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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148363, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465051

RESUMO

The alpine meadow in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has been seriously degraded due to human activities and climate change in recent decades. Understanding the changes of the soil microbial community in response to the degradation process helps reveal the mechanism underlying the degradation process of alpine meadows. We surveyed and analyzed changes of the vegetation, soil physicochemical properties, and soil microbial community in three degradation levels, namely, non-degradation (ND), moderate degradation (MD), and severe degradation (SD), of the alpine meadows in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We found that as the level of degradation increased, plant cover, plant density (PD), above-ground biomass (AGB), plant Shannon-Wiener index (PS), soil water content (SWC), soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) decreased significantly, while the soil pH increased from 7.20 to 8.57. Alpine meadow degradation significantly changed the composition of soil bacterial and fungal communities but had no significant impact on the diversity of the microbial communities. Functional predictions indicated that meadow degradation increased the relative abundances of aerobic_chemoheterotrophy, undefined_saprotroph, and plant_pathogen, likely increasing the risk of plant diseases. Redundancy analysis revealed that in ND, the soil microbial community was mainly regulated by PS, PH, PD, SWC, and soil pH. In MD, the soil microbial community was regulated by the soil's available nutrients and SOC. In SD, the soil microbial community was not only regulated by the soil's available nutrients but also influenced by plant characteristics. These results indicate that during alpine meadow degradation, while the changes in the plants and soil environmental factors both affect the composition of the soil microbial community, the influence of soil factors is greater. The soil's available nutrients are the main driving factors regulating the change in the soil microbial community's composition alongside degradation levels.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Carbono/análise , Pradaria , Humanos , Nutrientes , Microbiologia do Solo , Tibet
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a hepatocyte-produced marker of inflammation yet with undefined function in liver injury. We aimed to examine the role of CRP in acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI). METHODS: The effects of CRP in AILI were investigated using CRP knockout mice and rats combined with human CRP rescue. The mechanisms of CRP action were investigated in vitro and in mice with Fcγ receptor 2B knockout, C3 knockout, or hepatic expression of CRP mutants defective in complement interaction. The therapeutic potential of CRP was investigated by intraperitoneal administration at 2 or 6 hours post-AILI induction in wild-type mice. RESULTS: CRP knockout exacerbated AILI in mice and rats, which could be rescued by genetic knock-in, adeno-associated virus-mediated hepatic expression or direct administration of human CRP. Mechanistically, CRP does not act via its cellular receptor Fcγ receptor 2B to inhibit the early phase injury to hepatocytes induced by acetaminophen; instead, CRP acts via factor H to inhibit complement overactivation on injured hepatocytes, thereby suppressing the late phase amplification of inflammation likely mediated by C3a-dependent actions of neutrophils. Importantly, CRP treatment effectively alleviated AILI with a significantly extended therapeutic time window than that of N-acetyl cysteine. CONCLUSION: Our results thus identify CRP as a crucial checkpoint that limits destructive activation of complement in acute liver injury, and we argue that long-term suppression of CRP expression or function might increase the susceptibility to AILI.

3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361632

RESUMO

The present study focuses on the biological synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using extracellular extracts of Aspergillus japonicus PJ01.The optimal conditions of the synthesis process were: 10 mL of extracellular extracts, 1 mL of AgNO3 (0.8 mol/L), 4 mL of NaOH solution (1.5 mol/L), 30 °C, and a reaction time of 1 min. The characterizations of AgNPs were tested by UV-visible spectrophotometry, zeta potential, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that Ag+ was reduced by the extracellular extracts, which consisted chiefly of soluble proteins and reducing sugars. In this work, AgNO3 concentration played an important role in the physicochemical properties and antibacterial properties of AgNPs. Under the AgNO3 concentration of 0.2 and 0.8 mol/L, the diameters of AgNPs were 3.8 ± 1.1 and 9.1 ± 2.9 nm, respectively. In addition, smaller-sized AgNPs showed higher antimicrobial properties, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against both E. coli and S. aureus were 0.32 mg/mL.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
4.
ACS Nano ; 15(9): 15114-15122, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427090

