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1.
Pediatr Neurol ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffuse white matter abnormality (diffuse excessive high signal intensity) is the most common finding on structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term-equivalent age in very preterm infants. Yet, there remains a large gap in our understanding of the etiology of diffuse white matter abnormality. Our objective was to evaluate perinatal and neonatal inflammation-associated antecedents of diffuse white matter abnormality on MRI. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 110 very preterm infants born at ≤31 weeks gestational age and collected data on multiple perinatal/neonatal exposures, especially inflammation initiating-illnesses. We performed structural MRI at term-equivalent age and quantified the volume of diffuse white matter abnormality objectively. Multivariable regression was used to identify clinical antecedents of diffuse white matter abnormality. RESULTS: The mean (S.D.) birth gestational age of the final study sample of 98 very preterm infants was 28.3 (2.5) weeks. Multiple inflammation initiating-illnesses were associated with diffuse white matter abnormality in univariate analyses. In multivariable linear regression analyses controlling for gestational age, severe retinopathy of prematurity (P < 0.001) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (P = 0.006) were independent risk factors, whereas maternal treatment with 17-hydroxyprogesterone (P < 0.001) was protective of later development of objectively quantified diffuse white matter abnormality. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several perinatal and neonatal antecedent clinical factors associated with diffuse white matter abnormality. Although we found some support for inflammation as a common underlying mechanism, larger studies are needed to validate inflammation as a potential common pathway to the development of diffuse white matter abnormality in very preterm infants.

2.
Arch Dis Child ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety of ceftriaxone in paediatric patients and systematically evaluate the categories and incidences of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of ceftriaxone in paediatric patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and bibliographies of relevant articles up to December 2018 for all types of studies that assessed the safety of ceftriaxone in paediatric patients aged ≤18 years. RESULTS: 112 studies met the inclusion criteria involving 5717 paediatric patients who received ceftriaxone and reported 1136 ADRs. The most frequent ADRs reported in prospective studies were gastrointestinal (GI) disorders (37.4 %, 292/780), followed by hepatobiliary disorders (24.6%, 192/780). Serious ADRs leading to withdrawal or discontinuation of ceftriaxone were reported in 86 paediatric patients. Immune haemolytic anaemia (34.9%, 30/86) and biliary pseudolithiasis (26.7%, 23/86) were the two major causes. Haemolytic anaemia following intravenous ceftriaxone led to death in 11 children whose primary disease was sickle cell disease. Almost all biliary pseudolithiasis are reversible. However, the incidence was high affecting one in five paediatric patients (20.7%). CONCLUSIONS: GI ADRs are the most common toxicity of ceftriaxone in paediatric patients. Immune haemolytic anaemia and biliary pseudolithiasis are the most serious ADRs and the major reasons for discontinuation of ceftriaxone. Immune haemolytic anaemia is more likely in children with sickle cell disease and may cause death. Ceftriaxone should be used with caution in children with sickle cell disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017055428.

3.
Nanotechnology ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150737

RESUMO

Heterostructures composed of nano-/micro-junctions, combining the excellent photon harvesting properties of nano-system and ultrafast carrier transfer of micro-system, have shown promising role in high-performance photodetectors. Here, in this paper a highly-sensitive trilayer self-powered perovskite-based photodetector ITO/ZnO(70nm)/CdS(150nm)/CsPbBr3(200nm)/Au, in which the CdS nanorods (NRs) layer is sandwiched between ZnO/CsPbBr3 interface to reduce the interfacial charge carriers' recombination and the charge transport resistance, is presented. Due to the strong built-in potential and the internal driving electric-field, an ultra-high On/Off current ratio of 106 with a responsivity of 86 mA/W and a specific detectivity of 6.2×1011 Jones was obtained at zero bias under 85 µW/cm2 405 nm illumination, and its rise/decay time at zero bias is 0.3/0.25 s. Therefore, the enhanced device performance strongly suggest the great potential of such a kind of trilayer heterojunction devices for high-performance perovskite photodetectors.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e18572, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080071

