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1.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799348

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant head and neck tumor. Drug resistance and distant metastasis are the predominant cause of treatment failure in NPC patients. Hispidulin is a flavonoid extracted from the bioassay-guided separation of the EtOH extract of Salvia plebeia with strong anti-proliferative activity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (CNE-2Z). In this study, the effects of hispidulin on proliferation, invasion, migration, and apoptosis were investigated in CNE-2Z cells. The [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay and the colony formation assay revealed that hispidulin could inhibit CNE-2Z cell proliferation. Hispidulin (25, 50, 100 µM) also induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in CNE-2Z cells. The expression of Akt was reduced, and the expression of the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was increased. In addition, scratch wound and transwell assays proved that hispidulin (6.25, 12.5, 25 µM) could inhibited the migration and invasion in CNE-2Z cells. The expressions of HIF-1α, MMP-9, and MMP-2 were decreased, while the MMPs inhibitor TIMP1 was enhanced by hispidulin. Moreover, hispidulin exhibited potent suppression tumor growth and low toxicity in CNE-2Z cancer-bearing mice at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/day. Thus, hispidulin appears to be a potentially effective agent for NPC treatment.

2.
Eur J Dermatol ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe dermatitis, multiple allergies and metabolic wasting (SAM) syndrome comprise a rare genodermatosis associated with biallelic (homozygous or compound heterozygous) mutations in the DSG1 (desmoglein-1) gene, or heterozygous mutations in the DSP (desmoplakin) gene. To date, while many patients with SAM syndrome have been described, the number of cases with SAM syndrome with deep-intronic variants, together its genetic aetiology, remain limited. OBJECTIVE: We report the case of a five-year-old Chinese boy with atypical SAM syndrome. MATERIALS & METHODS: Relevant blood specimens from the family were collected. DNA isolation, RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis, and next-generation sequencing using a multi-gene panel were applied to verify the pathogenic gene. To test the functional consequences and pathogenic mechanism of the deep-intronic mutation in vitro, a mini gene strategy was constructed. RESULTS: A heterozygous DSG1 deletion (c.2437_2450delACCTATCCCTCGGG: p.Tyr814Trpfs*6) and a deep-intronic (c.1688-30A > T) variant were identified. The identified intronic variant was shown to create an alternative splice site, leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay of the aberrant transcript. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate a causal role for a deep-intronic DSG1 mutation in a patient with SAM syndrome. Our findings underline the need to analyse the intronic regions of DSG1 in patients with SAM syndrome. Improved diagnosis and a better understanding of prognosis will lead to clearer a picture of the concept of atypical SAM syndrome.

3.
Infect Genet Evol ; : 104852, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831542

RESUMO

The resistance of mosquito vectors to insecticides is one of the biological obstacles in the fight against malaria. Understanding of the status and mechanisms underlying the insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae species is necessary for success of vector control efforts. The study aimed to determine the molecular forms of An. gambiae from four districts in Sierra Leone during May and June 2018, and the level of N1575Y mutation. The molecular form identification of adult female An. gambiae mosquitoes reared from larvae were carried out using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. And the N1575Y mutations were detected using SNaPshot and sequencing. As a result, significant differences were found in the distribution of An. gambiae molecular forms among regions (P < 0.001). And a total of 638 An. gambiae sensu stricto, 106 An. coluzzi, and 4 hybrid individuals were identified. Moreover, the overall N1575Y mutation frequency was 10.2% with no statistical difference among regions (χ2 = 3.009, P = 0.390). In addition, no significant differences in N1575Y mutation frequency were found among different An. gambiae molecular forms (P = 0.383). In conclusion, the N1575Y mutation in An. gambiae populations in Sierra Leone was reported for the first time in the present study. It provides key evidence for the necessity of monitoring vector susceptibility levels to insecticides used in this country.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(5): 1284-1292, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787124

