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1.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 40(4): 282-284, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262383

RESUMO

Hereditary angioedema is a very disabling and even life-threatening chronic condition. A timely and proper diagnosis of the condition is critical in disease management. Unfortunately, there is the potential for misdiagnosis when using the current laboratory diagnostic tools. Physicians should understand the limitations of each diagnostic assay and judiciously establish this life-altering diagnosis.

2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(5): 1610-1618.e4, 2019 May - Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH) is characterized by swelling of subcutaneous and/or submucosal tissues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy/safety of fixed-dose subcutaneous plasma-derived C1-INH (pdC1-INH) liquid for HAE attack prevention (NCT02584959). METHODS: Eligible patients were ≥12 years with ≥2 monthly attacks prescreening or pre-long-term prophylaxis. In a partial crossover design, 80% of patients were randomized to placebo or pdC1-INH liquid for 14 weeks and crossed over from active to placebo or vice versa for another 14 weeks. The remainder were randomized to pdC1-INH liquid for 28 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was normalized number of attacks (NNA) versus placebo. Key additional endpoints were the proportion of patients achieving NNA reduction ≥50%, attack severity, number of attack-free days, and safety. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were randomized and 58 (77%) completed the study. Mean age 41 years; 88% HAE type I. Least-squares means of NNA were reduced from 3.9 with placebo to 1.6 with pdC1-INH (from day 1; P < .0001). Most patients had ≥50% NNA reduction with pdC1-INH (from day 1, 78%). A total of 8.8% of placebo-treated patients were attack-free and 5.3%, 22.8%, and 63.2% had mild, moderate, and severe attacks, respectively; 37.5% of pdC1-INH-treated patients were attack-free and 8.9%, 26.8%, and 26.8% had mild, moderate, and severe attacks, respectively. Treatment-emergent adverse event rates were similar between groups (52% vs 56% for pdC1-INH crossover vs placebo, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Fixed-dose subcutaneous pdC1-INH liquid was superior to placebo in preventing HAE attacks and demonstrated a favorable safety profile.

3.
JAMA ; 320(20): 2108-2121, 2018 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480729

RESUMO

Importance: Current treatments for long-term prophylaxis in hereditary angioedema have limitations. Objective: To assess the efficacy of lanadelumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that selectively inhibits active plasma kallikrein, in preventing hereditary angioedema attacks. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 41 sites in Canada, Europe, Jordan, and the United States. Patients were randomized between March 3, 2016, and September 9, 2016; last day of follow-up was April 13, 2017. Randomization was 2:1 lanadelumab to placebo; patients assigned to lanadelumab were further randomized 1:1:1 to 1 of the 3 dose regimens. Patients 12 years or older with hereditary angioedema type I or II underwent a 4-week run-in period and those with 1 or more hereditary angioedema attacks during run-in were randomized. Interventions: Twenty-six-week treatment with subcutaneous lanadelumab 150 mg every 4 weeks (n = 28), 300 mg every 4 weeks (n = 29), 300 mg every 2 weeks (n = 27), or placebo (n = 41). All patients received injections every 2 weeks, with those in the every-4-week group receiving placebo in between active treatments. Main Outcome and Measures: Primary efficacy end point was the number of investigator-confirmed attacks of hereditary angioedema over the treatment period. Results: Among 125 patients randomized (mean age, 40.7 years [SD, 14.7 years]; 88 females [70.4%]; 113 white [90.4%]), 113 (90.4%) completed the study. During the run-in period, the mean number of hereditary angioedema attacks per month in the placebo group was 4.0; for the lanadelumab groups, 3.2 for the every-4-week 150-mg group; 3.7 for the every-4-week 300-mg group; and 3.5 for the every-2-week 300-mg group. During the treatment period, the mean number of attacks per month for the placebo group was 1.97; for the lanadelumab groups, 0.48 for the every-4-week 150-mg group; 0.53 for the every-4-week 300-mg group; and 0.26 for the every-2-week 300-mg group. Compared with placebo, the mean differences in the attack rate per month were -1.49 (95% CI, -1.90 to -1.08; P < .001); -1.44 (95% CI, -1.84 to -1.04; P < .001); and -1.71 (95% CI, -2.09 to -1.33; P < .001). The most commonly occurring adverse events with greater frequency in the lanadelumab treatment groups were injection site reactions (34.1% placebo, 52.4% lanadelumab) and dizziness (0% placebo, 6.0% lanadelumab). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with hereditary angioedema type I or II, treatment with subcutaneous lanadelumab for 26 weeks significantly reduced the attack rate compared with placebo. These findings support the use of lanadelumab as a prophylactic therapy for hereditary angioedema. Further research is needed to determine long-term safety and efficacy. Trial Registration: EudraCT Identifier: 2015-003943-20; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02586805.

