instar larval or prepupal stages, and became paralyzed, depending on the age when treated. Some HvUAP-silenced larvae had weak and soft scoli. A portion of HvUAP-depleted beetles formed misshapen pupae. No HvUAP RNA interference pupae successfully emerged as adults. Dissection and microscopic observation revealed that knockdown of HvUAP affected gut growth and food ingestion, reduced cuticle thickness, and negatively affected the formation of newly generated cuticle layers during ecdysis. Furthermore, HvUAP deficiency inhibited development of the tracheal respiratory system and thinned tracheal taenidia. CONCLUSION: The phenotypical defects in HvUAP hypomorphs suggest that HvUAP is involved in the production of chitin. Moreover, our findings will enable the development of a double-stranded RNA-based pesticide to control H. vigintioctopunctata.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577306

RESUMO

In the task of interactive image segmentation, the Inside-Outside Guidance (IOG) algorithm has demonstrated superior segmentation performance leveraging Inside-Outside Guidance information. Nevertheless, we observe that the inconsistent input between training and testing when selecting the inside point will result in significant performance degradation. In this paper, a deep reinforcement learning framework, named Inside Point Localization Network (IPL-Net), is proposed to infer the suitable position for the inside point to help the IOG algorithm. Concretely, when a user first clicks two outside points at the symmetrical corner locations of the target object, our proposed system automatically generates the sequence of movement to localize the inside point. We then perform the IOG interactive segmentation method for precisely segmenting the target object of interest. The inside point localization problem is difficult to define as a supervised learning framework because it is expensive to collect image and their corresponding inside points. Therefore, we formulate this problem as Markov Decision Process (MDP) and then optimize it with Dueling Double Deep Q-Network (D3QN). We train our network on the PASCAL dataset and demonstrate that the network achieves excellent performance.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
6.
Parasitol Res ; 120(11): 3805-3813, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546437

RESUMO

Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a common zoonotic nematode that inhabits the small intestine of humans, dogs, and cats. Saposin-like proteins (SLPs) have hemolytic and antibacterial activities and could be used as diagnostic or vaccine candidates. To explore the biological functions of Ancylostoma ceylanicum SLP (Ace-SLP-1), cDNA-encoding Ace-SLP-1 mature peptide was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) to induce expression. After incubation of canine red blood cell suspension with different concentrations of recombinant Ace-SLP-1, the supernatant was separated to measure OD value and calculate the hemolysis rate. The different concentrations of recombinant protein were co-cultured with E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis, and colony-forming units (CFU) were determined by the plate counting method. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy dogs were incubated with different concentrations of recombinant Ace-SLP-1, and the cytokine expression was evaluated by relative quantitative PCR. Our results showed that the hemolytic activity of Ace-SLP-1 increased with the increase in protein concentration from 25 to 100 µg/mL. The recombinant protein had no antibacterial activity against the two kinds of bacteria but could stimulate the secretion of cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-13) in canine PBMCs. These data suggest that Ace-SLP-1 is involved in hookworm blood-feeding and survival and has good immunogenicity, supporting its potential as a diagnostic and vaccine target molecule.

7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104934, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446203

RESUMO

Chitin synthase (CHS) plays a critical role in chitin synthesis and excretion. In most insects, CHSs have been segregated into 1 and 2 classes. CHS1 is responsible for chitin production in the ectodermally-derived epidermal cells. CHS2 is dedicated to chitin biosynthesis in the midgut peritrophic matrix (PM). Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata is a serious pest of Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae plants. In this study, we identified HvCHS1 and HvCHS2. We found that HvCHS1 was abundantly transcribed in the larval tracheae and epidermis, whereas HvCHS2 was mainly expressed in the guts. Escherichia coli HT115 expressed double stranded RNAs targeting HvCHS1 and HvCHS2 (dsCHS1 and dsCHS2) were used to immerse potato foliage and the treated leaves were provided to the newly-molted fourth- and third-instar larvae. Ingestion of dsCHS1 by the fourth-instar larvae significantly diminished the target mRNA level and had slight influence on the expression of HvCHS2. In contrast, consumption of dsCHS2 significantly lowered the target mRNA level but triggered the transcription of HvCHS1. Knockdown of HvCHS1, rather than HvCHS2, arrested larval development and impaired larva-pupa-adult transition. A large proportion of HvCHS1 hypomorphs became stunting prepupae, deformed pupae or misshapen adults. Moreover, knockdown of HvCHS1 damaged gut integrity, decreased cuticle thickness, and delayed the formation of newly-generated cuticle layer during ecdysis. Furthermore, depletion of HvCHS1 inhibited the development of trachea system and thinned tracheal taenidia. Ingestion of dsCHS1 at the third-instar stage caused similar but severe negative effects. Our results demonstrated that HvCHS1 is responsible for chitin biosynthesis during ecdysis. Moreover, HvCHS1 is a potential amenable target gene and young larvae are more susceptible to dsRNA.