RESUMO

It is the core of the development for Chinese patent medicine enterprises to cultivate large varieties of Chinese patent medicine, and the selection of potential "seed" products is the prerequisite for the cultivation strategy. By constructing the evaluation model from multiple dimensions of value and risk, we can conduct specialized evaluation of Chinese patent medicines to effectively, professionally and objectively select the "seed" products with large variety cultivation potential. In this paper, the establishment of a multidimensional evaluation system would be discussed from the aspects of drug naming and prescription composition, safety risk and supply guarantee of raw materials and medicinal materials, competition situation, access to policy catalogue, scientific and technological support, clinical evidence and recognition, systematical and standardized collection of information on product instructions, quality standards, policy catalogue, scientific and technological literature, market competition and clinical application of Chinese patent medicines. Through the objective evaluation index and the range of objective index, the multi-dimensional evaluation model on values and risks of Chinese patent medicine products was discussed. Based on this model, a batch of Chinese patent medicine products can be quickly and comprehensively analyzed, and quantitative comparison can be formed among different types and fields of products. According to the evaluation results of the model and the comprehensive evaluation of experts, high-quality "seed" products can be selec-ted, laying a solid foundation for the next step of large variety cultivation. With use of this model, we can further clarify the external competitive advantages and internal priority levels of each product, and provide support for enterprises to optimize product structure and improve product strategic layout.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Controle de Qualidade
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 292: 109415, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780830

RESUMO

Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) containing the specific calcium-binding motif (EF-hand) play a crucial role in important physiological events such as secretion, storage and signal transduction of cells. Recently, CaBPs have been found to be associated with host cell invasions in some parasites. In this study, an Eimeria tenella membrane-associated calcium-binding protein (EtCab) was cloned and its expression at different developmental stages, adhesive functions and host cell invasion in vitro were investigated. The results of the sequence analysis showed that EtCab contains six EF-hand motifs and the HDEL ER-retention signal belonging to the CREC (45 kDa calcium-binding protein, reticulocalbin, ER calcium-binding protein of 55 kDa, and calumenin) family. An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using specific polyclonal antibodies under permeabilized and nonpermeabilized conditions labeled EtCab on the surface of sporozoites. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting indicated that EtCab was highly transcribed and expressed in sporozoites. The attachment assay using a yeast surface display model showed that the adherence rates of EtCab expressed on the surfaces of yeasts to host cells were 2.5-fold greater than the control. Invasion inhibition assays revealed that specific polyclonal antibodies against EtCab significantly reduced the invasion rate of sporozoites on host cells compared to the control group (P < 0.01). These results suggest that EtCab plays an important role in the attachment and invasion of E. tenella to host cells.

6.
J Med Chem ; 64(6): 2878-2900, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719439

RESUMO

Mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene are often present in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with an incidence rate of approximately 30%. Recently, many FLT3 inhibitors have been developed and exhibit positive preclinical and clinical effects against AML. However, patients develop resistance soon after undergoing FLT3 inhibitor treatment, resulting in short durable responses and poor clinical effects. This review will discuss the main mechanisms of resistance to clinical FLT3 inhibitors and summarize the emerging strategies that are utilized to overcome drug resistance. Basically, medicinal chemistry efforts to develop new small-molecule FLT3 inhibitors offer a direct solution to this problem. Other potential strategies include the combination of FLT3 inhibitors with other therapies and the development of multitarget inhibitors. It is hoped that this review will provide inspiring insights into the discovery of new AML therapies that can eventually overcome the resistance to current FLT3 inhibitors.

7.
Insects ; 12(2)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670781

RESUMO

Serine protease inhibitors (Serpins) are a broadly distributed superfamily of proteins that exist in organisms with the role of immune responses. Lmserpin1 gene was cloned firstly from Locusta migratoria manilensis and then was detected in all tested stages from eggs to adults and six different tissues through qRT-PCR analysis. The expression was significantly higher in the 3rd instars and within integument. After RNAi treatment, the expression of Lmserpin1 was significantly down-regulated at four different time points. Moreover, it dropped significantly in the fat body and hemolymph at 24 h after treatment. The bioassay results indicated that the mortality of L. migratoria manilensis treated with dsSerpin1 + Metarhizium was significantly higher than the other three treatments. Furthermore, the immune-related genes (PPAE, PPO, and defensin) treated by dsSerpin1 + Metarhizium were significantly down-regulated compared with the Metarhizium treatment, but the activities of phenoloxidase (PO), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and multifunctional oxidase (MFO) were fluctuating. Our results suggest that Lmserpin1 plays a crucial role in the innate immunity of L. migratoria manilensis. Lmserpin1 probably took part in regulation of melanization and promoted the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs).

