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1.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 223(1): 106-115, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606406

RESUMO

The application of Water Safety Plans (WSPs) in China varies throughout the country. Although pilot WSP projects in China were initiated shortly after WSP was introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2004, they have yet to be used for water supply facilities at a large scale. To better understand the evolution of WSP application in China, a systematic review was conducted to identify all published WSP related studies in China. Eighteen studies, which included 311 water systems, were included in the final analysis. Risk matrix, water supply risk factors, and other data were extracted and analyzed. Text mining methods were also used to better understand risks that can be addressed by WSPs (both potential and actual risks). This study revealed a number of noteworthy differences between and among urban and rural water systems in China. The primary risks associated with most urban water supply systems tended to be related to mechanical failure/s in the water treatment process. Rural water supply systems appear to suffer from similar problems, but insufficient overall management capacity was more prevalent in rural systems. Overall, the evidence suggests that, to date, the use of WSPs in China has been primarily limited to pilot studies, and full implementation of WSPs in China appears to still be in the early stages. The paper closes with a summary of the key obstacles identified as well as a discussion of policies and technical options which could increase the use of WSPs in both urban and rural China. Among other recommendations, the data indicate that there is strong need for the development and implementation of a simplified WSP approach designed specifically for small rural systems in China.

3.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Various enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) guidelines have been established for several kinds of adult surgeries. While the guidelines for pediatric surgeries remained to be explored. The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of an ERAS protocol for Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) infants undergoing pull-through procedures. METHODS: An infant-specific ERAS protocol was developed and implemented at multiple centers from June 1, 2016 to December 31, 2017. The study included 145 consecutive patients who underwent pull-through surgery for HSCR in three Children's hospitals. Patients were primarily divided into three groups based on the clinical classification and surgical methods. Group I included patients with the short segment type who received transanal endorectal pull-through (TEPT) surgery. Group II comprised of patients with the classical type and long segment type who received laparoscopic-assisted pull-through (LAPT) surgery. Group III involved patients with the long segment type (who had received ileostomy or colostomy during the neonatal period) and total colonic aganglionosis who received open pull-through (OPPT) surgery. Patients in the three groups mentioned above were randomly and equally assigned into the ERAS group and traditional (TRAD) group with random number table row randomization. The primary outcome was the length of postoperative hospital stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes of interest included white blood cell (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) on postoperative day 1 (POD 1), the blood glucose at the time of anesthesia and 24 h after surgery, time to first defecation, time to regular diet, plasma markers of nutrition status on POD 5, plasma natrium on POD 5, the mean intraoperative fluid volume, time to discontinuation of intravenous infusion, incidence of postoperative complications, re-admission within 30 days, hospitalization costs, parental satisfaction, and growth from admission to 6 months after surgery. RESULTS: 73 and 75 patients were assigned to the TRAD and ERAS groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in demographic data. The LOS decreased from 9.5 days in the TRAD group to 7.9 days (P < 0.001) in the ERAS group. WBC count on POD 1 showed no significant difference between the two groups. CRP on POD 1 in the ERAS group was significantly lower (P < 0.001). In the ERAS group, the blood glucose was higher at anesthesia compared to the TRAD group (P < 0.001). On the contrary, the blood glucose at 24 h after surgery was significantly lower in the ERAS group (P < 0.001). Intraoperative fluid volume was lower in the EARS group (P < 0.001). ERAS could also reduce the time to first defecation (P < 0.001), discontinuation of intravenous infusion (P < 0.001) and regular diet (P < 0.001). In the ERAS group, the concentrations of prealbumin and retinol conjugated protein on POD 5 were higher than those in the TRAD group (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). The plasma natrium had no difference in the two groups on POD 5 (P > 0.05). The rate of complications (P > 0.05) and 30-day re-admission (P > 0.05) were not significantly different between the two groups. Hospitalization costs were also reduced (P < 0.001). ERAS group has a higher parental satisfaction rate, although there was no statistical difference (96% vs 89%). There was no difference in growth between the ERAS and the TRAD groups from admission to 6 months after the surgery (weight for age z score: P > 0.05, weight for length z score: P > 0.05). We also found that the shortening of LOS by the application of ERAS protocol was more obvious in the OPPT group (-2.5 ± 1.0) than that in the TEPT (-1.9 ± 1.3) and LAPT (-1.3 ± 0.4) groups. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of the ERAS protocol in infants undergoing HSCR pull-through operations is safe and efficient. The ERAS protocol is worthy of recommendation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT02776176.