Assuntos
Quitina Sintase , Besouros , Animais , Quitina/metabolismo , Quitina Sintase/genética , Quitina Sintase/metabolismo , Besouros/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Muda/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA
8.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 316, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Investigation of the prevalence of climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK) in Tacheng, Xinjiang, China. METHODS: A total of 1030 participants, in their 40s or older, from the Kazakh ethnic group in Tacheng, were randomly sampled by stratification method. Ophthalmic examinations and surveys were carried out on these participants. Factors associated with CDK were analyzed with logistic regression models. RESULTS: CDK was found in 66 (6.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9-7.9%) Kazakh individuals. After multiple regression model analysis, it demonstrated that age (< 0.001), exposure time (< 0.001), exposure protection (< 0.001), and vegetable intake (< 0.001) were of correlation with CDK, of which age (OR = 1.21[CI]: 1.16-1.27) and long-term outdoor exposure (OR = 2.42[CI]: 1.26-4.67) were the risk factors, and that vegetable intake (OR = 0.29[CI]: 0.14-0.59) and wearing a hat (OR = 0.24[CI]: 0.10-0.56) were protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study has revealed the risk and protective factors of CDK, providing a new insight on related research.


Assuntos
Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
Transl Oncol ; 14(11): 101187, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the value of locoregional radiotherapy (LRRT) in de novo metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (dmNPC) and identify predictive factors for additional LRRT after palliative chemotherapy (PCT). METHODS: Overall survival (OS) was the primary endpoint. Patients who underwent PCT and LRRT were categorized as the PCT+LRRT group; patients who only received palliative chemotherapy were categorized as the PCT group. Oligometastatic diseases (OMD) was defined as ≤5 metastatic lesions and ≤2 metastatic organs. RESULTS: A total of 168 patients were included for this study. The median OS of patients in the PCT+LRRT group was significantly higher than those in the PCT group (57 months vs. 22 months, P<0.001). Multivariate analyses (MVA) showed that LRRT (HR=0.533, 95% CI: 0.319-0.889, P = 0.016) and OMD (HR=0.548, 95% CI: 0.331-0.907, P = 0.019) were independent prognostic factors for dmNPC. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that the 3-year OS of patients who received LRRT was significantly better than those who did not receive LRRT in the OMD subgroup (66.3% vs. 25.2%, P<0.001). While, the 3-year OS of patients who received LRRT and without LRRT was no different in the polymetastatic disease (PMD) subgroup (38.9% vs.11.5%, P = 0.115). MVA showed that LRRT was a favorable prognosticator in the OMD subgroup (HR=0.308, 95% CI: 0.159-0.598; P<0.001), and not a favorable prognosticator in the PMD subgroup (HR=0.510, 95% CI: 0.256-1.014, P = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS: LRRT has the potential to prolong OS in NPC patients with de novo OMD. These results suggest that OMD is a potential indicator for filtering beneficiaries from LRRT.

10.
Parasitol Int ; 85: 102434, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375752

RESUMO

Ophidascaris species are parasitic roundworms that inhabit the python gut, resulting in severe granulomatous lesions or even death. However, the classification and nomenclature of these roundworms are still controversial. Our study aims to identify a snake roundworm from the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) and analyze the mitochondrial genome. We identified this roundworm as Ophidascaris baylisi based on the morphology and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) sequence. Ophidascaris baylisi complete mitochondrial genome was 14,784 bp in length, consisting of two non-coding regions and 36 mitochondrial genes (12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes). The protein-coding genes used TTG, ATG, ATT, or TTA as start codons and TAG, TAA, or T as stop codons. All tRNA genes showed a TV-loop structure, except trnS1AGN and trnS2UCN revealed a D-loop structure. The mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit 16S (rrnL) and small ribosomal subunit 12S (rrnS) were 956 bp and 700 bp long, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on O. baylisi mitochondrial protein-coding genes demonstrated that O. baylisi clustered with the family Ascarididae members and was most closely related to Ophidascaris wangi. These results may enhance the nematode mitochondrial genome database and provide valuable molecular markers for further research on the taxonomy, phylogeny, and genetic relationships of Ophidascaris nematodes.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(33): 13382-13392, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376050

