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1.
Placenta ; 91: 11-18, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941613

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious complication of pregnancy, and the likely pathogenic basis of early onset PE are placental dysfunction and increased oxidative stress. Resveratrol (RES) is a potent antioxidant which has shown beneficial effects in many diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of RES against oxidative stress-induced damage in trophoblasts, and elucidate the potential mechanisms. METHODS: We established an in vitro model of oxidative stress by exposing the human first-trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo to H2O2. The level of oxidative stress was reflected by ROS, MDA and SOD. The viability of cells was determined by the MTS assay. Apoptosis was detected using Annexin V-FITC staining and flow cytometry. Levels of SIRT1(sirtuin 1) and autophagy-related proteins (LC3, Beclin-1, p62) were detected by western blot. Autophagosomes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: Pre-treatment with RES significantly ameliorated H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, morphological damage, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Mechanistically, RES restored the levels of SIRT1 and autophagy-related proteins including LC3-II, Beclin-1 and p62 that were dysregulated by H2O2. Blocking autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) completely abolished the protective effects of RES, as did knocking down SIRT1. CONCLUSION: RES may protect human trophoblasts against H2O2-induced oxidative stress by activating SIRT1-dependent autophagy, and therefore has therapeutic potential in PE.

2.
Chemistry ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957072

RESUMO

We firstly use diethyl 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate (HEH) as a visible-light photoredox catalyst for cross coupling of arylhalides and arylsulfinates without transition-metal, sacrificial agent and mediator. This method is compatible with various functional groups and provides diaryl sulfones in good to high yields. Mechanistic studies indicate that this reaction undergoes the stepwise light irradiation of HE - , single electron transfer (SET) in donor-acceptor complex (DAC) from * HE - to arylhalide, trapping of aryl radical with sulfinate, SET oxidation of sulfone radical anion by HE • to sulfone via the DAC method.

3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 208-218, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957398

RESUMO

The rational delimitation of urban development boundary plays an important role in guiding the orderly growth of urban space and ensure proper environment health of urban space. In this study, we evaluated the ecological sensitivity of Nanchang City from four aspects (soil erosion, habitat, geological disaster and water resource) and simulated urban expansion in 2020 based on CA-Markov and land use data in 2000, 2010 and 2015. Spatial decision-making analysis of the two aspects was carried out in combination to the future development of the study area. We proposed a new method of delimitating urban development boundary integrating environmental protection and urban development through the dynamic coordination of both aspects. The results showed that ecological sensitivity of Nanchang City was moderate. The scale of urban construction land based on CA Markov simulation was 1239.67 km2, which slightly exceeded the planned construction land target (1201.65 km2). When the dynamic adjustment was done by superimposing the ecological sensitivity evaluation results with the expansion simulation results, the adjusted construction land scale of Nanchang City was 1193.15 km2, which met the planned requirement. Consideration of the coordination of protection and development could not only protect the ecological space, but also help to guide the orderly growth of urban space and ensure the healthy development of urban space, and thus was an important way to achieve a win-win situation between rational urban development and ecological protection.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 265, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937783

RESUMO

Glucose electrolysis offers a prospect of value-added glucaric acid synthesis and energy-saving hydrogen production from the biomass-based platform molecules. Here we report that nanostructured NiFe oxide (NiFeOx) and nitride (NiFeNx) catalysts, synthesized from NiFe layered double hydroxide nanosheet arrays on three-dimensional Ni foams, demonstrate a high activity and selectivity towards anodic glucose oxidation. The electrolytic cell assembled with these two catalysts can deliver 100 mA cm-2 at 1.39 V. A faradaic efficiency of 87% and glucaric acid yield of 83% are obtained from the glucose electrolysis, which takes place via a guluronic acid pathway evidenced by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. A rigorous process model combined with a techno-economic analysis shows that the electrochemical reduction of glucose produces glucaric acid at a 54% lower cost than the current chemical approach. This work suggests that glucose electrolysis is an energy-saving and cost-effective approach for H2 production and biomass valorization.