4.
Life Sci ; 236: 116918, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610208

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are characterized as a group of endogenous RNAs that are more than 200 nucleotides in length and have no protein-encoding function. More and more evidence indicates that lncRNAs play vital roles in various human diseases, especially in tumorigenesis. Focally amplified lncRNA on chromosome 1 (FAL1), a novel lncRNA with enhancer-like activity, has been identified as an oncogene in multiple cancers and high expression level of FAL1 is usually associated with poor prognosis. Dysregulation of FAL1 has been shown to promote the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. In the present review, we summarized and illustrated the functions and underlying molecular mechanisms of FAL1 in the occurrence and development of different cancers and other diseases. FAL1 has the potential to appear as a feasible diagnostic and prognostic tool and new therapeutic target for cancer patients though further investigation is needed so as to accelerate clinical application.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 35(11): 1245-1253, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535199

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A single-stage pull-through (SSPT) is the most commonly performed procedure for Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) and has been shown to be better than multi-stage procedures. However, performing a SSPT in the neonatal period or early in infancy is a risk factor for an inaccurate diagnosis, post-operative enterocolitis, and a protracted post-operative recovery. The present study was primarily designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of home rectal irrigation in the neonatal period and early in infancy, followed by a delayed and planned SSPT in a prospective cohort with HSCR. METHODS: Between January 2014 and December 2016, a total of 147 neonates diagnosed with HSCR were enrolled in the study. Six patients were excluded as a result of ganglion cells found in second rectal biopsies after the neonatal period. One hundred twenty-two patients successfully underwent 2-4 months of home rectal irrigation during the neonatal period, followed by a SSPT procedure after the neonatal period (group A, n = 122). Nineteen patients were not candidates for home rectal irrigation, and thus, colostomies were performed during the neonatal period followed by multi-stage procedures after the neonatal period (group B, n = 19). One hundred twenty-two healthy children, age- and gender-matched to group A were enrolled as the healthy control group for assessment of nutrition status (group C, n = 122). The birth weight, gender ratio, aganglionic segment, age, and Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) score at the time of HSCR diagnosis were measured to evaluate the feasibility of home rectal irrigation in neonates and early in infancy. The nutritional indices, including weight, body length, serum albumin, serum prealbumin, serum retinol-binding protein, and incidence of HAEC after 2-4 successful home rectal irrigation, were used to assess the efficacy of home rectal irrigation. Anastomotic strictures or leakage, perianal excoriation, frequency of defecation, and morbidity of post-operative HAEC were recorded to evaluate the beneficial effects to pull through (PT), which were facilitated by home rectal irrigation. RESULTS: Higher HAEC scores and older age at the time of diagnosis of HSCR were associated with group B, compared to group A (4.34 ± 1.25 vs. 11.0 ± 2.56 [t = 18.20, p < 0.05] and 2.8 ± 1.46 days vs. 12.1 ± 5.3 days [t = 16.10, p < 0.05], respectively). The ratio of rectosigmoid HSCR to non-rectosigmoid HSCR was higher in group A than group B (104/18 vs. 4/15 [χ2 = 34.29, p < 0.05]). There were no differences in birth weight, weight at the time of diagnosis of HSCR, and gender ratio between groups A and B. There were no differences in birth weight, birth length, post-home rectal irrigation age, post-home rectal irrigation weight, post-home rectal irrigation length, and post-home rectal irrigation serum albumin between groups A and C (3.47 ± 0.42 kg vs. 3.48 ± 0.40 kg [t = 0.10, p > 0.05], 50.02 ± 0.49 cm vs. 50.05 ± 0.46 cm [t = 0.61, p > 0.05], 98.59 ± 13.34 days vs. 97.83 ± 13.58 days [t = 0.44, p > 0.05], 6.77 ± 0.66 kg vs. 6.97 ± 0.87 kg [t = 1.95, p > 0.05], 61.55 ± 2.14 cm vs. 61.70 ± 2.07 cm [t = 0.59, p > 0.05], and 41.78 ± 2.42 g/L vs. 41.85 ± 2.37 g/L [t = 0.22, p > 0.05], respectively). The rate of HAEC in the period of home rectal irrigation in group A was low; however, the post-home rectal irrigation serum prealbumin level and retinol-binding protein were significantly lower in group A than group C (0.15 ± 0.04 g/L vs. 0.17 ± 0.05 g/L [t = 3.50, p < 0.05] and 22.51 ± 7.53 g/L vs. 30.57 ± 9.26 g/L [t = 7.46, p < 0.05], respectively). There were no anastomotic strictures or leakage after definitive PT performed in group A. The frequency of defecation ranged from 2-6 times per day, 10 patients had perianal excoriation 3 months after PT, and 11 patients had post-operative HAEC during 6 months of follow-up after PT. CONCLUSION: Home rectal irrigation in neonates and early in infancy, followed by a delayed and planned SSPT is feasible and effective in patients with HSCR, and could be beneficial to definitive PT. However, for patients with an extended aganglionic segment, older age, or high HAEC score at the time of diagnosis of HSCR, rectal irrigation maybe not suitable. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This was a prospective comparative study designed to evaluate the effects of home rectal irrigation for facilitating and enhancing recovery after PT, and was registered at Clinical Trials.gov as NCT02776176.

