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1.
Int J Part Ther ; 9(3): 30-39, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721484

RESUMO

Purpose: Recent single institution, phase II evidence has demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of ultra-hypofractionated, preoperative photon therapy in 5 fractions for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Our purpose was to evaluate the dosimetric benefits of modern scanning beam proton therapy compared with conventional photon radiation therapy (RT) for the neoadjuvant treatment of adult extremity STS. Materials and Methods: Existing proton and photon plans for 11 adult patients with STS of the lower extremities previously treated preoperatively with neoadjuvant RT at our center were used to create proton therapy plans using Raystation Treatment Planning System v10.A. Volumes were delineated, and doses reported consistent with International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements reports 50, 62, and 78. Target volumes were optimized such that 100% clinical target volume (CTV) was covered by 99% of the prescription dose. The prescribed dose was 30 Gy for PT and RT delivered in 5 fractions. For proton therapy, doses are reported in GyRBE = 1.1 Gy. The constraints for adjacent organs at risk (OARs) within 1 cm of the CTV were the following: femur V30Gy ≤ 50%, joint V30Gy < 50%, femoral head V30Gy ≤ 5 cm3, strip V12 ≤ 10%, and skin V12 < 50%. Target coverage goals, OAR constraints, and integral dose were compared by Student t test with P < .05 significance. Results: A minimum 99% CTV coverage was achieved for all plans. OAR dose constraints were achieved for all proton and photon plans; however, mean doses to the femur (10.7 ± 8.5 vs 16.1 ± 7.7 GyRBE), femoral head (2.0 ± 4.4 vs 3.6 ± 6.4 GyRBE), and proximal joint (1.8 ± 2.4 vs 3.5 ± 4.4 GyRBE) were all significantly lower with PT vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) (all P < .05). Integral dose was significantly reduced for proton vs photon plans. Conformity and heterogeneity indices were significantly better for proton therapy. Conclusion: Proton therapy maintained target coverage while significantly reducing integral and mean doses to the proximal organs at risk compared with RT. Further prospective investigation is warranted to validate these findings and potential benefit in the management of adult STS.

2.
Int J Part Ther ; 9(3): 40-49, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721485

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare spatially fractionated radiation therapy (GRID) treatment planning techniques using proton pencil-beam-scanning (PBS) and photon therapy. Materials and Methods: PBS and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) GRID plans were retrospectively generated for 5 patients with bulky tumors. GRID targets were arranged along the long axis of the gross tumor, spaced 2 and 3 cm apart, and treated with a prescription of 18 Gy. PBS plans used 2- to 3-beam multiple-field optimization with robustness evaluation. Dosimetric parameters including peak-to-edge ratio (PEDR), ratio of dose to 90% of the valley to dose to 10% of the peak VPDR(D90/D10), and volume of normal tissue receiving at least 5 Gy (V5) and 10 Gy (V10) were calculated. The peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR), VPDR(D90/D10), and organ-at-risk doses were prospectively assessed in 2 patients undergoing PBS-GRID with pretreatment quality assurance computed tomography (QACT) scans. Results: PBS and VMAT GRID plans were generated for 5 patients with bulky tumors. Gross tumor volume values ranged from 826 to 1468 cm3. Peak-to-edge ratio for PBS was higher than for VMAT for both spacing scenarios (2-cm spacing, P = .02; 3-cm spacing, P = .01). VPDR(D90/D10) for PBS was higher than for VMAT (2-cm spacing, P = .004; 3-cm spacing, P = .002). Normal tissue V5 was lower for PBS than for VMAT (2-cm spacing, P = .03; 3-cm spacing, P = .02). Normal tissue mean dose was lower with PBS than with VMAT (2-cm spacing, P = .03; 3-cm spacing, P = .02). Two patients treated using PBS GRID and assessed with pretreatment QACT scans demonstrated robust PVDR, VPDR(D90/D10), and organs-at-risk doses. Conclusions: The PEDR was significantly higher for PBS than VMAT plans, indicating lower target edge dose. Normal tissue mean dose was significantly lower with PBS than VMAT. PBS GRID may result in lower normal tissue dose compared with VMAT plans, allowing for further dose escalation in patients with bulky disease.