5.
Lab Invest ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949244

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by highly invasive growth, which leads to extensive infiltration and makes complete tumor excision difficult. Since cytoskeleton proteins are related to leading processes and cell motility, and through analysis of public GBM databases, we determined that an actin-interacting protein, zyxin (ZYX), may involved in GBM invasion. Our own glioma cohort as well as the cancer genome atlas (TCGA), Rembrandt, and Gravendeel databases consistently showed that increased ZYX expression was related to tumor progression and poor prognosis of glioma patients. In vitro and in vivo experiments further confirmed the oncogenic roles of ZYX and demonstrated the role of ZYX in GBM invasive growth. Moreover, RNA-seq and mass-spectrum data from GBM cells with or without ZYX revealed that stathmin 1 (STMN1) was a potential target of ZYX. Subsequently, we found that both mRNA and protein levels of STMN1 were positively regulated by ZYX. Functionally, STMN1 not only promoted invasion of GBM cells but also rescued the invasion repression caused by ZYX loss. Taken together, our results indicate that high ZYX expression was associated with worse prognosis and highlighted that the ZYX-STMN1 axis might be a potential therapeutic target for GBM.

6.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953102

RESUMO

This paper collects data from 22 children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy who underwent common carotid sympathetic neural network ablation in our hospital from January 1, 2014 to December 1, 2018, using magnetic resonance kurtosis imaging technology parameters. To evaluate the improvement of common carotid artery sympathetic neural network exfoliation on the gravy and white matter functional area in children with cerebral palsy, and to analyse the relationship between DKI parameters and clinical signs in children with cerebral palsy. The study found that the FA values of the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, internal sac forelimb, and corpus callosum were statistically significant before and after surgery. The internal sac forelimb, corpus callosum, and FA values were not statistically significant. The MK values of the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, hindlimb of the internal capsule, corpus callosum, and caudate nucleus were statistically significant before and after operation, but the MK values of the forelimb, corpus callosum, and thalamus were not statistically significant significance. The GMFM-66 score is negatively correlated with the FA value and positively correlated with the MK value. Therefore, it can be concluded that DKI technology can more accurately reflect the gravy and white matter damage in children with cerebral palsy, and its parameter value can be used as a monitoring and evaluation index for children with cerebral palsy.

7.
Psychophysiology ; : e13531, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953853

RESUMO

Decision making based on feedback learning requires a series of cognitive processes, including estimating the probability of particular outcomes and modulating expectations between expected versus actual outcomes. It has been suggested that stress affects decision making and subsequent processing of feedback valence and magnitude. However, less is known about the effect of acute stress on reward expectancy. In the current study, participants performed a probabilistic learning task, in which they learned an association between response and feedback within different reward expectancy trials (30% and 70%) under the conditions of stress (threat of shock) and safety (no shock). We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to measure the reward positivity (RewP) which reflects reward prediction error signals during feedback processing. Behavioral data indicated that participants performed better in the 70% reward trials than in the 30% reward trials. However, no significant difference was observed between stress and safe conditions. Importantly, ERP results indicated that unexpected feedback elicited larger RewP than did expected feedback and this expectancy effect of RewP was reduced in the stress relative to safe condition. Moreover, the correlations between RewP and choice accuracy (70% - 30% reward condition) in the safe and stress conditions were in a similar pattern; yet, only in the stress condition the correlation reached significantly. This may indicate that blunted RewP was associated with impaired performance at an individual level. Our study provides ERP evidence that acute stress affects brain responses to reward prediction error processing, which may explain various abnormal learning behaviors associated with stress-related disorders.

8.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910625

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are molecule-based 2D and 3D materials that possess a wide range of mechanical and electronic properties. We have performed a joint experimental and theoretical study of the electronic structure of boroxine-linked COFs grown under ultrahigh vacuum conditions and characterized using scanning tunneling spectroscopy on Au(111) and hBN/Cu(111) substrates. Our results show that a single hBN layer electronically decouples the COF from the metallic substrate, thus suppressing substrate-induced broadening and revealing new features in the COF electronic local density of states (LDOS). The resulting sharpening of LDOS features allows us to experimentally determine the COF band gap, bandwidths, and the electronic hopping amplitude between adjacent COF bridge sites. These experimental parameters are consistent with the results of first-principles theoretical predictions.

9.
Lasers Surg Med ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Traditional surgical excision for a sebaceous cyst can completely eradicate the cyst, but the surgical processes are relatively complicated and may cause obvious scarring. Some patients are reluctant to choose this method because of the inconvenient procedures and the risk of conspicuous scarring, especially in esthetically important areas. We present a simple treatment method to prevent formation of a conspicuous scar. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, the cyst wall was pre-separated from the surrounding tissues by injecting a large volume of anesthetic around the cyst. Then, the cyst contents were removed through a small hole created by using a CO2 laser on the skin surface, which adhered closely to the cyst. Finally, the cyst wall was removed using a hemostat that clamps it at the base. Between August 2017 and July 2019, 32 patients with 33 sebaceous cysts (12 infected and 21 uninfected) were treated by this method to remove the cyst contents and cyst wall. Mean operative time, complications, and patient satisfaction were evaluated. RESULTS: All patients were satisfied with the good esthetic outcome and the simplicity of the surgical procedure. Only two of the 33 cysts (6.0%) recurred 2 and 3 months postoperatively, including 0 of 21 uninfected cysts (0.0%) and 2 of 12 infected cysts (16.7%). No complications were found during the follow-up period. The mean operation time was 13 ± 2.1 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: CO2 laser punch-assisted surgery was associated with minimal scarring and high patient satisfaction. With acceptable recurrence rates, it is a convenient, effective and minimally-invasive treatment option for sebaceous cysts. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