RESUMO

Chiral growth and chirality transfer associated with plasmonic nanostructures have rejuvenated the field of chirality. As the precise regioselective growth of inorganic crystals into chiral shapes at the nanoscale is extremely challenging, "bottom-up" synthesis of intrinsically chiral nanoparticles with structural stability is obviously attractive and important. With the thiolated bimolecular cosurfactants, we demonstrated a chemical strategy for the synthesis of intrinsically helical plasmonic nanorods (HPNRs) with strong and tailorable plasmonic circular dichroism (PCD) responses, deriving from the zwitterionic interactions between the -NH3+ and -COO- groups of the cysteine molecules (Cys). The influence of structural parameters of HPNRs on PCD responses was analyzed systematically by theoretical simulations. Among the different structural parameters, the pitch depth was found to have the greatest impact on the PCD signals, in agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, the obtained HPNRs with the strong, tunable, and stable chiroptical properties were found to be able to induce circularly polarized luminescence of achiral luminophores. Due to the generality of this effect, this chiral plasmonic nanostructure may have great potential for use in the fields of chiral sensors, chiral catalysis, and displays.


Assuntos
Luminescência , Nanotubos
5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 46: 1-9, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate whether ultrasound-guided techniques are superior compared to traditional palpation techniques in patients undergoing radial artery catheterization (RAC). METHODS: Electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The relative risks (RRs) or weighted mean differences (WMDs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the pooled effect estimates using the random effects model for categories and continuous data, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 19 RCTs comprising a total of 3220 individuals were selected for final analysis. The pooled RR suggested that ultrasound-guided techniques were associated with higher incidence of first attempt success than traditional palpation techniques (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.21-1.59; P < 0.001). Moreover, we noted that ultrasound-guided techniques were associated with fewer mean attempts to success (WMD, -0.80 s; 95% CI, -1.35 to -0.25; P = 0.004) and a shorter mean time to success (WMD, -41.18 s; 95% CI, -75.43 to -6.93; P = 0.018) than traditional palpation techniques. Furthermore, individuals using ultrasound-guided techniques had a reduced risk of hematoma (RR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.22-0.72; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that ultrasound-guided techniques were superior compared to traditional palpation techniques for RAC in terms of efficacy and complications.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico , Artéria Radial , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Humanos , Palpação , Artéria Radial/diagnóstico por imagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 415: 125559, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743378

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of swine manure composting with microbial inoculation (MI) and without MI (CK) on heavy metal (Cr, Cd, and Pb) fractions, humic substance (HS), and metabolism pathway. The results showed that MI could passivate the heavy metal Cr and reduce the proportion of exchangeable (EXC) fraction of Cd, but it does not affect the EXC fraction of Pb. Compared to CK, HS, humic acid (HA), and fulvic acid (FA) were significantly increased with MI at the maturity stage. The propagation of Proteobacteria (day 4) and Firmicutes (days 12 and 24) was strengthened with MI. Canonical correlation analysis found that HA and Firmicutes were positively correlated with heavy metal (Cr, Cd, and Pb) residual (RES) fraction, and FA was positively correlated with Proteobacteria. Moreover, MI can significantly increase amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism by day 4, enhance the metabolism of enzyme families and glycan biosynthesis by day 12, and improve membrane transport. Overall, MI could facilitates the increase in HA and FA content and transfer of heavy metal (Cr, Cd, and Pb) fractions, it particularly helps increase the RES fraction.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Animais , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Esterco , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Suínos
7.
Clin Rheumatol ; 40(8): 3345-3350, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495973

RESUMO

This study presents a rare case of pulmonary amyloidosis and cystic lung disease associated with primary Sjögren's syndrome. In February 2019, a 76-year-old woman with primary Sjögren's syndrome presented to our rheumatology department for lung problems. Four years before presentation, the patient underwent chest computed tomography that revealed multiple nodules with numerous thin-walled lumen in both lungs. Pulmonary nodulectomy for hemoptysis was performed 2 years before presentation. Pathological findings suggested chronic inflammation of the bronchus and amyloid deposition in the lung tissue. The nodules and vesicles were generally larger from January 2015 to October 2018 when she did not receive any special medication, but the nodules and vesicles tended to be stable from February to August 2019 when she was treated with hydroxychloroquine sulfate regularly, suggesting that hydroxychloroquine sulfate may be helpful in this patient.