4.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 39(5): 365-370, 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first subcutaneous (SC) C1-esterase inhibitor concentrate (C1-INH) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in June 2017 as routine prophylaxis to prevent hereditary angioedema attacks in adolescents and adults at a dose of 60 IU/kg twice weekly based on the phase III Clinical Study for Optimal Management of Preventing Angioedema With Low-volume Subcutaneous C1-Inhibitor Replacement Therapy (COMPACT) trial. OBJECTIVE: This article aimed to evaluate the relationship of the C1-INH (SC) dose regimens tested in the COMPACT trial (40 IU/kg and 60 IU/kg twice weekly) and the occurrence of adverse events (AEs). METHODS: Patients were instructed to record any AEs in their e-diary daily. Safety and tolerability were assessed based on reported AEs, including injection-site reactions (ISRs); unsolicited AEs (AEs other than ISRs); serious AEs; thrombotic, thromboembolic, anaphylactic, hypersensitivity, sepsis, and bacteremia events; inhibitory antibodies to C1-INH; and clinically significant abnormalities in laboratory assessments. Information on ISRs was specifically solicited. RESULTS: No relationship between the dose of C1-INH (SC) and the incidence of ISRs or unsolicited AEs was observed. The proportion of injections followed by at least one ISR was 12% with C1-INH (SC) 40 IU/kg versus 5% with 60 IU/kg and 6% with placebo. No ISRs were serious or led to treatment discontinuation, and all resolved. There were no anaphylaxis, thromboembolic, sepsis, or bacteremia events reported during treatment with C1-INH (SC). All hypersensitivity AEs were nonserious, and the majority were assessed as being unrelated to treatment. No inhibitory antibodies to C1-INH were observed. CONCLUSION: C1-INH (SC) is safe and well tolerated with no dose-dependent safety concerns, as demonstrated in the COMPACT trial.Clinical trial NCT01912456, www.clinicaltrials.gov.

5.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 48(10): 1325-1332, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term prophylaxis with subcutaneous (SC) administration of a highly concentrated plasma-derived C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) formulation was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for hereditary angioedema (HAE) attack prevention. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of C1-INH (SC) (HAEGARDA® ; CSL Behring) in healthy volunteers and HAE patients, and assess the variability and influence of covariates on pharmacokinetics. METHODS: C1-INH functional activity data obtained after administration of various C1-INH (intravenous; IV) and C1-INH (SC) doses from 1 study in healthy volunteers (n = 16) and 2 studies in subjects with HAE (n = 108) were pooled to develop a population pharmacokinetic model (NONMEM v7.2). Pharmacokinetic parameters derived from steady-state simulations based on the final model were also evaluated. RESULTS: C1-INH functional activity following C1-INH (SC) administration was described by a linear one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination, with inter-individual variability in all parameters tested. The mean population bioavailability of C1-INH (SC), and pharmacokinetic parameters for clearance (CL), volume of distribution, and absorption rate were estimated to be ~43%, 1.03 mL/hour/kg, 0.05 L/kg and 0.0146 hour-1 , respectively. The effect of bodyweight on CL of C1-INH functional activity was included in the final model, estimated to be 0.74. Steady-state simulations of C1-INH functional activity vs time profiles in 1000 virtual HAE patients revealed higher minimum functional activity (Ctrough ) levels after twice-weekly dosing with 40 IU/kg (~40%) and 60 IU/kg (~48%) compared with 1000 IU IV (~30%). Based on the population pharmacokinetic model, the median time to peak concentration was ~59 hours and the median apparent plasma half-life was ~69 hours. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Twice-weekly bodyweight-adjusted dosing of C1-INH (SC) exhibits linear pharmacokinetics and dose-dependent increases in Ctrough levels at each dosing interval. In this analysis, SC dosing led to maintenance of higher Ctrough levels than IV dosing.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(5): 1733-1741.e3, 2018 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29391286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) impairs health-related quality of life (HRQoL). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess HRQoL outcomes in patients self-administering subcutaneous C1-INH (C1-INH[SC]; HAEGARDA) for routine prevention of HAE attacks. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of data from the placebo-controlled, crossover phase III COMPACT study (Clinical Studies for Optimal Management of Preventing Angioedema with Low-Volume Subcutaneous C1-Inhibitor Replacement Therapy). Ninety patients with C1-INH-HAE were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment sequences: C1-INH(SC) 40 or 60 IU/kg twice weekly for 16 weeks, preceded or followed by 16 weeks of twice weekly placebo injections. All HAE attacks were treated with open-label on-demand treatment as necessary. HRQoL assessments at week 14 (last visit) included the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI), and the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM). RESULTS: Compared with placebo (on-demand treatment alone), treatment with twice weekly C1-INH(SC) (both doses combined) was associated with better EQ-5D visual analog scale general health, less HADS anxiety, less WPAI presenteeism, work productivity loss, and activity impairment, and greater TSQM effectiveness and overall treatment satisfaction. More patients self-reported a "good/excellent" response during routine prevention with C1-INH(SC) compared with on-demand only (placebo prophylaxis) management. For each HRQoL measure, a greater proportion of patients had a clinically meaningful improvement during C1-INH(SC) treatment compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with frequent HAE attacks, a treatment strategy of routine prevention with self-administered twice weekly C1-INH(SC) had a greater impact on improving multiple HAE-related HRQoL impairments, most notably anxiety and work productivity, compared with on-demand treatment alone (placebo prophylaxis).