RESUMO

Stereotactic biopsy (STB) is commonly used in the pathological diagnosis of intracranial lesions. The associated complication and mortality rates are low, but few reports with large sample sizes have assessed the complications of STB for lesions in the brain midline.To evaluate the complications of STB of lesions in the sellar region, pineal region, and brainstem.This was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent STB of lesions in the sellar region, pineal region, and brainstem at the Neurosurgery Department, Sixth Medical Center, PLA General Hospital, China, between January 2015 and December 2017. The rates of and possible reasons for surgical complications (including bleeding) and mortality were analyzed.A total of 145 patients underwent STB of midline brain lesions, including 16 (11.0%) in the sellar region, 18 (12.4%) in the pineal region, and 111 (76.6%) in the brainstem. Successful biopsy of the sellar region, pineal region, and brainstem was achieved in 16/16 (100%), 18/18 (100%), and 107/111 (96.4%) patients, respectively. There were no complications following STB of lesion in the sellar or pineal regions. Complications occurred in 17/111 patients (15.3%) during/after brainstem biopsy, three of whom died (2.7%). The main clinical manifestations were facioplegia, facial pain, changes in blood pressure and heart rate, and difficulty breathing.STB of lesions in the sellar region, pineal region, and brainstem had a high success rate, but mortality was 2.7%. The occurrence of complications (15.3%) was closely related to the anatomical and functional characteristics of the region biopsied.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glândula Pineal/patologia , Sela Túrcica/patologia , Técnicas Estereotáxicas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tronco Encefálico/patologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândula Pineal/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas Estereotáxicas/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Water Res ; 174: 115626, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101786

RESUMO

In this work, Fe(II) catalyzing sodium percarbonate (Fe(II)/SPC) was managed to facilitate waste activated sludge (WAS) dewatering for the first time. The results showed that after WAS was treated by 20 mg/g total suspended solids (TSS) Fe(II) and 50 mg/g TSS SPC, the water content of sludge cake (WCSC) by press filtration and capillary suction time (CST) dropped from 90.8% ± 1.6% and 96.1 ± 4.0 s (the control) to 55.6% ± 1.4% and 30.1 ± 2.5 s, respectively. The mechanism investigations indicated that four intermediates or products (i.e., •OH, H2O2, Fe(II), and Fe(III)) generated in the Fe(II)/SPC process were responsible for the improved WAS dewaterability, and •OH and Fe(III) were the two major contributors. It was found that •OH collapsed and fragmented extracellular polymeric substances, damaged cell wall and permeabilized cytoplasmic membrane, and transformed conformation of the extracellular proteins secondary structure via both affecting the hydrogen bond maintaining α-helix and cracking disulfide bond in cysteine residues while Fe(III), the oxidization product of Fe(II), decreased the surface electronegativity and water-affinity surface areas of WAS flocs. As a result, the bound water release, flocculability, surface hydrophobicity, drain capability, and flowability of WAS flocs were strengthened whereas the compact surface structure, colloidal forces, network strength, gel-like structure, and apparent viscosity of WAS flocs were weakened. In addition, Fe(II)/SPC process also reduced the recalcitrant organics and fecal coliforms in sludge, which facilitated land application of dewatered sludge. The findings acquired in this work not only deepens our understanding of Fe(II)/SPC-involved WAS treatment process but also may guide engineers to develop both effective and promising strategies to better condition WAS for dewatering in the future.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3124, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080263

RESUMO

With the rapid development of wearable and portable electronic devices, it is increasingly important to develop conductive paper-like films (CPFs) with the characteristics of light, thin and self-supporting. In this paper, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was used as reinforcing phase of film-forming to combine with graphene oxide (GO). Then graphene-based CPFs were prepared by directly reducing the GO/NFC composite film without any additional adhesives, which effectively avoided the difficulties of dispersion and combination with other materials caused by direct using of high content graphene. Meanwhile, three representative reduction methods for direct reduction of GO/NFC composite films were also compared. The results show that 450 °C thermal reduction and hydroiodic acid reduction were more effective than ascorbic acid reduction. On this basis, hydroiodic acid reduction and thermal reduction were used to discuss the effect of NFC addition to the conductivity of the film. This occured when increasing the content of NFC from 10% to 50%, the electrical conductivity of the composite film by hydroiodic acid reduction decreased from 153.8 S/m to 22.2 S/m. While the conductivity of composite film increased first and then decreased after thermal reduction both at 450 °C and 550 °C. What's more, when NFC content was about 16.6% the electrical conductivity reached a high level which was 86.21 S/m and 168.9 S/m, respectively. This study provides a groundwork for the further development of graphene-based CPFs with low square resistance and high conductivity in large-scale preparation.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Serum CA72-4 levels are elevated in some gout patients but this has not been comprehensively described. The present study profiled serum CA72-4 expression in gout patients and verified the hypothesis that CA72-4 is a predictor of future flares in a prospective gout cohort. METHODS: To profile CA72-4 expression, a cross-sectional study was conducted in subjects with gouty arthritis, asymptomatic hyperuricaemia, four major arthritis types (OA, RA, SpA, septic arthritis) and healthy controls. A prospective gout cohort study was initiated to test the value of CA72-4 for predicting gout flares. During a 6-month follow-up, gout flares, CA72-4 levels and other gout-related clinical variables were observed at 1, 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: CA72-4 was highly expressed in patients with gouty arthritis [median (interquartile range) 4.55 (1.56, 32.64) U/ml] compared with hyperuricaemia patients [1.47 (0.87, 3.29) U/ml], healthy subjects [1.59 (0.99, 3.39) U/ml] and other arthritis patients [septic arthritis, 1.38 (0.99, 2.66) U/ml; RA, 1.58 (0.95, 3.37) U/ml; SpA, 1.56 (0.98, 2.85) U/ml; OA, 1.54 (0.94, 3.34) U/ml; P < 0.001, respectively]. Gout patients with frequent flares (twice or more in the last year) had higher CA72-4 levels than patients with fewer flares (fewer than twice in the last year). High CA72-4 level (>6.9 U/ml) was the strongest predictor of gout flares (hazard ratio = 3.889). Prophylactic colchicine was effective, especially for patients with high CA72-4 levels (P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: CA72-4 levels were upregulated in gout patients who experienced frequent flares and CA72-4 was a useful biomarker to predict future flares.