Assuntos
Amiloidose , Pneumopatias , Síndrome de Sjogren , Idoso , Amiloidose/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/cirurgia , Pneumopatias/complicações , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
J Gen Virol ; 102(3)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331809

RESUMO

Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) is a typical single-layer capsid dsRNA virus belonging to the genus Cypovirus in the family Reoviridae. The results of cryo-electron microscopy showed that the BmCPV capsid consists of 60 asymmetric units, and each asymmetric unit contains one turret protein (TP), two large protrusion proteins (LPP) and two capsid shell proteins (CSP). CSP has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs), and the small protrusion domain (SPD) in CSP may play an essential role in the assembly of viral capsids. In this study, three critical amino acid sites, D828, S829 and V945, in the SPD were efficiently mutated (point mutation) based on the principle of PCR circular mutagenesis. Moreover, a multi-gene expression system, Ac-MultiBac baculovirus, was used to produce eight different recombinant VLPs in vitro. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the single site and double site mutations had little effect on the efficiency and morphology of the assembly of VLPs. Still, the simultaneous mutation of the three sites had a significant impact. The experimental results demonstrate that the SPD of CSP plays an essential role in assembly of the viral capsid, which lays the foundation for further analysis of the molecular and structural mechanism of BmCPV capsid assembly.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Reoviridae/genética , Reoviridae/fisiologia , Vírion/metabolismo , Montagem de Vírus , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Expressão Gênica , Mutação Puntual , Reoviridae/ultraestrutura , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera , Vírion/ultraestrutura
9.
ACS Nano ; 14(10): 12854-12865, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955857

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death, and one of the effective therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular disease is to provide a controlled, constant supply of nitric oxide (NO) in a mild manner; however, this has proved challenging in the clinic. To address this problem, we built a nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like nanoplatform (NanoNOS) that consists of a noble metal nanoparticle core and a mesoporous silica shell and demonstrated the ability of NanoNOS to catalyze production of NO in vitro. Mechanistic studies show that the catalysis consists of a three-step reaction: the oxidation of NADPH to produce O2- via oxidase-like activity and the subsequent dismutation of O2- to H2O2 via SOD-like activity, followed by H2O2-mediated oxidation of l-arginine to produce NO via a nonenzymatic pathway. The generation of NO is precisely regulated by both the content of the NanoNOS species and the plasmon excitation. We found that NanoNOS greatly suppressed injury-driven monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion, suggesting the NanoNOS treatment could help prevent cardiovascular disease. With such a design as well as plasmon excitation that allows for controlled and constant catalytic activity, NanoNOS technology could have a variety of biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Nanotubos , Arginina , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ouro , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Óxido Nítrico
10.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(8): 684, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826872

RESUMO

Autophagy and apoptosis, which are important processes for host immunity, are commonly exploited by viruses to facilitate their survival. However, to the best of our knowledge, very few studies have researched the mechanisms of action of the autophagic and apoptotic signaling pathways following viral infection. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of action of growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible ß (GADD45ß), an important resistance gene involved in the host resistance to ALV-J. Both ALV-J infection and the overexpression of GADD45ß inhibited autophagy during the early stages, which prevented the autophagosomes from binding to the lysosomes and resulted in an incomplete autophagic flux. Notably, GADD45ß was discovered to interact with MEKK4 in DF-1 cells. The genetic knockdown of GADD45ß and MEKK4 using small interfering RNA-affected ALV-J infection, which suggested that ALV-J may promote the binding of GADD45ß to MEKK4 to activate the p38MAPK signaling pathway, which subsequently inhibits autophagy. Furthermore, ALV-J was revealed to affect the autophagic pathway prior to affecting the apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to investigate the combined effects of ALV-J infection on autophagy and apoptosis, and to suggest that ALV-J inhibits autophagy via the GADD45ß/MEKK4/p38MAPK signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação/metabolismo , Autofagia/fisiologia , Vírus da Leucose Aviária/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Vírus da Leucose Aviária/genética , Vírus da Leucose Aviária/patogenicidade , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
11.
Biophys J ; 119(6): 1078-1090, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857960