7.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 38(6): 456-461, 2017 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28874235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE) are debilitating and potentially life threatening, and can increase anxiety and the use of medical resources. OBJECTIVE: This post hoc assessment evaluated recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor (rhC1-INH) used to treat acute severe HAE attacks. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized-controlled trial (RCT), patients with an HAE attack (baseline visual analog scale score of ≥50 mm, with severe attacks defined as ≥75 mm) were randomly assigned to receive rhC1-INH (50 IU/kg for patients who weighed <84 kg; 4200 IU for patients who weighed ≥84 kg) or placebo. Also, in an open-label extension (OLE) study of rhC1-INH, oropharyngeal-laryngeal attacks were analyzed. Rescue therapy with rhC1-INH 50 IU/kg (≤4200 IU) was permitted after 4 hours or for life-threatening symptoms (in the RCT) or after 1 hour (in the OLE study). The primary end point measured the time to the beginning of symptom relief by using the Treatment Effects Questionnaire. RESULTS: Of 75 adults in the RCT, 43 had severe attacks and received either rhC1-INH (n = 24) or placebo (n = 19). The median (95% confidence interval) time to the onset of symptom relief totaled 90.0 minutes (95% confidence interval, 47.0-120.0 minutes) versus 334.0 minutes (95% confidence interval, 105.0 to not calculable minutes; hazard ratio, 2.5; p = 0.02), for rhC1-INH and placebo, respectively. Open-label rhC1-INH rescue therapy was administered to 1 of 24 in the rhC1-INH group (4.2%) and 10 of 19 in the placebo group (52.6%). During the OLE study, the median onset of symptom relief with rhC1-INH for eight oropharyngeal-laryngeal HAE attacks was 69.0 minutes (95% confidence interval, 59.0-91.0 minutes). CONCLUSION: In the current study, rhC1-INH was efficacious in resolving severe HAE attacks, including oropharyngeal-laryngeal attacks. The rhC1-INH rescue treatment rapidly improved symptoms for patients who received placebo and who experienced worsening or sustained symptoms.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 38(6): 462-466, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28903805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor (rhC1-INH) is approved for treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE) in adolescents and adults. HAE attacks that involve the upper airway can be life threatening, and data on the administration of rhC1-INH for these types of attacks are currently limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rhC1-INH for treatment of acute HAE attacks with upper airway involvement. METHODS: A pooled analysis of data from three clinical trials with open-label extensions examined rhC1-INH for treatment of acute HAE attacks with upper airway involvement. Patients with functional plasma C1 esterase inhibitor <50% of normal who had experienced an acute upper airway HAE attack and received rhC1-INH were identified retrospectively based on severity of breathing or swallowing symptoms. The primary end point was the time to beginning of relief (time at which the overall visual analog scale score [0-100 mm] decreased from baseline by ≥20 mm for two consecutive time points [persistence]). RESULTS: Of 683 acute HAE attacks treated with rhC1-INH, data for 45 attacks with upper airway involvement were included. The median time to the beginning of symptom relief was 67 minutes (95% confidence interval, 60-120 minutes) and did not differ by attack number or by baseline breathing or swallowing symptom severity. Most attacks (91.1%) achieved the beginning of relief within 4 hours of rhC1-INH treatment. All attacks resolved without the need for any additional medication, and no patients required intubation or tracheostomy. Treatment with rhC1-INH was well tolerated, with no adverse events reported in more than one patient (except HAE reported as an adverse event [n = 2]). CONCLUSION: This pooled analysis of clinical trial data supports the efficacy of rhC1-INH for treatment of acute HAE attacks with upper airway involvement.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Deglutição/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 5(6): 1671-1678.e2, 2017 Nov - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28601641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical manifestations of hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) usually begin in childhood, often intensifying during puberty. Currently there are insufficient efficacy/safety data for HAE therapies in children and adolescents due to the small number of pediatric patients enrolled in studies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this phase 3 study was to evaluate the efficacy/safety of a single subcutaneous dose of icatibant (0.4 mg/kg; maximum 30 mg) in pediatric patients with C1-INH-HAE. METHODS: Patients aged 2 years to younger than 18 years were categorized as prepubertal (children) and pubertal/postpubertal (adolescents). The primary end point was time to onset of symptom relief-earliest time posttreatment to 20% or more improvement in composite symptom score. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients received icatibant (safety population: 11 children with attack, 10 adolescents without attack, and 11 adolescents with attack). The efficacy population consisted of 11 children and 11 adolescents with edematous attacks. Most attacks in the efficacy population (16 [72.7%]) were cutaneous, 5 (22.7%) were abdominal, and 1 (4.5%) was both cutaneous and abdominal; none was laryngeal. Overall, the median time to onset of symptom relief was 1.0 hour, the same for children and adolescents. Thirty-two treatment-emergent adverse events (all mild or moderate) occurred in 9 (28.1%) patients. Gastrointestinal symptoms were most common (9 events in 3 [9.4%] patients). Injection-site reactions affected most (90.6%) patients (particularly erythema and swelling), but almost all resolved by 6 hours postdose. Icatibant demonstrated a monophasic plasma concentration-time profile. Time to peak concentration was approximately 0.5 hours postdose. CONCLUSIONS: Symptom relief was rapid, and a single icatibant injection in pediatric patients with C1-INH-HAE was well tolerated (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01386658).