10.
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18661, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914053

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder caused by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies suggest that Vitamin D3 or bumetanide therapy may improve the core symptoms of ASD in some individuals. However, there are no guidelines that provide clinicians with evidence-based treatment regimens for the use of these therapies in ASD. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 30-month-old female was referred to our department because she did not respond when her name was called. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with ASD by a team of autism experts according to American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was administered Vitamin D3 150,000 IU intramuscularly once a month and Vitamin D3 800 IU orally each day. After 6 months, Vitamin D3 supplementation was discontinued because of lack of effectiveness. Subsequently, oral bumetanide 0.5 mg twice daily was initiated. OUTCOMES: The patient's symptoms remained unchanged after 6 months of Vitamin D3 supplementation, and her serum 25 (OH) D levels had reached 52.4 ng/mL. At the parent's request, Vitamin D3 supplementation was discontinued because of lack of effectiveness. Thereafter, bumetanide was initiated. After 1 month of bumetanide, the patient's Childhood Autism Rating Scale score was 26, which is below the cutoff score for ASD. This case report suggests that Vitamin D3 and bumetanide target different mechanisms in the pathogenesis of ASD. LESSONS: Based on these observations, we discuss three possible scenarios for Vitamin D3 supplementation and propose that bumetanide should be initiated if Vitamin D3 supplementation is ineffective (identifier ChiCTR-CCC-13004498).

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18671, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914057

RESUMO

Liver cirrhosis is a common chronic progressive liver disease in clinical practice, and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) is a promising magnetic resonance method to assess liver cirrhosis, so our purpose was to investigate association of liver-lobe-based IVIM-derived parameters with hepatitis-B-related cirrhosis and its severity, and esophageal and gastric fundic varices. Seventy-four patients with hepatitis-B-related cirrhotic and 25 healthy volunteers were enrolled and underwent upper abdominal IVIM diffusion-weighted imaging with b-values of 0, 20, 50, 80, 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 s/mm. IVIM-derived parameters (D, pure molecular diffusion; D, pseudo diffusion; and f, perfusion fraction) of left lateral lobe (LLL), left medial lobe (LML), right lobe (RL), and caudate lobe (CL) were assessed statistically to show their associations with cirrhosis and its severity, and esophageal and gastric fundic varices. In this research, we found that D, D, and f values of LLL, LML, RL, and CL were lower in cirrhotic liver than in normal liver (all P-values <.05). D, D, and f values of LLL, LML, RL, and CL were inversely correlated with Child-Pugh class of cirrhosis (r = -0.236 to -0.606, all P-values <.05). D of each liver lobe, D of LLL and CL, and f of LLL, LML, and CL in patients with esophageal and gastric fundic varices were lower than without the varices (all P-values <.05). D values of RL and CL could best identify cirrhosis, and identify esophageal and gastric fundic varices with areas under receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.857 and 0.746, respectively. We concluded that liver-lobe-based IVIM-derived parameters can be associated with cirrhosis, and esophageal and gastric fundic varices.

13.
Planta Med ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918446

RESUMO

Three phenylpropanoid glucosides (1:  - 3: ) and one iridoid glucoside (11: ), together with eleven known glucosides, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plant of Hemiphragma heterophyllum. Their structures were elucidated by means of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, HRMS, and chemical methods. All compounds except 11: and 13:  - 15: showed varying degrees of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Compounds 5, 9: , and 12: were marginally active in the bioassay, while compounds 1:  - 4: , 6:  - 8: , and 10: exhibited appreciable inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 33.6 ~ 83.1 µM, which was much lower than that of the positive control acarbose (IC50 = 310.8 µM).