6.
Nanotechnology ; 30(44): 445402, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370056

RESUMO

In this work, we report the fabrication of Au nanoparticles embedded in BiVO4 films photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) application by a facile electrochemical deposition and sputtering process. The Au NPs/BiVO4 films photoanode decorated with Co-Pi yields significantly improved PEC performance with a maximum photocurrent density of ∼3.1 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V versus RHE. The significantly enhanced performance could be attributed to the introduction of Au nanoparticles, which leads to enhancement of light absorption arising from surface plasmon resonance effect of nanosized Au and improved charge transfer and separation efficiency resulted by increased carrier density and charge transport property by the Au metal doping effect.

9.
Oncotarget ; 10(43): 4501-4502, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327985

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.19207.].

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134240

RESUMO

The recent experimental discovery of intrinsic ferromagnetism in single-layer CrI3 opens a new avenue to low-dimensional spintronics. However, the low Curie temperature, TC ∼ 45 K, is still a large obstacle to its realistic device application. In this work, we demonstrate that the TC and magnetic moment of CrX3 (X = Br, I) can be enhanced simultaneously by coupling them to buckled two-dimensional Mene (M = Si, Ge) to form magnetic van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures. Our first-principles calculations reveal that n-doping of CrX3, induced by a significant spin-dependent interlayer charge-transfer from Mene, is responsible for the drastic enhancement of TC and magnetic moment. Furthermore, the diversified electronic properties including half-metallicity and semi-conductivity with a configuration-dependent energy gap are also predicted in this novel vdW heterostructure, implying broad potential applications in spintronics. Our study suggests that vdW engineering may be an efficient way to tune the magnetic properties of 2D magnets, and Mene/CrX3 magnetic vdW heterostructures are wonderful candidates in spintronics and nanoelectronics devices.

11.
Cell Biol Int ; 43(8): 899-909, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081266

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that the ovarian failure in autoimmune-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) mice could be improved by the transplantation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs); however, the protective mechanism of hPMSCs transplantation on ovarian dysfunction remains unclear. Ovarian dysfunction is closely related to the apoptosis of granulosa cells (GCs). To determine the effects of hPMSCs transplantation on GCs apoptosis, an autoimmune POF mice model was established with zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 (ZP3) peptide. It is reported that the inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) and its downstream molecules play a central role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis pathway. So the aim of this study is to investigate whether hPMSCs transplantation attenuated GCs apoptosis via inhibiting ER stress IRE1α signaling pathway. The ovarian dysfunction, follicular dysplasia, and GCs apoptosis were observed in the POF mice. And the IRE1α pathway was activated in ovaries of POF mice, as demonstrated by, increased X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), up-regulated 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and caspase-12. Following transplantation of hPMSCs, the ovarian structure and function were significantly improved in POF mice. In addition, the GCs apoptosis was obviously attenuated and IRE1α pathway was significantly inhibited. Transplantation of hPMSCs suppressed GCs apoptosis-induced by ER stress IRE1α signaling pathway in POF mice, which might contribute to the hPMSCs transplantation-mediating ovarian function recovery.

12.
J Pediatr Surg ; 54(10): 2032-2037, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously studied the metabolomics, transcriptomics and proteomics of intestinal tissue of Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) patients; the results suggested that the expression of prostaglandin E2(PGE2), prostaglandin E receptor 2(PTGER2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) notably increased in HSCR colon tissues. We already verified the differential expression of PGE2/EP2 in HSCR patients; therefore we investigate how mPGES-1 derived PGE2 affects the migration and the potential mechanism in cells, revealing the role of mPGES-1 derived PGE2 in the pathogenesis of Hirschsprung disease. METHODS: SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE2 cell lines were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, USA). Prostaglandin E2 and its synthetase inhibitors were purchased from Med Chem Express (MCE, USA). Migration assays were performed with transwell and scratch assays. Cell proliferation was confirmed by CCK8 method. Flow cytometer was used to detect the cell cycle and cell apoptosis. The expressions of mRNA and protein of EP2, ARP2/3 were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot respectively. Immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to observe the morphology and function of cytoskeleton. RESULTS: MPGES-1 derived PGE2 decreased the relative expression of EP2 and ARP2/3 and caused damage to cytoskeleton. As to cell functions, PGE2 inhibited cell migration while having no effects on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis. By adding mPGES-1 inhibitor MK886 the abnormal expression and damaged cell function were reversed. CONCLUSIONS: MPGES-1 derived PGE2 inhibits the cell migration by regulating ARP2/3 complex via prostaglandin E2 receptor. Potential mechanisms are the damage of cytoskeleton and related proteins leading to failure of cell polarize and migration. Here we thoroughly inquire the role mPGES-1 derived PGE2 plays in cell migration which might provide a new thinking in the investigation interrelated to the pathogenesis of HSCR.