RESUMO

Interactions between amyloid-ß peptide (Aß) and the cell membrane include interaction with membrane lipids and binding to membrane receptors, both of which are considered to be the toxicity mechanisms of Aß. However, it is unclear whether both mechanisms lead to cytotoxicity. Thus, we aimed to analyze these two mechanisms of Aß42 interaction with cell membranes under different Aß aggregation states. To this end, model membrane experiments were conducted. Quantitative analysis of Aß42 monomers or oligomers bound to the membrane of neuro-2a cells was also performed, and laser confocal microscopy was employed to assess endocytosis of FITC-Aß42 monomers or oligomers by neuro-2a cells. We found that the binding capacity of Aß42 to membrane lipids was weak and that the amount of Aß42 bound to membrane lipids was low. Moreover, clathrin-mediated endocytosis of Aß42 oligomers by neuro-2a cells was observed. Endocytosis serves as a key mode of interaction between extracellular Aß42 and neurons. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying Aß oligomer metabolism.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Neurônios , Membrana Celular , Endocitose , Fragmentos de Peptídeos
12.
Plant Methods ; 16: 94, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647533

RESUMO

Background: Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root transformation provides a powerful tool for investigating the functions of plant genes involved in rhizobia-legume symbiosis. However, in the traditional identification methods of transgenic hairy roots based on reporter genes, an expensive chemical substrate or equipment is required. Results: Here, we report a novel, low cost, and robust reporter for convenient, non-destructive, and directly visual selection of transgenic hairy roots by naked eye, which can be used in the study of rhizobia-legume symbiosis. The reporter gene AtMyb75 in Arabidopsis, encoding an R2R3 type MYB transcription factor, was ectopically expressed in hairy roots-mediated by A. rhizogenes, which induced purple/red colored anthocyanin accumulation in crop species like soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and two model legume species, Lotus japonicas and Medicago truncatula. Transgenic hairy roots of legumes containing anthocyanin can establish effective symbiosis with rhizobia. We also demonstrated the reliability of AtMyb75 as a reporter gene by CRISPR/Cas9-targeted mutagenesis of the soybean resistance to nodulation Rfg1 gene in the soybean PI377578 (Nod-) inoculated with Sinorhizobium fredii USDA193. Without exception, mature nitrogen-fixation nodules, were formed on purple transgenic hairy roots containing anthocyanin. Conclusions: Anthocyanin is a reliable, user-friendly, convenient, non-destructive, low cost, directly visual reporter for studying symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodule development and could be widely applied in broad leguminous plants.

13.
BMC Genet ; 21(1): 68, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides play important roles in both plant and animal defense systems. Moreover, over-expression of CaAMP1 (Capsicum annuum antimicrobial protein 1), an antimicrobial protein gene isolated from C. annuum leaves infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, confers broad-spectrum resistance to hemibiotrophic bacterial and necrotrophic fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis. Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRR), caused by the fungus Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most devastating diseases affecting soybean (Glycine max) production worldwide. RESULTS: In this study, CaAMP1 was transformed into soybean by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Integration of the foreign gene in the genome of transgenic soybean plants and its expression at the translation level were verified by Southern and western blot analyses, respectively. CaAMP1 over-expression (CaAMP1-OX) lines inoculated with P. sojae race 1 exhibited enhanced and stable PRR tolerance through T2-T4 generations compared with the wild-type Williams 82 plants. Gene expression analyses in the transgenic plants revealed that the expression of salicylic acid-dependent, jasmonic acid-dependent, and plant disease resistance genes (R-genes) were significantly up-regulated after P. sojae inoculation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that CaAMP1 over-expression can significantly enhance PRR tolerance in soybean by eliciting resistance responses mediated by multiple defense signaling pathways. This provides an alternative approach for developing soybean varieties with improved tolerance against soil-borne pathogenic PRR.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Phytophthora/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/genética , Soja/parasitologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia , Soja/genética
14.
Nanoscale ; 12(27): 14369-14404, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617550