14.
Lasers Med Sci ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919682

RESUMO

To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of diode laser enucleation of the prostate (DiLEP) versus bipolar plasma kinetic enucleation of the prostate (PKEP) in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A systematic literature search was undertaken using PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and CKNI databases to identify eligible studies published before April 2019. The quality of evidence and methodology was assessed. Primary outcomes were clinical and demographic characteristics and postoperative efficacy including maximum flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual (PVR), quality of life (QoL), and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS); secondary outcomes were intraoperative variables and major complications. Meta-analyses of extracted data were performed with the RevMan version 5.2. The overall effects were determined by the Z-test, and a p value less than 0.05 was considered with significant difference. A fixed- or random-effect model was chosen to fit the pooled heterogeneity (determined by Chi-squared test and I2). As qualified trials were few, subgroup analyses were not performed. Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 451 patients were enrolled in our meta-analysis. In the included trials, all the diode (wavelength at 980 nm and 1470 nm) lasers applied output at continuous wave mode; the energy settings ranged from 120 to 160 W for enucleation and 30 to 60 W for coagulation. DiLEP provided less perioperative hemoglobin decrease (MD = - 3.22; 95% CI (- 5.15, - 1.29); p = 0.001; I2 = 65%), less postoperative catheterization time (MD = - 17.82; 95% CI (- 32.74, - 2.90); p = 0.02; I2 = 96%), less postoperative irrigation time (MD = - 7.15; 95% CI (- 13.67, - 0.62); p = 0.03; I2 = 98%), and lower incidence of urinary irritative symptoms (OR = 0.31; 95% CI (0.14, 0.67); p = 0.003; I2 = 0%) compared with PKEP. During the 1, 3, 6, and 12-month postoperative follow-up, no statistically significant difference was found in Qmax, IPSS, QoL, and PVR between the procedures. As regards other perioperative and postoperative parameters and major complications, we found no significant difference. Both DiLEP and PKEP are safe and efficient methods for the treatment of BPH. However, DiLEP showed less perioperative hemoglobin decrease, less postoperative catheterization time, less postoperative irrigation time, and lower rates of postoperative irritative symptoms compared with the PKEP group.

15.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919733

RESUMO

Background Over the last few years, pharmacists in China have been searching for effective strategies to expand their roles in pharmaceutical care. In September 2012, the Beijing Chaoyang Hospital was the first in China to establish the Chief-Pharmacist System aimed to let pharmacists be a responsible part of the multi-disciplinary care team. Objective To describe the Chief-Pharmacist System and explore its impact on drug expenditures and rational drug use. Setting A tertiary hospital in Beijing, China. Method Chief-Pharmacist System oriented specific measures were implemented and evaluated. Data on medical services quantity, quality and drug expenses during the periods of pre-implementation (from September 1, 2011 to August 31, 2012) and post implementation (from September 1, 2012 to August 31, 2016) were collected. Main outcome measure Healthcare quality indicators, drug expenditures, selected drug use indicators of outpatient and antibiotic use. Results With the implementation of the Chief-Pharmacist System and the participation of pharmacists in pharmaceutical care, drug expenses were reduced significantly. The total drug expenses, outpatient drug expenses per visit and inpatient drug expenses per admission decreased by an average of US $34.3 million, US $8.9 and US $ 303.9, respectively, compared to the pre-implementation period. Meanwhile, selected drug use indicators in post-implementation period were significantly improved. All results were achieved without sacrificing clinical quality and quantity. Conclusion The study illustrates that the Chief-Pharmacist System achieves substantial reductions in drug expenditures and promotion of rational drug use. It provides a model for other hospitals in China and other low- and middle-income countries.

16.
Sci Immunol ; 5(43)2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924685

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays an important role in allergic diseases. Nevertheless, the source of IgE serological memory remains controversial. We reexamined the mechanism of serological memory in allergy using a dual reporter system to track IgE+ plasma cells in mice. Short-term allergen exposure resulted in the generation of IgE+ plasma cells that resided mainly in secondary lymphoid organs and produced IgE that was unable to degranulate mast cells. In contrast, chronic allergen exposure led to the generation of long-lived IgE+ plasma cells that were primarily derived from sequential class switching of IgG1, accumulated in the bone marrow, and produced IgE capable of inducing anaphylaxis. IgE+ plasma cells were found in the bone marrow of human allergic, but not nonallergic donors, and allergen-specific IgE produced by these cells was able to induce mast cell degranulation when transferred to mice. These data demonstrate that long-lived IgE+ bone marrow plasma cells arise during chronic allergen exposure and establish serological memory in both mice and humans.