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptor B2 da Bradicinina/uso terapêutico , Bradicinina/análogos & derivados , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/genética , Adolescente , Asfixia , Bradicinina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Puberdade , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
N Engl J Med ; 376(8): 717-728, 2017 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28225674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency is characterized by recurrent, unpredictable swelling episodes caused by uncontrolled plasma kallikrein generation and excessive bradykinin release resulting from cleavage of high-molecular-weight kininogen. Lanadelumab (DX-2930) is a new kallikrein inhibitor with the potential for prophylactic treatment of hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1b, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-ascending-dose trial. Patients with hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either lanadelumab (24 patients) or placebo (13 patients), in two administrations 14 days apart. Patients assigned to lanadelumab were enrolled in sequential dose groups: total dose of 30 mg (4 patients), 100 mg (4 patients), 300 mg (5 patients), or 400 mg (11 patients). The pharmacodynamic profile of lanadelumab was assessed by measurement of plasma levels of cleaved high-molecular-weight kininogen, and efficacy was assessed by the rate of attacks of angioedema during a prespecified period (day 8 to day 50) in the 300-mg and 400-mg groups as compared with the placebo group. RESULTS: No discontinuations occurred because of adverse events, serious adverse events, or deaths in patients who received lanadelumab. The most common adverse events that emerged during treatment were attacks of angioedema, injection-site pain, and headache. Dose-proportional increases in serum concentrations of lanadelumab were observed; the mean elimination half-life was approximately 2 weeks. Lanadelumab at a dose of 300 mg or 400 mg reduced cleavage of high-molecular-weight kininogen in plasma from patients with hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency to levels approaching that from patients without the disorder. From day 8 to day 50, the 300-mg and 400-mg groups had 100% and 88% fewer attacks, respectively, than the placebo group. All patients in the 300-mg group and 82% (9 of 11) in the 400-mg group were attack-free, as compared with 27% (3 of 11) in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In this small trial, administration of lanadelumab to patients with hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency reduced cleavage of high-molecular-weight kininogen and attacks of angioedema. (Funded by Dyax; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02093923 .).