8.
Chem Biodivers ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656782

RESUMO

Three new matrine-type alkaloids, 8ß-hydroxyoxysophoridine (1), 9ß-hydroxysophoridine (2), 9ß-hydroxyisosophocarpine (3), together with one known analog, 11,12-dehydromatrine (4), were isolated from the seeds of Sophora alopecuroides L. The structures of new compounds were elucidated using extensive spectroscopic techniques including the experimental and calculated ECD data. The anti-inflammatory activities of all the isolates on NO production in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide were evaluated. Among them, 8ß-hydroxyoxysophoridine (1) showed a significant inhibitory effect with an IC50 value of 18.26 µM.

9.
J Hypertens ; 39(4): 808-812, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649283
10.
Anal Chem ; 93(10): 4434-4440, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660978

RESUMO

Cross-linking mass spectrometry (XL-MS) has made significant progress in understanding the structure of protein and elucidating architectures of larger protein complexes. Current XL-MS applications are limited to targeting lysine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and cysteine residues. There remains a need for the development of novel cross-linkers enabling selective targeting of other amino acid residues in proteins. Here, a novel simple cross-linker, namely, [4,4'-(disulfanediylbis(ethane-2,1-diyl)) bis(1,2,4-triazolidine-3,5-dione)] (DBB), has been designed, synthesized, and characterized. This cross-linker can react selectively with tyrosine residues in protein through the electrochemical click reaction. The DBB cross-links produced the characteristic peptides before and after electrochemical reduction, thus permitting the simplified data analysis and accurate identification for the cross-linked products. This is the first time a cross-linker is developed for targeting tyrosine residues on protein without using photoirradiation or a metal catalyst. This strategy might potentially be used as a complementary tool for XL-MS to probe protein 3D structures, protein complexes, and protein-protein interaction.

11.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 198: 113994, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676169

RESUMO

In traditional Chinese medicine theory, Sophorae Tonkinensis radix et rhizome (ST) has the effects of treating tonsillitis, sore throats, and heat-evil-induced diseases. However, the utilization of ST is relatively restricted owing to its toxicity. The previous studies have made some progress on the mechanism and material basis of ST-induced hepatotoxicity, but there is still no significant breakthrough. In this study, integrated omics and bioinformatics analyses were used to investigate the mechanism and material basis of ST-induced hepatotoxicity. Integrated omics were used to analyze the differentially expressed proteins and metabolites, based on which the significantly dysregulated pathways were analyzed by using MetaboAnalyst. Bioinformatics was applied to screen the toxic targets and material basis. Integrated omics revealed that 254 proteins and 42 metabolites were differentially expressed after the treatment with ST, out of which 7 proteins were significantly enriched in 3 pathways. Bioinformatics showed that 20 compounds may interfere with the expression of 7 toxic targets of ST. Multiple toxic targets of ST-induced hepatotoxicity were found in the study, whose dysregulation may trigger hepatocyte necrosis/apoptosis, liver metastasis, and liver cirrhosis. Multiple compounds may be the toxic material basis in response to these effects.

12.
Bioorg Chem ; 110: 104781, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677246

RESUMO

Forty-three quinolizidine alkaloids (1-43), including twelve new matrine-type ones, sophalodes A-L (1-7, 17, 19 and 28-30), were isolated from the seeds of Sophora alopecuroides. Structurally, compounds 1-4 were the first examples of C-11 oxidized matrine-type alkaloids from Sophora plants. The structures and absolute configurations of new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques, X-ray diffraction analysis, and quantum chemical calculation. In addition, the NMR data and absolute configuration of compound 18 was reported for the first time. All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibition on nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 macrophages, among them, compounds 29, 38 and 42 exhibited the most significant activity with IC50 values of 29.19, 25.86 and 33.30 µM, respectively. Further research about new compound 29 showed that it also suppressed the protein levels of iNOS and COX-2, which revealed its anti-inflammatory potential. Moreover, additional research showed that compound 16 exhibited marginal cytotoxicity against HeLa cell lines, with an IC50 value of 24.27 µM.