RESUMO

The construction of carbon-heteroatom bonds is one of the most active areas of research in organic chemistry because the function of organic molecules is often derived from the presence of heteroatoms. Although considerable advances have recently been achieved in radical-involved catalytic asymmetric C-N bond formation, there has been little progress in the corresponding C-O bond-forming processes. Here, we describe a photoinduced copper-catalyzed cross-coupling of readily available oxime esters and 1,3-dienes to generate diversely substituted allylic esters with high regio- and enantioselectivity (>75 examples; up to 95% ee). The reaction proceeds at room temperature under excitation by purple light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and features the use of a single, earth-abundant copper-based chiral catalyst as both the photoredox catalyst for radical generation and the source of asymmetric induction in C-O coupling. Combined experimental and density functional theory (DFT) computational studies suggest the formation of π-allylcopper complexes from redox-active oxime esters as bifunctional reagents and 1,3-dienes through a radical-polar crossover process.

12.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 46(5): 637-643, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vancomycin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics for intra-articular (IA) infusion in the treatment of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). This study aimed to preliminarily investigate the serum and synovial vancomycin concentrations in patients with PJI after IA infusion. METHODS: In total, 16 patients who developed PJI were enrolled in this study; 14 of the patients were treated with IA infusion of vancomycin postoperatively, while the other 2 patients received intravenous (IV) infusion of vancomycin alone. Chemiluminescent immunoassay assay (CLIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to determine the serum and synovial vancomycin concentrations, respectively. RESULTS: Administration of vancomycin 0.5 g once daily (qd) IA maintained a high vancomycin trough concentration in synovial fluid before the next IA dose, regardless of whether it was given in combination with IV administration. The combination vancomycin 0.5 g qd IA + vancomycin 1 g every 12 h (q12h) IV yielded relatively good trough concentrations of vancomycin in both serum and synovial fluid. The mean trough serum vancomycin concentration of patients who used vancomycin 1 g q12h IV therapy was above 10 µg/mL; however, no vancomycin was detected in their synovial fluid. CONCLUSIONS: The rational use of IA vancomycin infusion may help to achieve effective therapeutic concentrations of vancomycin in the serum and synovial fluid of patients with PJI.

13.
Chemosphere ; 284: 131388, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225109

RESUMO

Underground coal mining produces large amounts of mine water annually in the Shendong mining area of China. Due to the severe scarcity of water resources, mine water is extensively used for productive, domestic, and ecological demands. However, mine water exhibits high fluoride levels. For water-use security, reduction of fluoride exposure and environmental protection, knowledge of sources and geochemical controls of fluoride enrichment in mine water is required. The results showed that F- concentrations of mine waters vary from 0.05 to 11.65 mg/L, with a mean value of 1.96 mg/L, and 51% of the mine waters contain F- concentrations exceeding the Chinese drinking water standard (1 mg/L). The overall mine water quality is influenced by cation exchange, mineral dissolution, pyrite oxidation, silicate weathering and so on. The high-fluoride mine waters are all associated with Na-type, with a remarkable cation composition feature of higher Na+ and lower Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations. Overall, the high-fluoride mine waters are well-matched with the water environment with higher pH, TDS, and EC levels. PCA reveals that the geochemical controls on the enrichment of F- in mine waters include dissolution of fluoride-bearing minerals and F--OH- ion exchange; the former process is mainly caused by the decrease in Ca2+ concentrations resulting from Na + -Ca2+ cation exchange and mineral precipitation, and the latter process benefits from a highly alkaline water environment, facilitating the substitution of OH- in the mine water for F- within or absorbed on the minerals. Evaporation also controls F- enrichment in local areas.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluoretos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3997, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183666

RESUMO

Despite obesity being a predisposing factor for pancreatic ß-cell dysfunction and loss, the mechanisms underlying its negative effect on insulin-secreting cells remain poorly understood. In this study, we identify an islet-enriched long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), which we name ß-cell function and apoptosis regulator (ßFaar). ßFaar is dramatically downregulated in the islets of the obese mice, and a low level of ßFaar is necessary for the development of obesity-associated ß-cell dysfunction and apoptosis. Mechanistically, ßFaar promote the synthesis and secretion of insulin by upregulating islet-specific genes Ins2, NeuroD1, and Creb1 through sponging miR-138-5p. In addition, using quantitative mass spectrometry, we identify TRAF3IP2 and SMURF1 as interacting proteins that are specifically associated with ßFaar. We demonstrate that SMURF1 ubiquitin ligase activity is essential for TRAF3IP2 ubiquitination and activation of NF-κB-mediate ß-cell apoptosis. Our experiments provide direct evidence that dysregulated ßFaar contributes to the development of obesity-induced ß-cell injury and apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Insulina/biossíntese , Obesidade/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Insulina/genética , Secreção de Insulina/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , MicroRNAs/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação/fisiologia
15.
Amino Acids ; 53(7): 1091-1104, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089391