13.
World Neurosurg ; 127: e346-e352, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuronal apoptosis plays a pivotal role in spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced secondary cellular events. Caspase-dependent and -independent pathways are involved in neuronal apoptosis. Caspase-3 is the final effector of caspase-dependent apoptosis, whereas poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) are key executors of caspase-independent apoptosis. However, it remains unclear whether simultaneous inhibition of the 2 apoptosis pathways will be more beneficial for neuronal survival. Therefore, this study investigated the ability of coadministration of the PARP-1 inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) and caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk to attenuate apoptosis in a rat SCI model. METHODS: The rats were subjected to moderate contusive SCI. Locomotor function was measured using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan rating scales; neuronal apoptosis was detected using transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling; and immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to measure protein expression. RESULTS: We found the locomotor function of rats was weakened within 7 days post-SCI. At day 7 post-SCI, neuronal apoptosis dramatically increased and the expression of PARP-1, AIF, and cleaved caspase-3 was significantly upregulated. Further, Bcl-2 expression was significantly downregulated. The highest locomotor function recovery was recorded after the combined administration of 3-AB and z-DEVD-fmk for 7 days post-SCI when compared with 3-AB or z-DEVD-fmk administered alone. In addition, this combination therapy significantly reduced neuronal apoptosis by preventing upregulation of PARP-1 and AIF, inhibiting caspase-3 activation, and elevating Bcl-2 expression. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that combination therapy is beneficial for neuronal function recovery in rats with SCI. The underlying mechanism may be associated with cosuppression of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis pathways.

14.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 44(2): 149, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837394

RESUMO

The article entitled "Differential expression of exosomal miRNAs in osteoblasts in osteoarthritis" published on Journal of Central South University (Medical Science), in Volume 43, Issue 12, 2018 (DOI: 10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2018.12.003) may have an unclear risk of bias due to insufficient understanding for some results. Further experimental studies are needed. We all agree to retract this article, and apologize to the Journal and readers for the possible negative impact.

15.
Oncol Rep ; 41(3): 1991-1997, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747231

RESUMO

Clinical trials have revealed that inhibition of sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling or histone deacetylase (HDAC) holds promise as a treatment for liver cancer. Based on our previous results, it was hypothesized that dual inhibition of SHH and HDAC may contribute to more efficient targeting of this disease. The effect of SHH inhibitor vismodegib as a single­agent or in combination with HDAC inhibitor entinostat was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit­8 (CCK­8) and flow cytometric assays, as well as immunoblotting. The synergistic effect on cell viability was assessed by combination indexes. Ex vivo cultured liver cancer tissues from a patient were treated with vismodegib as a single­agent or in combination with entinostat, and analyzed by histological and immunohistochemical methods. The results revealed that the dual use of the SHH inhibitor and the HDAC inhibitor effectively synergized to inhibit proliferation, and promote apoptosis in liver cancer cells. Furthermore, the effect of the combination of these drugs was confirmed in an ex vivo culture of human liver cancer tissue. Mechanistically, combined use of SHH and HDAC inhibitors resulted in significantly greater downregulation of SHH and PI3K/mTOR signaling. In conclusion, the combined use of SHH signaling and HDAC inhibitors may be an effective therapeutic strategy for liver cancer.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hedgehog/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Anilidas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Piridinas/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
16.
FASEB J ; 33(6): 6904-6918, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811956