8.
J Hazard Mater ; 392: 122323, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097857

RESUMO

A considerable amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is emitted, and a vast amount of citric acid residue (CAR) waste is simultaneously produced during citric acid production. Thus, a suitable method realizing the clean production of citric acid must be developed. This study investigated the adsorption of the multicomponent VOCs in a homemade CAR waste-based activated carbon (CAR-AC). A fixed-bed experimental setup was used to explore the adsorption and desorption of single- and multi-component VOCs. Surface adsorption and diffusion molecular models with different defects were built to study the underlying adsorption and diffusion mechanisms of multicomponent VOCs on CAR-AC. The adsorption amount of ethyl acetate in CAR-AC from multicomponent VOCs was 3.04 and 5.91 times higher than those of acetone and acetaldehyde, respectively, and the interaction energy between ethyl acetate and C surfaces was low at -13.41 kcal/mol. During desorption, the most weakly adsorbed acetaldehyde desorbed from the surface of CAR-AC first, followed by acetone and ethyl acetate. The regeneration efficiencies of acetaldehyde, acetone, and ethyl acetate reached 88.77, 85.55, and 91.46 %, respectively, after four adsorption/desorption cycles. We aimed to provide a new strategy to realize the recycle use of CAR and the clean production of citric acid.

9.
Environ Technol ; : 1-10, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928335

RESUMO

Developing efficient sorbents with rapid kinetics is the main challenge encountered for Hg0 capture from coal combustion flue gas in a sorbent injection scenario. Binary mineral sulfide-based materials combining copper sulfide (CuS) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) to exert their capabilities for Hg0 capture at the low- and high-temperature was for the first time reported for Hg0 removal to realize a wide temperature range sorbents. When the molar ratio between CuS and ZnS was 10%, the as-synthesized 10Cu-Zn nanocomposite exhibited excellent Hg0 uptake rate at 150°C that could degrade 40 µg/m3 of Hg0 to undetectable level at the end of a 60-s experiment with the dosage of only 1 mg. This Hg0 uptake rate is folds higher compared to that when bare CuS or ZnS was adopted alone at this specific temperature. The typical flue gas atmospheres had negligible effect on Hg0 removal over 10Cu-Zn in a short contact time, which further suggests that the binary sorbents were proper to be injected before the electrostatic precipitator system. Moreover, it is found that, by adjusting the ratio between CuS and ZnS, it is potential to develop binary sorbent suiting any temperature conditions that may achieve an exceedingly high Hg0 capture performance. Thus, this work not only justified the candidature of 10Cu-Zn as a promising alternative to traditional activated carbon for Hg0 capture from coal combustion flue gas but also guided the future development of multi-component mineral sulfide-based sorbents for Hg0 pollution remediation from various industrial flue gases.