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Calicreína Plasmática/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/sangue , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 37(6): 489-500, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27931305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The currently approved method of C1 inhibitor (C1 INH) administration for patients with hereditary angioedema with C1 INH deficiency (HAE) is by intravenous injection. A C1 INH subcutaneous formulation may provide an attractive mode of administration for some patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy and safety of two doses of subcutaneous, plasma-derived C1 INH with the dispersing agent, recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) to prevent angioedema attacks in patients with HAE. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging, crossover study, patients 12 years of age (n = 47) with a confirmed diagnosis of HAE were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous injections of 1000 U C1 INH with 24,000 U rHuPH20 or 2000 U C1 INH with 48,000 U rHuPH20 every 3 or 4 days for 8 weeks and then crossed-over for another 8-week period. The primary efficacy end point was the number of angioedema attacks during each treatment period. RESULTS: The study was terminated early as a precaution related to non-neutralizing antibodies to rHuPH20 in 45% of patients. The mean standard deviation number of angioedema attacks during the 8-week treatment periods were 1.58 1.59 with 1000 U C1 INH and 0.97 1.26 with 2000 U. The mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) within-patient difference (2000 U-1000 U, respectively) was 0.61 (95% CI, 1.23 to 0.01) attacks per month (p = 0.0523), and 0.56 (95% CI, 1.06 to 0.05) attacks that required acute treatment, (p = 0.0315). No deaths or other serious adverse events were reported. Injection-site reaction was the most common adverse event. CONCLUSION: Despite early termination, this study demonstrated a clinically and statistically significant difference in burden of disease, which favored 2000 U C1 INH, without associated serious adverse events.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/administração & dosagem , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Angioedemas Hereditários/diagnóstico , Criança , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/efeitos adversos , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/farmacocinética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/efeitos adversos , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/farmacocinética , Injeções Subcutâneas , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pediatrics ; 138(5)2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27940765

RESUMO

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a potentially life-threatening inherited disease characterized by attacks of skin swelling, severe abdominal pain, and upper airway swelling. Attacks typically begin in childhood, but the appropriate diagnosis is often missed. Attacks do not respond to epinephrine, antihistamines, or glucocorticoids. Recently, many effective drugs have been approved for treatment of adults with HAE, and the Medical Advisory Board of the HAE Patient's Association has developed and reported treatment recommendations for adults. Only 1 medication is approved for treatment of children <12 years of age, and there are no reported consensus recommendations for treatment of young children in the United States. The 11-member Medical Advisory Board, with extensive experience in the treatment of children, in concert with the leaders of the HAE Patient's Association, has developed these consensus recommendations to help in recognition, diagnosis, treatment of attacks, and prophylaxis of children with HAE.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Angioedemas Hereditários/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Angioedemas Hereditários/diagnóstico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Bradicinina/análogos & derivados , Bradicinina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento 1/uso terapêutico , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/uso terapêutico , Danazol/efeitos adversos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico
13.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 26(7): 674-80, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26171584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human plasma-derived nanofiltered C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH-nf) is used to treat acute angioedema attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE), but data regarding use in children are sparse. METHODS: Patients 2 to <12 years of age, body weight ≥10 kg, with a diagnosis of HAE type I or II, were recruited for a multicenter open-label trial. Patients were recruited into 2 weight categories (10-25 kg, >25 kg). Each weight category included 2 dosing levels: C1 INH-nf (500 units [U], 1000 U) and C1 INH-nf (1000 U, 1500 U), respectively. Patients experiencing an angioedema attack were given a single intravenous dose. Primary efficacy end-point was the onset of unequivocal relief of the defining symptom within 4 h following initiation of C1 INH-nf treatment. RESULTS: Nine children were treated: 3 (10-25 kg) received 500 U; 3 (>25 kg) received 1000 U; and 3 (>25 kg) received 1500 U. The lower weight/higher dose category (10-25 kg, 1000 U) was not successfully enrolled. All patients completed the study. Most angioedema attacks (n = 5) were abdominal. All patients met the primary end-point; median time to unequivocal symptom relief was 0.5 (range: 0.25-2.5) h. Doses of C1 INH-nf ranged from 20.8 to 51.9 U/kg. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of a single angioedema attack with C1 INH-nf doses of 500 U (in patients 10-25 kg), 1000 U, and 1500 U (in patients >25 kg) were well tolerated. Doses of C1 INH-nf <1000 U may be appropriate in some pediatric patients.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/uso terapêutico , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 36(3): 206-12, 2015 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25803135