RESUMO

Spaceflight leads to health risks including bone demineralization, skeletal muscle atrophy, cardiovascular dysfunction, and disorders of almost all physiologic systems. However, the impacts of microgravity on blood lineage cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in vivo are largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed peripheral blood samples from 6 astronauts who had participated in spaceflight missions and found significant changes in several cell populations at different time points. These dynamic alterations of lineage cells and the role of HSCs were further studied in a mouse model, using hindlimb unloading (HU) to simulate microgravity. Large reductions in the frequency of NK cells, B cells, and erythrocyte precursors in the bone marrow of the HU mice were observed, together with an increased frequency of T cells, neutrophils, and HSCs. T cell levels recovered faster than those of B cells and erythrocyte precursors, whereas the recovery rates of NK cells and granulocytes were slow. In addition, competitive reconstitution experiments demonstrated the impaired function of HSCs, although these changes were reversible. Deep sequencing showed changes in the expression of regulatory molecules important for the differentiation of HSCs. This study provides the first determination of altered HSC function under simulated microgravity in vivo. The impairment of HSC function and differentiation provides an explanation for the immune disorders that occur under simulated microgravity. Thus, our findings demonstrated that spaceflight and simulated microgravity disrupt the homeostasis of immune system and cause dynamic alterations on both HSCs and lineage cells.-Cao, D., Song, J., Ling, S., Niu, S., Lu, L., Cui, Z., Li, Y., Hao, S., Zhong, G., Qi, Z., Sun, W., Yuan, X., Li, H., Zhao, D., Jin, X., Liu, C., Wu, X., Kan, G., Cao, H., Kang, Y., Yu, S., Li, Y. Hematopoietic stem cells and lineage cells undergo dynamic alterations under microgravity and recovery conditions.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(5): 2619-2627, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657497

RESUMO

Type-II van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures are considered as a class of competitive candidates of high-efficiency photovoltaic materials, due to their spontaneous electron-hole separation. However, most of the vdW heterostructures possess an indirect gap and a large band offset, which would lead to low photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. Taking an SbI3/BiI3 vdW heterostructure as an illustrative example, we propose interlayer compression and vertical electric field application as two effective strategies to modulate the electronic and photovoltaic properties of type-II vdW heterostructures. Our results reveal that a lattice-matched SbI3/BiI3 vdW heterostructure has an indirect band gap of 1.34 eV with the conduction band minimum (CBM) at the Γ point and the valence band maximum (VBM) between the Γ and M points. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of an SbI3/BiI3-based excitonic solar cell (XSC) is predicted to be about 14.42%. When compressing the heterostructure along the vdW gap direction, the highest valence band state at the Γ point is lifted significantly and the VBM gradually approaches the Γ point, implying an indirect-direct gap transition. This interesting evolution can be attributed to the increasing k-dependent electronic hybridization of the pz orbitals of interlayer adjacent I atoms with a reduced interlayer distance. Moreover, the interlayer compression also enhances the PCE of the system monotonically. When applying a vertical electric field, the band alignment of the heterostructure undergoes a transition from type-II to type-I and then returns to type-II between 0.1 and 0.6 V Å-1. Meanwhile, the PCE of the SbI3/BiI3 XSC could be enhanced up to 21.63%. This work provides guidance for improving the electronic and photovoltaic properties of type-II vdW heterostructures.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691217

RESUMO

Drinking water monitoring is essential for identifying health-related risks, as well as for building foundations for management of safe drinking water supplies. However, statistical analyses of drinking water quality monitoring data are challenging because of non-normal (skewed distributions) and missing values. Therefore, a new method combining a water quality index (WQI) with spatial analysis is introduced in this paper to fill the gap between data collection and data analysis. Water constituent concentrations in different seasons and from different water sources were compared based on WQIs. To generate a WQI map covering all of the study areas, predicted WQI values were created for locations in the study area based on spatial interpolation from nearby observed values. The accuracy value of predicted and measured values of our method was 0.99, indicating good predication performance. Overall, the results of this study indicate that this method will help fill the gap between the collection of large amounts of drinking water data and data analysis for drinking water monitoring and process control.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Análise Espacial , Qualidade da Água/normas , Estações do Ano , Abastecimento de Água
20.
AMB Express ; 8(1): 190, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498944

RESUMO

Conversion of various lignocellulosic materials into bioethanol is growing in demand but greatly depends on feedstock availability. Dairy cow manure is an agricultural waste widely distributed worldwide. This study investigated the induction of cellulases by cow manure and the conversion of cow manure materials into lignocellulosic ethanol. Alkaline NaOH pretreatment improved the accessibility of cow manure lignocellulose to enzymes followed by enzymatic hydrolysis using Penicillium oxalicum cellulases. The ethanol yields from pretreated cow manure and anaerobically digested cow manure were 0.19 and 0.13 g/g-raw biomass, respectively, using recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain LF1 designed for lignocellulosic ethanol production through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Fed-batch supplementation with cellulolytic enzymes and substrates after initial enzymatic hydrolysis also contributed to ethanol production up to 25.65 g/L. These results demonstrate that cow manure is a potential feedstock for inducing fungal cellulase expression and converting lignocellulose into bioethanol.

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