RESUMO

Parallel to the flourishing of inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the development of inorganic cesium-based metal halide PSCs (CsPbX3) is accelerating, with power conversion efficiency (PCE) values of over 20% being obtained. Although CsPbX3 possesses numerous merits, such as superior thermal stability and great potential for use in tandem solar cells, severe challenges remain, such as its phase instability, trap state density, and absorption range limitations, hindering further performance improvements and commercialization. This review summarizes challenges and strategies relating to each device functional layer and their integration for the purposes of performance improvement and commercialization, utilizing the fundamental configuration of a perovskite photo-absorption layer, electron transport layer (ETL), and hole transport layer (HTL ). In detail, we first analyze comprehensively strategies for designing high-quality CsPbX3 perovskite films, including precursor engineering, element doping, and post-treatment, followed by discussing the precise control of the CsPbX3 film fabrication process. Then, we introduce and analyze the carrier dynamics and interfacial modifications of inorganic ETLs, such as TiO2, SnO2, ZnO, and other typical organic ETLs with p-i-n configuration. The pros and cons of inorganic and organic HTLs are then discussed from the viewpoints of stability and band structure. Subsequently, promising candidates, i.e., HTL-free carbon-electrode-based inorganic CsPbX3 PSCs, that meet the "golden triangle" criteria used by the PSC community are reviewed, followed by discussion of other obstacles, such as hysteresis and large-scale fabrication, that lie on the road toward PSC commercialization. Finally, some perspectives relating to solutions to development bottlenecks are proposed, with the attempt to gain insight into CsPbX3 PSCs and inspire future research prospects.

16.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 20: 468-479, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278306

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer mortality. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated the aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in carcinogenesis and their universal regulatory properties. A thorough understanding of lncRNA regulatory roles in HCC pathology would contribute to HCC prevention and treatment. In this study, we identified a novel human lncRNA, LNC-HC, with significantly reduced levels in hepatic tumors from patients with HCC. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide) assays as well as colony formation and wound healing experiments showed that LNC-HC significantly inhibited the proliferation of the HCC cell line Huh7. Xenograft transplantation of LNC-HC-overexpressing Huh7 cells in nude mice resulted in the production of smaller tumors. Mechanistically, LNC-HC inhibited the proliferation of HCC cells by directly interacting with hsa-miR-183-5p. LNC-HC rescued the expression of five tumor suppressors, including AKAP12, DYRK2, FOXN3, FOXO1, and LATS2, that were verified as target genes of hsa-miR-183-5p. Overall, human LNC-HC was identified as a novel tumor suppressor that could inhibit HCC cell proliferation in vitro and suppress tumor growth in vivo by competitively binding hsa-miR-183-5p as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA). These findings suggest that LNC-HC could be a biomarker of HCC and provide a novel therapeutic target for HCC treatment.

17.
Bioresour Technol ; 306: 123167, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192957

RESUMO

This study evaluated enzyme activity, available nitrogen, and bacterial succession during pig manure composting with and without microbial inoculation (ABB and CK, respectively). ABB reached the thermophilic stage 2 days than CK. Cellulose, urease, phosphatase, and sucrase activities were higher in ABB than in CK on days 12-24 of composting, but catalase activity was lesser in ABB than in CK throughout composting. NH4+-N and NO3--N were significantly increased in ABB at the maturity stage. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed Nocardiopsaceae, Bacillaceae, Streptosporangiaceaec, Flavobacteriaceae, and Caldicoprobacteraceae as the dominant bacteria at the family level. Metabolism function analysis revealed that human diseases were reduced and carbohydrate metabolism was increased in ABB. Correlation analysis revealed that urease, sucrose, and phosphatase were significantly correlated with bacteria at the species level, whereas NH4+-N and NO3--N were not significantly correlated. These results indicated that microbial inoculation accelerated the composting process and significantly regulated microbial functions.