3.
Curr Eye Res ; : 1-7, 2023 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36729584

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the effect of intraoperative internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling on the macular vascular structure in patients with diabetic epiretinal membrane (ERM). METHODS: Patients with diabetic ERM were divided into an ERM + ILM peeling group (18 eyes) and an ERM peeling group (19 eyes), all of whom underwent standard vitrectomy and were followed up until 6 months postoperatively. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Central macular thickness (CMT), Vessel density (VD) and vessel length density (VLD) of the superficial as well as deep retinal capillary plexus were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in BCVA (p = .188, .410, .901, .916) and CMT (p = .164, .128, .110, .105) between the two groups at the week 1, month 1, month 3 and month 6 after operation. In the superficial capillary plexus (SCP), the change in VD (p = .106) and VLD (p = .438) was not affected by ILM peeling, and there was no significant difference in VD (p = .154, .063, .100, .162) and VLD (p = .386, .263, .431, .391) between the two groups during the four follow-up after operation. For the deep capillary plexus (DCP), there was an effect of ILM peeling on the changes in VD (p = .024) and VLD (p = .012), ILM peeling delayed the recovery time of the VD and VLD; The VD (p = .026, .000, .003) and VLD (p = .005, .000, .000) of ERM + ILM peeling group were lower than those of ERM peeling group from the month 1 to the month 6 after operation. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative peeling of the ILM in patients with diabetic ERM delayed the improvement of blood flow signal in the DCP but did not affect the recovery of postoperative BCVA and CMT.

5.
Hypertens Res ; 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707716

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation markers have been highlighted recently as related to cardiac and non-cardiac disorders. However, few studies have estimated pre-diagnostic associations between these markers and hypertension. In the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey from 1999 to 2010, 22,290 adult participants were included for analysis. We assessed associations between four systemic inflammation markers based on blood cell counts: systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and hypertension prevalence in multivariate logistic regression analysis with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). To further explore their associations, subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed. In continuous analyses, the ORs for hypertension prevalence per ln-transformed increment in SII and NLR were estimated at 1.115 and 1.087 (95% CI: 1.045-1.188; 1.008-1.173; respectively). Compared to those in the lowest tertiles, the hypertension risks for subjects in the highest SII and NLR tertiles were 1.20 and 1.11 times, respectively. Conversely, we found that PLR and LMR were negatively associated with hypertension prevalence in continuous analyses (1.060, 0.972-1.157; 0.926, 0.845-1.014; respectively), and the highest PLR and LMR tertiles (1.041, 0.959-1.129; 0.943, 0.866-1.028; respectively). Also, subgroup and sensitivity analyses indicated that SII had a greater correlation to hypertension. In conclusion, we find positive associations between SII and NLR and the prevalence of hypertension in this cross-sectional study. Our findings highlight that SII may be a superior systemic inflammation warning marker for hypertension.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 322: 121158, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36716949

RESUMO

In recent years, microplastics (MPs) as emerging carriers for environmental pollutants have attracted increasing worldwide attention. However, the adsorption of heavy metals on MPs, especially for biodegradable MPs, has been still poorly understood in estuarine environments. In this study, we investigated the aging of biodegradable and conventional MPs in the Pearl River Estuary after long-term exposure and their impacts on the adsorption of heavy metals from seawater. The results showed that the changes in surface characteristics were more prominent on biodegradable MPs than on conventional MPs after aging. Both biodegradable and conventional MPs could adsorb heavy metals, and their adsorption capacities fluctuated greatly on different MPs and different exposure times. The adsorption capacities of Cu, Pb, and As on biodegradable MPs were higher than those on conventional MPs, whereas Mn, Cr, and Co had lower adsorption on biodegradable MPs after 9-12 months by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The aging characteristics (CI, O/C, and Xc) of MPs accounted for a contribution of 51.0% on heavy metal adsorption, while the environmental factors (temperature, salinity, pH, and heavy metal concentration) only contributed to 13.2%. Therefore, the present study can provide important evidence on the environmental behaviors and ecological risks of biodegradable and conventional MPs in estuarine systems.