RESUMO

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal-dominant disease characterized by recurring attacks of nonpruritic, nonpitting edema caused by an inherited deficiency or dysfunction of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH). Symptoms can present years before an accurate diagnosis is made. The objective of this study, the Angioedema Clinical Epidemiology Testing Initiative for the Study of Hereditary Angioedema, was to determine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of HAE in untested first-degree blood relatives of known patients with HAE. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of HAE recruited first-degree relatives who had not been evaluated for HAE. Enrolled subjects underwent complement testing (C4, C1 INH antigen, and functional C1 INH). If the lab tests were abnormal, the enrolled subjects returned to the site for a follow-up visit and questionnaire. Overall, 31 patients with HAE and 46 first-degree relatives enrolled in the study. Of 46 enrolled relatives, 30 (65%) had lab test results that ruled out a diagnosis of HAE, two (4%) were categorized as "HAE not ruled out," and 14 (30%) were newly diagnosed with HAE. Of 14 newly diagnosed subjects, nine (64%) reported having experienced symptoms that may have been related to HAE, such as swelling in the throat, face, or extremities or abdominal pain. When reported, median age of symptom onset in these 14 subjects was nine years whereas newly diagnosed asymptomatic subjects had a median chronological age of six years. These 14 subjects reported a historic mean standard deviation rate of 2.51 (5.59) swelling episodes per month with a mean standard deviation duration of 1.6 (0.74) days. This study's findings reinforce the importance of testing family members of patients with HAE to detect this hereditary condition.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/diagnóstico , Angioedemas Hereditários/epidemiologia , Família , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 3(3): 417-23, 2015 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25680925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) caused by a deficiency in functional C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) is characterized by recurrent episodes of cutaneous and/or mucosal/submucosal tissue swelling affecting multiple anatomic locations. Previous studies demonstrated efficacy of recombinant human C1INH (rhC1INH) for acute HAE attacks. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of rhC1INH (50 IU/kg) for the treatment of multiple HAE attacks in an open-label extension study. METHODS: Time to onset of symptom relief and time to minimal symptoms were assessed using a Treatment Effect Questionnaire (TEQ), a visual analog scale, and a 6-point ordinal scale Investigator Score. RESULTS: Forty-four patients received rhC1INH, and a single dose was administered for 215 of 224 (96%) attacks. Median time to beginning of symptom relief based on TEQ for the first 5 attacks was 75.0 (95% CI, 69-89) minutes, ranging from 62.5 (95% CI, 48-90) to 134.0 (95% CI, 32-119) minutes. Median time to minimal symptoms using TEQ for the first 3 attacks was 303.0 (95% CI, 211-367) minutes. rhC1INH was well tolerated. There were no discontinuations due to adverse events. No thrombotic or anaphylactic events were reported, and repeat rhC1INH treatments were not associated with neutralizing anti-C1INH antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: A single 50-IU/kg dose rhC1INH was effective for improving symptoms of an HAE attack with sustained efficacy for treatment of subsequent attacks. rhC1INH had a positive safety profile throughout the study. This study supports repeated use of rhC1INH over time in patients with HAE attacks.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento 1/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Angioedemas Hereditários/diagnóstico , Angioedemas Hereditários/imunologia , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento 1/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento 1/efeitos adversos , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1 , Esquema de Medicação , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Israel , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Indução de Remissão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 3(2): 206-212.e4, 2015 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25609335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ecallantide is a human plasma kallikrein inhibitor indicated for treatment of acute attacks of hereditary angioedema for patients 12 years of age and older. Ecallantide is produced in Pichia pastoris yeast cells by recombinant DNA technology. Use of ecallantide has been associated with a risk of hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this detailed retrospective data review was to characterize anaphylaxis cases within the ecallantide clinical trials database. METHODS: Potential cases of hypersensitivity reactions in the ecallantide clinical development program were identified by examining reported adverse events. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease criteria were used to identify those events that were consistent with anaphylaxis; these cases were then reviewed in detail. Results from investigational antibody testing also were examined. RESULTS: Among patients who received subcutaneous ecallantide (n = 230 patients; 1045 doses of 30 mg ecallantide), 8 patients (3.5%) had reactions that met the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease criteria for anaphylaxis; none occurred on first exposure to the drug. All 8 reactions had symptom onset within 1 hour of exposure and cutaneous manifestations commonly observed in type I hypersensitivity reactions. All the reactions responded to standard management of type I hypersensitivity reactions and resolved without fatal outcomes. IgE antibody testing to ecallantide or P pastoris was not consistently positive in patients who experienced apparent type I hypersensitivity reactions. CONCLUSION: Anaphylaxis episodes after subcutaneous ecallantide exposure have clinical features suggestive of type I hypersensitivity reactions. However, anti-ecallantide or anti-P pastoris IgE antibody status was not found to be reliably associated with anaphylaxis.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/induzido quimicamente , Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anafilaxia/sangue , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Anafilaxia/imunologia , Criança , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/sangue , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Injeções Intravenosas , Injeções Subcutâneas , Calicreínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Testes Cutâneos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 3(2): 200-5, 2015 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25609336