RESUMO

Kynurenine pathway is critically important to catabolize tryptophan, to produce eye chromes, and to protect nervous system in insects. However, several issues related to tryptophan degradation remain to be clarified. In the present paper, we identified three genes (karmoisin, vermilion and cardinal) involved in kynurenine pathway in Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata. The karmoisin and cardinal were highly expressed in the pupae and adults having compound eyes. Consistently, high-performance liquid chromatography result showed that three ommochrome peaks were present in adult heads rather than bodies (thoraces, legs, wings and abdomens). RNA interference (RNAi)-aided knockdown of vermilion caused accumulation of tryptophan in both adult heads and bodies, disappearance of ommochromes in the heads and a complete loss of eye color in both pupae and adults. Depletion of cardinal brought about excess of 3-hydroxykynurenine and insufficient ommochromes in the heads and decolored eyes. RNAi of karmoisin resulted in a decrease in ommochromes in the heads, and a partial loss of eye color. Moreover, a portion of karmoisin-, vermilion- or cardinal-silenced adults exhibited negative phototaxis, whereas control beetles showed positive phototaxis. Furthermore, dysfunctions of tryptophan catabolism impaired climbing ability. Our findings clearly illustrated several issues related to kynurenine pathway and provided a new insight into the physiological importance of tryptophan catabolism in H. vigintioctopunctata.

16.
J Insect Physiol ; 132: 104266, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126099

RESUMO

Forkhead box O (FoxO) protein, a major downstream transcription factor of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling/target of rapamycin pathway (IIS/TOR), is involved in the regulation of larval growth and the determination of organ size. FoxO also interacts with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) signal transduction pathways, and hence is critical for larval development in holometabolans. However, whether FoxO plays a critical role during larval metamorphosis needs to be further determined in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. We found that 20E stimulated the expression of LdFoxO. RNA interference (RNAi)-aided knockdown of LdFoxO at the third-instar stage repressed 20E signaling and reduced larval weight. Although the resultant larvae survived through the third-fourth instar ecdysis, around 70% of the LdFoxO depleted moribund beetles developmentally arrested at prepupae stage. These LdFoxO depleted beetles were completely wrapped in the larval exuviae, gradually darkened and finally died. Moreover, approximately 12% of the LdFoxO RNAi beetles died as pharate adults. Ingestion of either 20E or JH by the LdFoxO depletion beetles excessively rescued the corresponding hormonal signals, but could not alleviate larval performance and restore defective phenotypes. Therefore, FoxO plays an important role in regulation of larval-pupal-adult transformation in L. decemlineata, in addition to mediation of IIS/TOR pathway and stimulation of ecdysteroidogenesis.


Assuntos
Besouros , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead , Metamorfose Biológica/genética , Animais , Besouros/embriologia , Besouros/genética , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Besouros/metabolismo , Ecdisterona/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Muda/genética , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais
17.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 720, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment volume for Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is still a subject of debate worldwide. The current study was aimed to determine the distances between recurring tumors and the edge of primary lesions, and thereby provide evidence for accurate target area delineation. METHODS: Between October 2007 and March 2019, 68 recurrent patients with GBM were included in our study. We measured the distance from the initial tumor to the recurrent lesion of GBM patients by expanding the initial gross tumor volume (GTV) to overlap the center of recurrent lesion, with the help of the Pinnacle Treatment Planning System. RESULTS: Recurrences were local in 47(69.1%) patients, distant in 12(17.7%) patients, and both in 9(13.2%) patients. Factors significantly influencing local recurrence were age (P = 0.049), sex (P = 0.049), and the size of peritumoral edema (P = 0.00). A total number of 91 recurrent tumors were analyzed. All local recurrences occurred within 2 cm and 94.8% (55/58) occurred within 1 cm of the original GTV based on T1 enhanced imaging. All local recurrences occurred within 1.5 cm and 98.3%(57/58) occurred within 0.5 cm of the original GTV based on T2-FLAIR imaging. 90.9% (30/33) and 81.8% (27/33) distant recurrences occurred >3 cm of T1 enhanced and T2-Flair primary tumor margins, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The 1 cm margin from T1 enhanced lesions and 0.5 cm margin from T2-Flair abnormal lesions could cover 94.8 and 98.3% local recurrences respectively, which deserves further prospective study as a limited but effective target area.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111010