7.
Anesth Analg ; 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent clinical research suggests that repeated use of opioid pain medications can increase neuropathic pain in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH). Therefore, it is significant to elucidate the exact mechanisms of HIV-related chronic pain. HIV infection and chronic morphine induce proinflammatory factors, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α acting through tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNFRI). HIV coat proteins and/or chronic morphine increase mitochondrial superoxide in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH). Recently, emerging cytoplasmic caspase-11 is defined as a noncanonical inflammasome and can be activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we tested our hypothesis that HIV coat glycoprotein gp120 with chronic morphine activates a TNFRI-mtROS-caspase-11 pathway in rats, which increases neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain. METHODS: Neuropathic pain was induced by repeated administration of recombinant gp120 with morphine (gp120/M) in rats. Mechanical allodynia was assessed using von Frey filaments, and thermal latency using hotplate test. Protein expression of spinal TNFRI and cleaved caspase-11 was examined using western blots. The image of spinal mitochondrial superoxide was examined using MitoSox Red (mitochondrial superoxide indicator) image assay. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the location of TNFRI and caspase-11 in the SCDH. Intrathecal administration of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) against TNFRI, caspase-11 siRNA, or a scavenger of mitochondrial superoxide was given for antinociceptive effects. Statistical tests were done using analysis of variance (1- or 2-way), or 2-tailed t test. RESULTS: Intrathecal gp120/M induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia lasting for 3 weeks (P < .001). Gp120/M increased the expression of spinal TNFRI, mitochondrial superoxide, and cleaved caspase-11. Immunohistochemistry showed that TNFRI and caspase-11 were mainly expressed in the neurons of the SCDH. Intrathecal administration of antisense oligonucleotides against TNFRI, Mito-Tempol (a scavenger of mitochondrial superoxide), or caspase-11 siRNA reduced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in the gp120/M neuropathic pain model. Spinal knockdown of TNFRI reduced MitoSox profile cell number in the SCDH; intrathecal Mito-T decreased spinal caspase-11 expression in gp120/M rats. In the cultured B35 neurons treated with TNFα, pretreatment with Mito-Tempol reduced active caspase-11 in the neurons. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that spinal TNFRI-mtROS-caspase 11 signal pathway plays a critical role in the HIV-associated neuropathic pain state, providing a novel approach to treating chronic pain in PLWH with opioids.

8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629862

RESUMO

Keratinases specifically degrade insoluble keratin waste, thus contributing to environmental protection and sustainable biomass development. However, their industrial application is hindered by inefficient enzyme production and poor biomass generation. In this study, the heterologous expression of keratinase was found to have cytotoxicity and might block host cell growth due to its proteolytic property. To address this problem, an autoregulatory expression system based on quorum sensing was developed to synergistically regulate cell growth and keratinase production in Bacillus subtilis. The growth-dependent promoter PaprE was chosen and shown to be effective in delaying keratinase production while promoting host cell proliferation. Copy number screening and core region mutations further balanced the two states. Carbon supplement optimization indicated that addition of 2% glucose facilitated biomass accumulation during the early stage of fermentation. Cell density increased to 15.6 (OD600 nm) from 8 with keratinase activity raised to 4200 U·mL-1 from 1162 U·mL-1. Keratinase was then utilized in the bioconversion of feather waste to prepare soluble keratins, polypeptides, and amino acids. This study provides a powerful system for efficient production of keratinase and paves the way for keratin waste recycling.

9.
Ther Innov Regul Sci ; 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630011

RESUMO

In this short note, we express our viewpoint regarding declaring study success based on Bayesian predictive probability of study success.

10.
Small ; : e2207036, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599617

RESUMO

Recently, single-atom catalysts are attracting much attention in sensor field due to their remarkable peroxidase- or oxidase-like activities. Herein, peroxidase-like FeCoZn triple-atom catalyst supported on S- and N-doped carbon derived from ZIF-8 (FeCoZn-TAC/SNC) serves as a proof-of-concept nanozyme. In this paper, a dual-channel nanozyme-based colorimetric sensor array is presented for identifying seven preservatives in food. Further experiments reveal that the peroxidase-like activity of the FeCoZn TAzyme enables it to catalyze the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and o-phenylenediamine (OPD) in the presence of H2 O2 , yielding the blue oxTMB and yellow oxOPD, respectively. However, food preservatives are adsorbed on the nanozyme surface through π-π stacking interaction and hydrogen bond, and the reduction in catalytic activity of FeCoZn TAzyme causes differential colorimetric signal variations, which provide unique "fingerprints" for each food preservative.

11.
Bioinformatics ; 39(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648328

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Protein-to-genome alignment is critical to annotating genes in non-model organisms. While there are a few tools for this purpose, all of them were developed over 10 years ago and did not incorporate the latest advances in alignment algorithms. They are inefficient and could not keep up with the rapid production of new genomes and quickly growing protein databases. RESULTS: Here, we describe miniprot, a new aligner for mapping protein sequences to a complete genome. Miniprot integrates recent techniques such as k-mer sketch and vectorized dynamic programming. It is tens of times faster than existing tools while achieving comparable accuracy on real data. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: https://github.com/lh3/miniport.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Software , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Alinhamento de Sequência , Genoma
12.
Org Lett ; 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700834

RESUMO

An efficient procedure is presented for functionalization of BODIPYs at boron with arylstannanes as weak nucleophiles in the presence of aluminum chloride, providing new aryl-boron-substituted BODIPY and aza-BODIPY derivatives of singular importance. Most of these aryl-boron-substituted BODIPYs showed bright emission in the aqueous solution with significant aggregation-induced emission enhancement and high solid-state emission as a result of the restricted rotation of the meso-phenyl group and boron-substituted aryl groups as well as the formation of J-type aggregates.