13.
Phytochemistry ; 184: 112681, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548771

RESUMO

Seven undescribed (valejatadoids A-G) and 26 known iridoids were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of Valeriana jatamansi. Their structures were determined based on extensive spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR, along with HRESIMS. Valejatadoid B is a monoene-type iridoid with a unique double bond between C-4 and C-5. Valejatadoids D-G, jatamanin U, jatamanin O, jatamanvaltrate E, valeriotetrate C, IVHD-valtrate, 10-isovaleroxy-valtrathydrin, jatamanvaltrate Q, valeriandoid F, jatamanvaltrate K, jatamanvaltrate W and isovaltrate were more potent than the positive control when evaluated for inhibition of NO production. Among them, valeriandoid F and jatamanvaltrate K exhibited the most significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values of 0.88 and 0.62 µM, respectively. In addition, valeriandoid F selectively inhibited the proliferation of human glioma stem cell lines, GSC-3# and GSC-18#, with IC50 values of 7.16 and 5.75 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Nardostachys , Valeriana , Anti-Inflamatórios , Iridoides/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas
14.
Virus Res ; 296: 198344, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636239

RESUMO

Cytokine-inducible Srchomology2 (SH2)-containing protein (CIS) belongs to the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) protein family function as a negative feedback loop inhibiting cytokine signal transduction. J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), a commonly-seen avian virus with a feature of immunosuppression, poses an unmeasurable threat to the poultry industry across the world. However, commercial medicines or vaccines are still no available for this virus. This study aims to evaluate the potential effect of chicken CIS in antiviral response and its role on ALV-J replication. The results showed that ALV-J strain SCAU-HN06 infection induced CIS expression in DF-1 cells, which was derived from chicken embryo free of endogenous avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ASLV) like sequences. By overexpressing CIS, the expression of chicken type I interferon (IFN-I) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs; PKR, ZAP, CH25H, CCL4, IFIT5, and ISG12) were both suppressed. Meanwhile, data showed that CIS overexpression also increased viral yield. Interestingly, knockdown of CIS enhanced induction of IFN-I and ISGs and inhibited viral replication. Collectively, we proved that modulation of CIS expression not only affected SCAU-HN06 replication in vitro but also altered the expression of IFN-I and ISGs that act as an essential part of antiviral innate immune system. Our data provide a potential target for developing antiviral agents for ALV-J.

15.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 252: 119490, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524815

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to establish a novel method for the determination of N-methylaniline (NMA) based on azo coupling reaction in infant pacifiers prepared with food contact silicone materials by combining thin layer chromatography (TLC) with surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS). TLC was used to separate the azo reaction products to confirm the component spot of azo compound, then the spot of azo compound mixed with silver sol on the TLC plate was qualitatively detected by SERRS. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method is as low as 0.50 ppm for NMA. The influence of sample matrix about the TLC-SERRS detection of NMA was investigated by experiment of simulated positive sample, and the NMA in infant pacifiers exposed to silica gel products was detected. The method of TLC-SERRS for the determination of NMA in infant pacifiers prepared with food contact silicone materials was established, and the real samples were detected. Compared with the methods ever reported, the method has the advantages of high sensitivity, specificity and low cost. It provides a new reference method for establishing a safety system for food contact silicone materials.

16.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-32, 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583259

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A is a highly toxic mycotoxin and has posed great threat to human health. Due to its serious toxicity and wide contamination, great efforts have been made to develop reliable determination methods. In this review, analytical methods are comprehensively summarized in terms of sample preparation strategy and instrumental analysis. Detailed method is described according to the food commodities in the order of cereal, wine, coffee, beer, cocoa, dried fruit and spice. This review mainly focuses on the recent advances, especially reported in the last decade. At last, challenges and perspectives are also discussed to achieve better advancement and promote practical application in this field.

17.
Anal Methods ; 13(9): 1121-1131, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591301

RESUMO

Intracellular Fe3+ amount is one of the critical determinants of human health. The development of simple and effective probes for the quantitative detection of Fe3+in vivo is of great significance for the early diagnosis of disease or disorder associated with iron deficiency or overload. In this study, remarkable carbon dots, which can serve as a biosensor for efficient intracellular Fe3+ detection, were synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization of Fusobacterium nucleatum, an anaerobic bacterium. The achieved F. nucleatum-carbon dots (Fn-CDs) possessed the features of strong fluorescence, high stability and excellent biocompatibility. The obtained Fn-CDs could easily internalize into both plant cells and human cells with excellent ability for cell tracking and biomedical labeling. The fluorescence of Fn-CDs could still remain for another 24 hours after penetrating into cells. Furthermore, the fluorescent Fn-CDs were very sensitive to the presence of Fe3+ ions even in cells, exhibiting great promising applications in in vivo detection of Fe3+ ions. In addition, the Fn-CDs posed no harm to the mice, being circulated and excreted within a short time, making the Fn-CDs an excellent candidate for bioimaging and biosensing in vivo.