RESUMO

Compared with traditional convolutions, grouped convolutional neural networks are promising for both model performance and network parameters. However, existing models with the grouped convolution still have parameter redundancy. In this article, concerning the grouped convolution, we propose a sharing grouped convolution structure to reduce parameters. To efficiently eliminate parameter redundancy and improve model performance, we propose a Bayesian sharing framework to transfer the vanilla grouped convolution to be the sharing structure. Intragroup correlation and intergroup importance are introduced into the prior of the parameters. We handle the Maximum Type II likelihood estimation problem of the intragroup correlation and intergroup importance by a group LASSO-type algorithm. The prior mean of the sharing kernels is iteratively updated. Extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate that on different grouped convolutional neural networks, the proposed sharing grouped convolution structure with the Bayesian sharing framework can reduce parameters and improve prediction accuracy. The proposed sharing framework can reduce parameters up to 64.17%. For ResNeXt-50 with the sharing grouped convolution on ImageNet dataset, network parameters can be reduced by 96.875% in all grouped convolutional layers, and accuracies are improved to 78.86% and 94.54% for top-1 and top-5, respectively.

19.
Bull Entomol Res ; : 1-10, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112278

RESUMO

Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata is one of the most serious insect pests to a large number of nightshades and cucurbits. RNA interference (RNAi) triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) offers a reduced risk approach to control the beetle. Identification of amenable target genes and determination of appropriate life stage for dsRNA treatment are two critical steps in order to improve RNAi efficiency. In the present paper, we identified three vATPase genes, namely HvvATPaseC, HvvATPaseE and HvvATPaseH. We found that the three transcripts were widely expressed in the eggs, first- to fourth-instar larvae, prepupae, pupae and adults. They were abundantly transcribed in the hindgut and Malpighian tubules, in contrast to the epidermis and fat body. Three days' ingestion of dsvATPaseC, dsvATPaseE and dsvATPaseH by the fourth-instar larvae significantly decreased corresponding transcript level by 90.1, 88.9 and 97.2%, greatly reduced larval fresh weight by 28.0, 29.9 and 28.0%, and caused 66.7, 100 and 78.7% larval lethality respectively. Comparably, 3 days' exposure of the third-instar larvae to dsvATPaseC significantly reduced HvvATPaseC mRNA level by 89.5%, decreased approximately 80% of the larval fresh weight, and killed 100% of the treated larvae. Therefore, the three vATPase genes, especially HvvATPaseE, are potential amenable target genes and young larvae are more susceptible to dsRNA. Our findings will enable the development of the dsRNA-based pesticide to control H. vigintioctopunctata.

20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(5): 1673-1680, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042361

RESUMO

Using DC3 high-resolution dendrometer and Granier-type thermal dissipation probes, we measured stem diameter micro-variations and xylem sap flow of two typical forestation species, Quercus liaotungensis and Robinia pseudoacacia, for a growing season in the loess hilly region of China. The main environmental factors (soil water content, solar radiation, air temperature and relative humidity) were monitored. The linkage between diameter micro-variations and transpiration water use were analyzed with respect to their responses to environmental factors. The results showed that the variations in stem diameter and sap flux density of both species had obvious diurnal rhythms. The maximum daily shrinkage was positively correlated with daily sap flux density. The micro-variation of stem diameter at the daily scale was affected by transpiration during the day. The maximum daily shrinkage of stem diameter was positively correlated and well fitted with transpiration driving factors (solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and the integrated variable VT). The difference in slopes of regression curves suggested that the daily variation of stem diameter in Q. liaotungensis was greater and more sensitive to meteorological factors than that in R. pseudoacacia. The sap flux densities of both tree species were higher during the period with relatively higher soil water content than that with lower soil water content. The difference of maximum daily diameter shrinkage between different soil water conditions was statistically significant in Q. liaotungensis, but not in R. pseudoacacia. These differences may be related to water use strategies, including transpiration regulation and stem water replenishment.


Assuntos
Transpiração Vegetal , Robinia , China , Estações do Ano , Solo , Árvores , Água/análise
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