13.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1332, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693866

RESUMO

Considering the discontinuous square pulse wave and continuous sine pulsating wave, we report a distinctive supercharging phenomenon of fluid in a water-filled semi-enclosed pipe and reveal the supercharging regularity. We demonstrate that there can be significant supercharging phenomena at the pipe end-face if the water is periodically injected at the pipe inlet with certain frequency. Compared to the traditional pulsating injection method, the present injection strategy can remarkably enhance the peak pressure of the water at the end face of the pipe. We explained this phenomenon by numerical simulations based on the computational fluid dynamic method. It's found that there is a quantitative relationship between the optimal pulse frequency, pipe length and wave speed. The proposed frequency model is suitable for the multi-waveform, such as sine wave, square wave and arcuate wave. The fluid pressure at the pipe end-face intermittently increases and the end-face peak pressure is largest when the inlet injection frequency equals to the optimal frequency.

14.
Mikrochim Acta ; 190(2): 49, 2023 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630016

RESUMO

A "turn-on" inverse opal photonic crystal fluorescent sensing film infiltrated with a coumarin derivative is reported for the reliable and accurate detection of cysteine in human serum and fluorescence imaging of living cells. The coumarin derivative containing allyl ester specifically reacts with cysteine by ammonolysis to generate a fluorescent product whose emission wavelength is at ~ 535 nm, providing a selective fluorescence detection for cysteine. The emitted fluorescence is significantly enhanced due to the slow photon effect derived from the photonic crystal film. This is because the emission wavelength is overlapped with the blue-band edge of the photonic stopband of the selected inverse opal film. The fluorescence enhancement effect endows the prepared inverse opal film with highly sensitive detection with a limit of detection of 3.23 × 10-9 mol/L and a wide linear detection range of 1 × 10-7 - 1 × 10-3 mol/L. A fast response within 30 s toward cysteine is also achieved due to the three-dimensional interconnected macroporous structure with a high-specific surface area of the inverse opal film. The prepared inverse opal fluorescent sensing film has been successfully applied to the detection of cysteine in human serum and bioimaging of living cells. In the diluted human serum, the recoveries for the detection of cysteine were 97.92 - 107.20%, and the relative standard deviations were 2.61-9.04%, demonstrating the potential applicability of the inverse opal fluorescent sensing film to real sample analysis. The method may provide a universal strategy for constructing various photonic crystal fluorescent sensing films by using different fluorescent probes.


Assuntos
Cisteína , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Corantes Fluorescentes/toxicidade , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Fótons , Óptica e Fotônica
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(2): 863-873, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36606532

RESUMO

The mismatch between trade-embodied economic benefits and CO2 emissions causes carbon inequality, which is seldom analyzed from the intracountry level, especially across a long-term period. This study applied an environmentally extended multiregional input-output model to trace this mismatch and measure the carbon inequality quantitatively within China during 2007-2017. The results show that during the past decade, China's national carbon inequality was continuously worsening with carbon Gini coefficients rising regardless of production- (0.21-0.30) or consumption-based (0.12-0.18) accounting. The regional carbon inequality was deteriorating, where less developed provinces with 20% of total value-added emitted 32.9% of total CO2 emissions in 2007, while this figure rose to 42.6% in 2017. The eastern provinces (Jiangsu and Shanghai) had entered into net economic and carbon beneficiaries keeping high trade advantages, by contrast the northwest provinces (Ningxia and Xinjiang) were trapped in a lose-lose situation with trade benefits declining by 68%. The southwest provinces (Yunnan and Guangxi) shifted from being net carbon and value-added exporters to net importers, stepping into the earlier development mode of eastern provinces. This hidden and exacerbated carbon inequality calls for regional-specific measures to avoid the dilemma of economic development and CO2 mitigation, which also gives a good reminder for the rising economies, like India.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , China , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Índia
16.
Environ Pollut ; 318: 120920, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565907