10.
Indoor Air ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943395

RESUMO

Thermal comfort is an important factor for the design of buildings. Although it has been well recognized that many physiological parameters are linked to the state of thermal comfort or discomfort of humans, how to use physiological signal to judge the state of thermal comfort has not been well studied. In this paper, the feasibility of continuously determining feelings of personal thermal comfort was discussed by using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in private space. In the study, 22 subjects were exposed to thermally comfortable and uncomfortably hot environments, and their EEG signals were recorded. Spectral power features of the EEG signals were extracted, and an ensemble learning method using linear discriminant analysis or support vector machine as a sub-classifier was used to build the discriminant model. The results show that an average discriminate accuracy of 87.9% can be obtained within a detection window of 60 seconds. This study indicates that it is feasible to distinguish whether a person feels comfortable or too hot in their private space by multi-channel EEG signals without interruption and suggests possibility for further applications in neuroergonomics.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 113986, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995779

RESUMO

Heavy metal contamination in the Bohai Sea (China) has been the focus of many studies, but most of them only focused on local pollution levels and thus lacked high spatial resolution for the whole sea. In this study, heavy metals (i.e., As, Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Fe) in surface sediments were analyzed to assess the spatio-temporal pollution conditions of the Bohai Sea, an important coastal environment consisting of Bohai Bay, Laizhou Bay, and Liaodong Bay. The results indicated that the heavy metal concentration in the sediments was in the range of 6.43-32.18 mg/kg for As, 14.90-58.07 mg/kg for Cr, 3.90-27.19 mg/kg for Cu, 0.04-0.27 mg/kg for Cd, 11.09-30.95 mg/kg for Pb, 18.76-65.58 mg/kg for Zn, and 0.78%-2.55% for Fe. The distribution of heavy metals revealed that the concentrations were relatively low in Laizhou Bay, very high in the northwest coastal region of the Bohai Sea, and decreased from near-shore to off-shore areas. Moreover, both the enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index demonstrated that there was no contamination to be found for Cr, Cu, Zn in the region and a slight to moderate pollution of As, Cd, and Pb. Cd and As presented considerable potential ecological risk as a result of their high toxicity. The potential ecological risk index (RI) suggested that a third of the areas (northwest coastal area of the Bohai Sea) has moderate ecological risk. The risk area was generally decreased as offshore distance increased, which suggested that the contamination and risk of heavy metals are influenced by anthropogenic activities.

12.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(1): 9-16, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of keto acid (KA) supplements on Chinese patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of KA supplementation on nutritional status, inflammatory markers, and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) parameters in a cohort of Chinese patients with MHD without malnutrition. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-center clinical study conducted in 2011 till 2014. Twenty-nine patients with MHD were randomly assigned to a control (n = 14) or a KA (n = 15) group. The control group maintained a dietary protein intake of 0.9 g/kg/day. The KA group received additional KA supplement (0.1 g/kg/day). BIA was used to determine the lean tissue mass, adipose tissue mass, and body cell mass. The patients' nutritional status, dialysis adequacy, and biochemical parameters were assessed at the ends of the third and sixth months with t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. RESULTS: The daily total energy intake for both groups was about 28 kcal/kg/day. After 6 months, the Kt/V (where K is the dialyzer clearance of urea, t is the dialysis time, and V is the volume of the distribution of urea) was 1.33 ±â€Š0.25 in KA group, and 1.34 ±â€Š0.25 in the control group. The median triceps skin-fold thickness in KA group was 12.00 and 9.00 mm in the control group. In addition, the median hand-grip strength in KA group was 21.10 and 25.65 kg in the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the anthropometry parameters, dialysis adequacy, serum calcium and phosphorus levels, inflammatory markers, and amino-acid profiles, or in relation to the parameters determined by BIA. Both groups achieved dialysis adequacy and maintained nutritional status during the study. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of Chinese patients with MHD, the patients in the control group whose dietary protein intake was 0.9 g/kg/day and total energy intake was 28 kcal/kg/day, maintained well nutritional status during study period. The KA supplement (0.1 g/kg/day) did not improve the essential amino acid/non-essential amino acid ratio, nor did it change the patients' mineral metabolism, inflammatory parameters, or body compositions.