17.
EMBO Rep ; : e48328, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930681

RESUMO

Overexpressing Tau counteracts apoptosis and increases dephosphorylated ß-catenin levels, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. Here, we show that Tau can directly and robustly acetylate ß-catenin at K49 in a concentration-, time-, and pH-dependent manner. ß-catenin K49 acetylation inhibits its phosphorylation and its ubiquitination-associated proteolysis, thus increasing ß-catenin protein levels. K49 acetylation further promotes nuclear translocation and the transcriptional activity of ß-catenin, and increases the expression of survival-promoting genes (bcl2 and survivin), counteracting apoptosis. Mutation of Tau's acetyltransferase domain or co-expressing non-acetylatable ß-catenin-K49R prevents increased ß-catenin signaling and abolishes the anti-apoptotic function of Tau. Our data reveal that Tau preserves ß-catenin by acetylating K49, and upregulated ß-catenin/survival signaling in turn mediates the anti-apoptotic effect of Tau.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(2): 783-791, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894972

RESUMO

Here we report that a covalent organic framework (COF), which contains 2,5-di(imine)-substituted 1,4-dihydroxybenzene (diiminol) moieties, undergoes color changes in the presence of solvents or solvent vapor that are rapid, passive, reversible, and easily detectable by the naked eye. A new visible absorption band appears in the presence of polar solvents, especially water, suggesting reversible conversion to another species. This reversibility is attributed to the ability of the diiminol to rapidly tautomerize to an iminol/cis-ketoenamine and its inability to doubly tautomerize to a diketoenamine. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest similar energies for the two tautomers in the presence of water, but the diiminol is much more stable in its absence. Time-dependent DFT calculations confirm that the iminol/cis-ketoenamine absorbs at longer wavelength than the diiminol and indicate that this absorption has significant charge-transfer character. A colorimetric humidity sensing device constructed from an oriented thin film of the COF responded quickly to water vapor and was stable for months. These results suggest that tautomerization-induced electronic structure changes can be exploited in COF platforms to give rapid, reversible sensing in systems that exhibit long-term stability.

19.
Sci Prog ; : 36850419897712, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893980

RESUMO

A flexible multibody dynamic calculation model based on thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication bearing model was established. This numerical simulation method provided a more realistic turbocharger calculation model and a more reliable theoretical support for studying the dynamic vibration characteristics of the floating ring bearing turbocharger system. In order to fully consider the dynamic characteristics of each component, the behavior of the floating ring bearing was described by generalized incompressible Reynolds equation in thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication model. The flexible body substructure models were established by the modal synthesis method. Based on this model, the direct mathematical model of the relationship between the eccentricity of the rotor and the oil film clearance on the turbocharger's surface vibration was established. The influence of eccentricity and oil film thickness on the surface vibration of the turbocharger body was calculated by transient dynamics method. The results showed that the eccentricity of the rotor and the vibration of turbocharger housing were monotonic functions, but the interaction between the whirl of internal and external oil films made the mechanism of the influence of the oil film thickness on the turbocharger body's vibration complicated. The research provided a new idea for the structural vibration and synchronous noise control of the supercharger.

20.
Parasitol Res ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897788

RESUMO

Blastocystis is an enteral eukaryote with an omnipresent existence in animals and humans globally. Animals have been proposed to be a major reservoir for the transmission of Blastocystis to individuals due to their high prevalence and large amount of zoonotic subtypes. However, limited data on Blastocystis infection in experimental macaques in China exists. The objective of the current study was to investigate the frequency and subtypes of Blastocystis infection in macaques in southwestern China. A total of 505 fecal samples were collected from experimental macaques in Yunnan province and were analyzed by nested PCR and phylogenetic analyses on the basis of small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene fragments. A total of 235 specimens were positive for Blastocystis sp., and the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. was 46.5% (235/505). Significant differences in prevalence were also observed among the various species of macaques (P < 0.0133, df = 2, χ2 = 8.64) and the different feed types (P < 0.0093, df = 1, χ2 = 6.77). Moreover, three zoonotic subtypes, ST1, ST3, and ST5, were identified by DNA sequence analysis. There were mainly single subtype infections with some mixed subtype infections, and the predominant subtype was ST3. The results suggested a high prevalence and diversified subtypes in macaques in Yunnan province, southwestern China. Macaques are likely to be potential reservoirs capable of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis sp. to humans. To our knowledge, this study is the first large-scale systematic analysis of Blastocystis sp. colonization in Yunnan province in the subtropics of China; these results contribute to the in-depth study of genetic characteristics and the prevention, control, and treatment of Blastocystis sp. in macaques in Yunnan province and other regions.

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