RESUMO

The production and use of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) have been strictly limited due to their persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. However, the release of HBCDs from related products and wastes would continue for a long time, which may cause many environmental problems. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and distribution of HBCDs and microplastics (MPs) in aquatic organisms inhabiting different substrates. HBCDs were measurable in the seawater, sediment, expanded polystyrene (EPS) substrates and organism samples. Mostly, the concentrations of HBCDs in organisms inhabiting EPS buoys were significantly higher than those of the same species inhabiting other substrates. Meanwhile, the diastereomeric ratio (α/γ) of HBCDs in organisms inhabiting EPS buoys was closer to that in EPS buoys. The fugacity values of HBCDs in EPS buoys were much higher than those in other media, implying that HBCDs can be transferred from EPS buoys to other media. Additionally, MPs derived from EPS buoys would be mistaken as food and ingested by aquatic organisms. The transfer of HBCDs from EPS buoys to aquatic organisms can be achieved by aqueous and dietary exposures. In combination, the contribution of MP ingestion to HBCDs for aquatic organisms should be very limited. These results supported EPS buoys as an important source of HBCDs for the aquatic ecosystem. To effectively control HBCDs pollution, it is necessary to discontinue or reduce the use of EPS buoys.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poliestirenos/análise , Ecossistema , Plásticos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , Organismos Aquáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Anal Biochem ; 660: 114980, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368345

RESUMO

A precolumn derivatization-HPLC method using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine as respective labeling reagents for comprehensive analyses of the reactions catalyzed by acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS)/acetolactate synthase (ALS) is developed and evaluated in this research. Comparison with the classic Bauerle' UV assay which can analyze the enzymes only through measurement of acetoin production, the HPLC method shows advantages because it can analyze the enzymes not only via determination of consumption of the substrate pyruvate, but also via measurement of formation of the products including acetoin, 2,3-butanedione, and acetaldehyde in the enzymatic reactions. Thus the results deduced from the HPLC method can reflect the trait of each enzyme in a more precise manner. As far as we know, this is the first time that the reactions mediated by AHAS/ALS using pyruvate as a single substrate are globally analyzed and the features of the enzymes are properly discussed.


Assuntos
Acetolactato Sintase , Acetoína , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácido Pirúvico , Catálise
18.
J Proteome Res ; 22(1): 123-137, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36507906

RESUMO

Dermatomyositis and polymyositis (DM/PM) are systemic autoimmune diseases characterized by proximal muscle weakness. The underlying pathogenetic mechanism of this disease remains under-researched. Here, using proteomics analysis, a great overlap of differentially expressed plasma exosomal proteins involved in the complement and coagulation cascade pathway, including FGA, FGB, FGG, C1QB, C1QC, and VWF, was identified in DM/PM patients versus healthy controls. Correlation analysis showed that the expression levels of complement-associated proteins (C1QB and C1QC) correlated positively with CRP, ESR, and platelet count. ROC curve analysis demonstrated that complement and coagulation cascade-associated proteins could be strong predictors for DM/PM. In addition, we also identified several other proteins that were differentially expressed in DM and PM. The selected candidate proteins were further validated by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Together, our findings indicate that these exosome-derived proteins might participate in microvascular damage in DM/PM through the activation of the complement and coagulation cascade pathway and function as biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis of DM/PM.


Assuntos
Dermatomiosite , Exossomos , Polimiosite , Humanos , Dermatomiosite/metabolismo , Dermatomiosite/patologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Proteômica , Polimiosite/metabolismo , Polimiosite/patologia , Biomarcadores , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento
20.
Pers Individ Dif ; 200: 111799, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35789922

RESUMO

What factors influence how people perceive the risk of getting COVID-19? Extending beyond features of general health conditions, media coverage, and genetic susceptibility to disease, the present research investigates whether the immediacy of experience with temperature, a subtle yet pervasive environmental factor, can affect people's estimation of contagion probability. According to the attribute substitution model, people may rely on the visceral experience of coldness, a far easier quantity to evaluate, to estimate the contagion probability of the new coronavirus disease. Study 1 found that Chinese university students who perceived the indoor temperature to be lower believed that the coronavirus was more infectious. To provide causal evidence for the effect, Study 2 randomly assigned participants to different conditions. The results showed that participants in the cold condition reported a higher likelihood of contracting the coronavirus than participants in the control condition. Overall, these findings are consistent with the attribute substitution model: people tend to recruit simpler and more accessible information (e.g., local temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less tangible information (e.g., scientific data) in assessing the risk of disease transmission. Theoretical contributions and the significance of this research for policy makers are discussed.

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