13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 2022-2030, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909975

RESUMO

Mercury emission from industrial activities is a great threat to public health and ecosystems. Developing new strategies and materials to remove mercury still remains a serious task. Herein, selenide-decorated copper foam prepared by a heating-stirring method (Cu-hs) was used as a monolithic mercury adsorption material. The Cu-hs exhibited much better adsorption of elemental mercury (Hg0) compared with the selenide-decorated cordierite honeycomb prepared by the same method (Cordierite-hs). Nearly 100% Hg0 adsorption efficiency was obtained under a high gaseous hourly space velocity of 6.0 × 104. Excellent Hg0 adsorption capacity was obtained in a wide range of reaction temperatures from 40 to 120 °C, suggesting the good adaptability of Cu-hs in different operating conditions. The Cu-hs exhibited high selectivity for Hg0 against H2O and SO2, which is advantageous for real applications in industrial flue gas. The Hg0 adsorption capacity of Cu-hs reached 3743 g/m3, about 14 times higher than the 243 g/m3 of Cordierite-hs. The excellent Hg0 adsorption performance of Cu-hs was attributed to the high affinity of the selenium in Cu2Se for mercury, the homogeneous distribution of Cu2Se, and the superior fluid characteristics of the Cu foam substrate. The adsorption performance of the spent Cu-hs could be effectively recovered by HCl solution leaching and subsequent reselenization. The utilization of recyclable Cu-hs provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for removing mercury from industrial flue gas.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Adsorção , Cobre , Ecossistema , Gases
14.
Adv Mater ; 32(7): e1905679, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736168

RESUMO

To meet the practical demand of overall water splitting and regenerative metal-air batteries, highly efficient, low-cost, and durable electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are required to displace noble metal catalysts. In this work, a facile solid-state synthesis strategy is developed to construct the interfacial engineering of W2 N/WC heterostructures, in which abundant interfaces are formed. Under high temperature (800 °C), volatile CNx species from dicyanodiamide are trapped by WO3 nanorods, followed by simultaneous nitridation and carbonization, to form W2 N/WC heterostructure catalysts. The resultant W2 N/WC heterostructure catalysts exhibit an efficient and stable electrocatalytic performance toward the ORR, OER, and HER, including a half-wave potential of 0.81 V (ORR) and a low overpotential at 10 mA cm-2 for the OER (320 mV) and HER (148.5 mV). Furthermore, a W2 N/WC-based Zn-air battery shows outstanding high power density (172 mW cm-2 ). Density functional theory and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis computations reveal that W2 N/WC interfaces synergistically facilitate transport and separation of charge, thus accelerating the electrochemical ORR, OER, and HER. This work paves a novel avenue for constructing efficient and low-cost electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy devices.

15.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 45(2): 134-141, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765114

RESUMO

Background: The specific role of the corticospinal tract with respect to inattention and impulsive symptoms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been explored in the past. However, to our knowledge, no study has identified the exact regions of the corticospinal tract that are affected in ADHD. We aimed to determine comprehensive alterations in the white matter microstructure of the corticospinal tract and underlying neuropsychological substrates in ADHD. Methods: We recruited 38 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 34 typically developing controls. We employed a tract-based quantitative approach to measure diffusion parameters along the trajectory of the corticospinal tract, and we further correlated alterations with attention and response inhibition measures. Results: Compared with controls, children with ADHD demonstrated significantly lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity at the level of cerebral peduncle, and higher fractional anisotropy at the level of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in the right corticospinal tract only. As well, increased fractional anisotropy in the posterior limb of the internal capsule was negatively correlated with continuous performance test attention quotients and positively correlated with reaction time on the Stroop Colour­Word Test; increased radial diffusivity in the right peduncle region was positively correlated with omissions in the Stroop test. Limitations: The sample size was relatively small. Moreover, we did not consider the different subtypes of ADHD and lacked sufficient power to analyze subgroup differences. Higher-order diffusion modelling is needed in future white matter studies. Conclusion: We demonstrated specific changes in the right corticospinal tract in children with ADHD. Correlations with measures of attention and response inhibition underscored the functional importance of corticospinal tract disturbance in ADHD.

16.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 41(3): 348-357, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506573