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Measuring functional C1 inhibitor (C1 INH) with chromogenic or ELISA methods can confirm a diagnosis of hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1 INH deficiency. Previous studies found differences in the agreement of these assays. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the agreement between chromogenic or ELISA methods in the context of an observational study. METHODS: Patients with previously confirmed HAE underwent functional C1 INH testing. These patients contacted first-degree relatives (parents, siblings, or offspring) not previously evaluated for HAE, who underwent a panel of complement testing, including for functional C1 INH. RESULTS: Overall, 31 patients with HAE and 46 untested relatives enrolled. Of 46 relatives, 14 (30.4%) were newly diagnosed with HAE based on their laboratory results. Among the 31 patients previously confirmed with HAE, all had low functional C1 INH according to the chromogenic method, whereas 22 (71.0%) had low, 7 (22.6%) had equivocal, and 2 (6.5%) had normal functional C1 INH according to the ELISA method. In the 14 newly diagnosed relatives, all had low functional C1 INH according to the chromogenic method, whereas 11 (78.5%) had low and 3 (21.4%) had equivocal results according to the ELISA method. CONCLUSION: Despite the apparent discordance in the ELISA and chromogenic assays in a small number of patients, both were useful in measuring functional C1 INH. To establish the diagnosis of HAE due to C1 INH deficiency, functional C1 INH results should be interpreted in combination with family and clinical history, and with other complement tests.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/diagnóstico , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Angioedemas Hereditários/sangue , Angioedemas Hereditários/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 35(5): 377-81, 2014 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25198193

RESUMO

Icatibant was efficacious and generally well tolerated for type I or II hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks in adults in the phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled For Angioedema Subcutaneous Treatment (FAST)-3 trial. The Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) is an international, observational study assessing icatibant treatment of HAE attacks. We conducted a posthoc analysis to compare for the first time the treatment of HAE type I or II attacks in patients prescribed icatibant in real-world (IOS) versus controlled trial settings (FAST-3). In FAST-3, patients received icatibant administered by health care professionals (HCPs). In IOS, patients self-administered icatibant or were treated by HCPs. Median time to treatment, time to resolution (almost complete resolution [FAST-3] or complete resolution [IOS]), and attack duration in patients who were treated by an HCP were compared between IOS and FAST-3. Descriptive statistical methods compared nonlaryngeal attacks treated less than 12 hours from attack onset. Analysis included 102 patients (376 attacks) from IOS and 43 patients (43 attacks) from FAST-3 (controlled phase). All endpoints were significantly longer for patients in FAST-3 (HCP administration) versus IOS (HCP administration) (p < .001; all comparisons). For FAST-3 (HCP administered) versus IOS (HCP administered), median time from attack onset to treatment was 6.5 versus 2.0 hours, median time to symptom resolution was 8.0 versus 3.5 hours, and median attack duration was 16.9 versus 7.3 hours, respectively. For combined HCP and self-administration in IOS, these endpoints were 1.6, 4.4, and 7.8 hours, respectively. This posthoc analysis showed for the first time that type I and II HAE attacks were treated earlier with icatibant in a real-world versus a phase III setting, with a shortened time to symptom resolution and attack duration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00912093 (FAST-3); NCT01034969 (IOS).