18.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 7, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS+) was established in 1998, which has developed close partnerships with Asian countries endemic for schistosomiasis and other helminthiasis in Asia. RNAS+ has provided an ideal regional platform for policy-makers, practitioners and researchers on the prevention, control and research of parasitic diseases in Asian countries. China, one of the initiating countries, has provided significant technical and financial support to the regional network. However, its roles and contributions have not been explored so far. The purpose of this study was to assess China's contributions on the supporting of RNAS+ development. METHODS: An assessment research framework was developed to evaluate China's contributions to RNAS+ in four aspects, including capacity building, funding support, coordination, and cooperation. An anonymous web-based questionnaire was designed to acquire respondents' basic information, and information on China's contributions, challenges and recommendations for RNAS+development. Each participant scored from 0 to 10 to assess China's contribution: "0" represents no contribution, and "10" represents 100% contribution. Participants who included their e-mail address in the 2017-2019 RNAS+ annual workshops were invited to participate in the assessment. RESULTS: Of 71 participants enrolled, 41 responded to the survey. 37 (37/41, 90.24%) of them were from RNAS+ member countries, while the other 4 (4/41, 9.76%) were international observers. Most of the respondents (38/41, 92.68%) were familiar with RNAS+. Respondents reported that China's contributions mainly focused on improving capacity building, providing funding support, coordination responsibility, and joint application of cooperation programs on RNAS+ development. The average scores of China's contributions in the above four fields were 8.92, 8.64, 8.75, and 8.67, respectively, with an overall assessment score of 8.81 (10 for a maximum score). The challenge of RNAS+ included the lack of sustainable funding, skills, etc. and most participants expressed their continual need of China's support. CONCLUSIONS: This survey showed that China has played an important role in the development of RNAS+ since its establishment. This network-type organization for disease control and research can yet be regarded as a great potential pattern for China to enhance regional cooperation. These findings can be used to promote future cooperation between China and other RNAS+ member countries.

19.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 4131420, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628113

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that cannot be cured. Maresin 1 (MaR1) is a specific lipid synthesized by macrophages that exhibits powerful anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of MaR1 on allergic asthma using an ovalbumin- (OVA-) induced asthma model. Thirty BALB/c mice were randomly allocated to control, OVA, and MaR1 + OVA groups. Mice were sacrificed 24 hours after the end of the last challenge, and serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissue were collected for further analysis. Western blotting was used to measure the protein level of IκBα, the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and the expression of NF-κB downstream inflammatory cytokines. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCRs) were used to evaluate the expression levels of COX-2 and ICAM-1 in lung tissues. We found that high doses of MaR1 were most effective in preventing OVA-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and excessive mucus production in lung tissue, reducing the number of inflammatory cells in the BALF and inhibiting the expression of serum or BALF-associated inflammatory factors. Furthermore, high-dose MaR1 treatment markedly suppressed the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, the degradation of IκBα, and the expression of inflammatory genes downstream of NF-κB, such as COX-2 and ICAM-1, in the OVA-induced asthma mouse model. Our findings indicate that MaR1 may play a critical role in OVA-induced asthma and may be therapeutically useful for the management of asthma.

20.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(9): 2345-2359, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404742

RESUMO

With the development of biomedical technology, epitope mapping of proteins has become critical for developing and evaluating new protein drugs. The application of hydrogen-deuterium exchange for protein epitope mapping holds great potential. Although several reviews addressed the hydrogen-deuterium exchange, to date, only a few systematic reviews have focused on epitope mapping using this technology. Here, we introduce the basic principles, development history, and review research progress in hydrogen-deuterium exchange epitope mapping technology and discuss its advantages. We summarize the main hurdles in applying hydrogen-deuterium exchange epitope mapping technology, combined with relevant examples to provide specific solutions. We describe the epitope mapping of virus assemblies, disease-associated proteins, and polyclonal antibodies as examples of pattern introduction. Finally, we discuss the outlook of hydrogen-deuterium exchange epitope mapping technology. This review will help researchers studying protein epitopes to gain a more comprehensive understanding of this technology.

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