RESUMO

Intestinal mucositis is a common side effect of anticancer regimens that exerts a negative impact on chemotherapy. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a potential therapy for mucositis but efficient product is not available because the enzyme is degraded following oral administration or induces an immune reaction after intravascular infusion. Multi-modified Stable Anti-Oxidant Enzymes® (MS-AOE®) is a new recombinant SOD with better resistance to pepsin and trypsin. We referred it as MS-SOD to distinguish from other SODs. In this study we investigated its potential to alleviate 5-FU-induced intestinal injury and the mechanisms. An intestinal mucositis model was established in C57/BL6 mice by 5-day administration of 5-FU (50 mg/kg every day, ip). MS-SOD (800 IU/10 g, ig) was given once daily for 9 days. 5-FU caused severe mucositis with intestinal morphological damage, bodyweight loss and diarrhea; MS-SOD significantly decreased the severity. 5-FU markedly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines in the intestine which were ameliorated by MS-SOD. Furthermore, MS-SOD modified intestinal microbes, particularly reduced Verrucomicrobia, compared with the 5-FU group. In Caco2 cells, MS-SOD (250-1000 U/mL) dose-dependently decreased tBHP-induced ROS generation. In RAW264.7 cells, MS-SOD (500 U/mL) had no effect on LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines, but inhibited iNOS expression. These results demonstrate that MS-SOD can scavenge ROS at the initial stage of injury, thus play an indirect role in anti-inflammatory and barrier protein protection. In conclusion, MS-SOD attenuates 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation, and influencing microbes. MS-SOD may exert beneficial effect in prevention of intestinal mucositis during chemotherapy in clinic.

17.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 194(2): 432-442, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264129

RESUMO

Fifty male mice were exposed to 50 nm unmodified nano-ZnO through intragastric administration for 90 days to detect the long-term effects of unmodified nano-ZnO in mice. Results showed that the blood glucose, serum follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, and estradiol were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased (p < 0.05). The semen quality of the 160 mg/kg·bw group were significantly lowered (p < 0.05). The liver and testis catalase and CuZn-SOD activities were significantly elevated (p < 0.05). The abilities of •OH inhibition in the livers and testes of the 160 mg/kg·bw group were significantly lowered (p < 0.05). The liver and testis MDA levels of the 160 mg/kg·bw group were significantly elevated (p < 0.05). Results indicate that exposure of nano-ZnO could induce lipid metabolism disorder, hyperlipidemia, and reproductive toxicity to male mice through oxidative injury.

18.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 194(2): 443, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338805

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The correct title should be "The Effects of 50 nm Unmodified Nano-ZnO on Lipid Metabolism and Semen Quality in Male Mice". The original article has been corrected.

19.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 35(3): 441-446, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hyperuricemia is increasing in adults, while the prevalence among adolescents is seldom reported. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey by multistage, stratified sampling method was carried out in Shandong Province during 2017-2018. A total of 9371 adolescents aged from 13 to 19 years were randomly sampled and analyzed in this survey. RESULTS: The overall mean serum uric acid (sUA) concentration was 6.08 ± 1.57 mg/dL and overall hyperuricemia prevalence was 25.4% and 60.5% (when hyperuricemia was defined as sUA ≥ 7 mg/dL or ≥ 5.5 mg/dL). Prevalence were 42.3% (male) and 8.0% (female) when limit was 7 mg/dL and prevalence were 82.1% (male) and 38.4% (female) when limit was 5.5 mg/dL. Male gender, increased body mass index, increased waist circumstance, increased triglycerides, increased fasting blood glucose, increased systolic blood pressure, decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate, and positive family gout history were associated with the enhanced risk of hyperuricemia according to univariate and/or multivariate logistic regression analysis. Food intake frequency of carbonate beverage, mutton, and other kinds varied between hyperuricemia adolescents and normal sUA ones. CONCLUSIONS: The studied adolescent population showed sUA level and hyperuricemia prevalence which are even higher than those of adults in China. The epidemic of youth hyperuricemia may pose a future threat of gout attacks and other hyperuricemia-related diseases, which alarms the public, health professionals and health policy makers to prepare the future health challenges.

20.
Bioresour Technol ; 299: 122625, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881437

RESUMO

The production of high-purity xylobiose from lignocellulose is an expensive and tedious process. In this work, the production of xylobiose from enzymatic hydrolysis of alkaline oxidation pretreated sugarcane bagasse was investigated. Furthermore, a simple process for the separation of xylobiose from enzymatic hydrolysate by activated carbon absorption, water washing, and ethanol-water desorption was developed. Under the optimized separation conditions, 96.77% xylobiose was adsorbed at 16% activated carbon loadings. Moreover, xylose and acetate could not be detected after washing by 3-fold volume of water. Xylobiose with 80.16% yield was eluted by 5-fold volume of 5% (v/v) ethanol-water. The reusability of activated carbon was evaluated by 5 cycles of adsorption-desorption process, suggesting that the activated carbon exhibited good reusability. The separated xylobiose sample with high-purity (97.29%) was confirmed by HPLC, ESI-MS, and NMR. Overall, this study provided a low-cost and robust technology for the production and separation of high-purity xylobiose from lignocellulose.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Celulose , Dissacarídeos , Hidrólise
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