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptor B2 da Bradicinina/uso terapêutico , Bradicinina/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Angioedemas Hereditários/diagnóstico , Bradicinina/administração & dosagem , Bradicinina/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptor B2 da Bradicinina/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 27(6): 517-21, 2013 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24274230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laryngeal edema is a life-threatening manifestation of hereditary angioedema (HAE), an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by quantitative or functional C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH) deficiency. The preparation of nanofiltered C1 INH (C1 INH-nf) used in this study is indicated for routine prophylaxis against angioedema attacks in the United States and for treatment, preprocedure prevention, and routine prevention of HAE in Europe. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of C1 INH-nf when used for the treatment of laryngeal attacks. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of an open-label treatment study evaluated the effectiveness of C1 INH-nf in the treatment of laryngeal attacks in patients with HAE. Outcomes included unequivocal or clinical relief rates and time from treatment to onset of relief. Data were compiled from this and three other studies for post hoc dosing and tolerability analyses. In all studies, C1 INH-nf at 1000 U was administered i.v., with a second 1000-U dose given after 60 minutes if indicated. RESULTS: In the open-label treatment study, 60 (50/84) and 77% (65/84) of attacks achieved unequivocal relief within 1 and 4 hours, respectively, after treatment. Time to unequivocal relief was shorter with prompt treatment. When C1 INH-nf was administered within 4 hours of symptom onset, clinical relief was achieved in 94% (45/48) of attacks within 4 hours after treatment. Of 265 attacks from the four studies, 62% received two 1000-U doses of C1 INH-nf. No serious adverse events occurring within 7 days after treatment were attributed to study drug, and only one patient required intubation after receiving C1 INH-nf (14.5 hours after symptom onset). CONCLUSION: This analysis supports that C1 INH-nf is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for laryngeal angioedema attacks.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/uso terapêutico , Edema Laríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/administração & dosagem , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/efeitos adversos , Humanos
20.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 110(3): 168-72, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23548526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective treatment of acute attacks is critical in managing hereditary angioedema (HAE). Ecallantide, a plasma kallikrein inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of HAE attacks. Occasionally, a second dose is needed when treating attacks of HAE. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics of HAE attacks requiring a second dose (dose B) of ecallantide. METHODS: Data from all ecallantide clinical trials (EDEMA2, EDEMA4, and DX-88/19) that allowed an open-label dose B were included in this analysis. Patient and attack characteristics potentially predictive of dose B after ecallantide were analyzed by logistic regression. A multivariate model was built using a backward selection process, incorporating variables from the univariate model with P < .20 and removing factors with the highest P value until only significant (P < .05) factors remained. RESULTS: The analysis included 732 ecallantide-treated HAE attacks in 179 patients. Dose B was required in 88 attacks (12.0%), most (80.5%) for incomplete response. By attack location, 31 of 325 abdominal attacks (9.5%), 17 of 158 laryngeal attacks (10.8%), and 40 of 242 peripheral attacks (16.5%) required dose B. On the basis of the univariate analysis, baseline severity (odds ratio = 1.33, P = .15) and peripheral attack (odds ratio = 1.80, P = .01) were identified as potential predictive factors; abdominal attacks had an inverse correlation (odds ratio = 0.64, P = .055). However, the multivariate analysis identified only peripheral attacks as statistically significantly correlated (P < .05) with dose B requirement. CONCLUSION: A single, 30-mg dose of ecallantide was effective for most HAE attacks (88.0%). Patients with peripheral attacks of HAE were more likely to require a second dose of ecallantide after 4 hours. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: not applicable for EDEMA2 (trial was conducted before registration requirements were implemented), NCT00457015 for EDEMA4, and NCT00456508 for DX-88/19.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/diagnóstico , Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Angioedemas Hereditários/fisiopatologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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