18.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(4): 1169-1177, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153077

RESUMO

Eucommia ulmoides is traditional Chinese medicine, and it possesses several potential bioactivities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immune regulatory activities. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Eucommia ulmoides leaf extracts (ELE) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and intestinal function of weaned piglets. Two hundred crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) piglets with an average initial weight of 12.96 ± 0.28 kg were randomly allotted to five treatments: C0 (basal diet), C1 (basal diet + antibiotics) and basal diet supplemented with increasing levels of ELE (0.2, 0.3 or 0.4 g/kg of feed). The results showed that ELE or antibiotics supplementation remarkably decreased diarrhoea rate and 0.3 g/kg ELE increased average daily gain compared with C0 (p < .05). 0.3 g/kg ELE increased alkaline phosphatase (AKP) levels and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in serum and liver, as well as increased the content of serum albumin and total protein (TP) compared with the C0 (p < .05). The lipase activity of duodenum content and trypsin activity of jejunum content were improved fed diets containing 0.3 g/kg ELE compared with C0 (p < .05). The 0.3 g/kg ELE treatments have a higher villus height of the duodenum and jejunum compared with the C0 (p < .05). These results suggested that ELE supplementation had beneficial effects on antioxidant and intestinal function in weaned piglets, which also could increase growth performance and decreased diarrhoea rate. Accordingly, ELE is a potential alternative to antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Eucommiaceae/química , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Intestinos/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Suínos/fisiologia
19.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 41(9): 2302-2316, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173976

RESUMO

Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) records enormous functional interaction information between any pair of brain nodes, which enriches the individual-phenotypic prediction. To reduce high-dimensional features, correlation analysis is a common way for feature selection. However, resting state fMRI signal exhibits typically low signal-to-noise ratio and the correlation analysis is sensitive to outliers and data distribution, which may bring unstable features to prediction. To alleviate this problem, a bootstrapping-based feature selection framework was proposed and applied to connectome-based predictive modeling, support vector regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and Ridge regression to predict a series of cognitive traits based on Human Connectome Project data. To systematically investigate the influences of different parameter settings on the bootstrapping-based framework, 216 parameter combinations were evaluated and the best performance among them was identified as the final prediction result for each cognitive trait. By using the bootstrapping methods, the best prediction performances outperformed the baseline method in all four prediction models. Furthermore, the proposed framework could effectively reduce the feature dimension by retaining the more stable features. The results demonstrate that the proposed framework is an easy-to-use and effective method to improve RSFC prediction of cognitive traits and is highly recommended in future RSFC-prediction studies.

20.
Nanoscale ; 12(11): 6429-6437, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141450

RESUMO

The high reactivity of silver nanoparticles leads to their broad applications in the anti-bacterial field; however, the safety of silver nanoparticles has attracted increasing public attention. After exposure to silver nanoparticles in vivo, the liver serves as their potential deposition site; however the potential biological effects of such nanoparticles on hepatocytes at low dosages are not well understood. Here, we study the interaction between gold nanorod core/silver shell nanostructures (Au@Ag NRs) and human hepatocytes, HepG2 cells, and determine that Au@Ag NRs at sub-lethal doses can induce autophagy. After uptake, Au@Ag NRs mainly localize in the lysosomes where they release silver ions and promote the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS then suppress the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway and activate autophagy. In addition, oxidative stress results in lysosomal impairment, causing decreased ability for lysosomal digestion. Moreover, oxidative stress also affects the structure and function of mitochondria, leading to the initiation of protective autophagy to eliminate the damaged mitochondrion. Our study shows that at sub-lethal dosages, silver nanomaterials may alter the physiological functions of hepatic cells by activating protective autophagy and cause potential health risks, indicating that cautious consideration of the safety of nanomaterials for certain applications is necessary.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ouro , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Nanoconchas/química , Nanotubos/química , Prata , Ouro/química , Ouro/farmacocinética , Ouro/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Prata/química , Prata/farmacocinética , Prata/farmacologia
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