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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013029

RESUMO

Although melatonin was affirmed to alleviate drought stress in various plant species, the mechanism in kiwifruit remains to be elucidated. In this study, the transcriptomes of kiwifruit leaves under control (CK), DR (drought stress), and MTDR (drought plus melatonin) treatments were evaluated. After comparisons of the gene expression between DR and MTDR, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses indicated three significant pathways, which were mainly involved in the glutathione metabolism, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, and carotenoid metabolism. Therefore, the content and metabolic gene expression level of ascorbic acid (AsA), glutathione, and carotenoid were higher in the MTDR treatment than that in others. Furthermore, the activity and mRNA expression level of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were also promoted in the MTDR group. Combined with these results of important secondary metabolites and protective enzymes measured in the seedlings in different treatments, it could be concluded that exogenous melatonin induced the ascorbic acid-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, carotenoid biosynthesis, and protective enzyme system to improve seedling growth. Our results contribute to the development of a practical method for kiwifruit against drought stress.

2.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125290, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759213

RESUMO

The root apex is the most active part for water and ions uptake, however, longitudinal alterations in root characteristics along root apex and consequences for metal uptake in hyperaccumulator are poorly understood. Here, we compared cadmium (Cd)-induced longitudinal alterations in root apex of two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii and assess their effects on Cd uptake. Under Cd treatment, cell death began from epidermis to the stele in non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) over time, and the number of dead cells was significantly higher than that in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE). Cd-induced the presence of border-like cells (BLCs) surrounding the root tip of NHE prevented Cd from entering roots, however, almost no BLCs were observed in the root tip of in HE. Besides, Cd-treated NHE exhibited 76% and 52% decrease in the proportions of meristematic and elongation zone, respectively, resulting in lower Cd influx and less intensive Cd-fluorescence in these zones, as compared with HE. In the differentiation zone, Cd induced earlier initiation of root hairs (RHs), lower RHs-density, shorter RHs-length, thicker RHs-radius and less trichoblasts in NHE than those in HE. These remarkable variations led to less Cd influx and lower intensity of Cd-fluorescence in RHs of NHE than those of HE. Furthermore, decline in cell wall thickness under Cd exposure resulted in less cell-wall-bond Cd in the cell wall of HE. Therefore, Cd-induced alterations in root characteristics alongside root apex contributed to the difference in Cd uptake and accumulation between two ecotypes of S. alfredii.

3.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(1): 353-364, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676958

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Gr5.1 is the major locus for cauliflower green curd color and mapped to an interval of 236 Kbp with four most likely candidate genes. Cauliflower with colored curd enhances not only the visual appeal but also the nutritional value of the crop. Green cauliflower results from ectopic development of chloroplasts in the normal white curd. However, the underlying genetic basis is unknown. In this study, we employed QTL-seq analysis to identify the loci that were associated with green curd phenotype in cauliflower. A F2 population was generated following a cross between a white curd (Stovepipe) and a green curd (ACX800) cauliflower plants. By whole-genome resequencing and SNP analysis of green and white F2 bulks, two QTLs were detected on chromosomes 5 (Gr5.1) and 7 (Gr7.1). Validation by traditional genetic mapping with CAPS markers suggested that Gr5.1 represented a major QTL, whereas Gr7.1 had a minor effect. Subsequent high-resolution mapping of Gr5.1 in the second large F2 population with additional CAPS markers narrowed down the target region to a genetic and physical distance of 0.3 cM and 236 Kbp, respectively. This region contained 35 genes with four of them representing the best candidates for the green curd phenotype in cauliflower. They are LOC106295953, LOC106343833, LOC106345143, and LOC106295954, which encode UMP kinase, DEAD-box RNA helicase 51-like, glutathione S-transferase T3-like, and protein MKS1, respectively. These findings lay a solid foundation for the isolation of the Gr gene and provide a potential for marker-assisted selection of the green curd trait in cauliflower breeding. The eventual isolation of Gr will also facilitate better understanding of chloroplast biogenesis and development in plants.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 707: 136049, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874396

RESUMO

Soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon (SOC) physical sequestration is essential to regulation of anthropogenic climate change. However, relative knowledge remains elusive. The total SOC stock, aggregate stability, capacity of physically protected C, structure of macroaggregates and Al/Fe oxides under rice-wheat rotation (RW), rice-vegetable rotation (RV) and afforested land (AL) were analysed. We chose 1-2 mm macroaggregates for low-temperature ashing (LTA) treatment to mimic natural oxidation to assess the capacity of physically protected C. Using scanning electron microscopy, the N adsorption method, and energy dispersive spectroscopy, we explored the internal structure of macroaggregates under different land use types. All land use types could physically protect over 50% of SOC. AL showed the strongest capacity of C sequestration, followed by RW, which preserved 67.1% and 59.6% of SOC, respectively. After 5 h of LTA treatment, the amount of SOC removed from the macropores in cropland (RW and RV) was higher than that in AL. In micropores with further oxidation, AL and RW both lost only 5% of SOC. Fe oxides were more correlated with C dynamics than Al oxides. Free Fe oxides were associated with the easily oxidised organic matter. Soil aggregate stability significantly correlated with Al/Fe oxides (p < 0.05). The RW and AL had a greater soil aggregate stability than the RV owing to the relatively higher content of Al/Fe oxides. In conclusion, the conversion of RW to RV reduced the mechanical stability of soil aggregates and the capacity of C physical sequestration, while the conversion of RW to AL increased these two properties. Land use change affected C physical sequestration mainly via changes in surface area, pore development and the content of Fe oxides in macroaggregates.

5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 609, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486904

RESUMO

A study was performed to determine whether self-rooted grafting decreases cadmium (Cd) accumulation in post-grafting soybean (Glycine max (Linn.) Merrill) generations. Pot experiments were performed using ungrafted (UG) seedlings, self-rooted grafting from the same soybean seedling (SG), self-rooted grafting from two soybean seedlings at the same growth stage (TG), and self-rooted grafting from two soybean seedlings at different developmental stages (DG). Growth and Cd accumulation in three post-grafting soybean generations were assessed. In the SG treatment, only the second post-grafting generation had increased shoot biomass and only the first post-grafting generation shoots had decreased Cd contents. The seed Cd content, soluble protein content, and antioxidant enzyme activity were not significantly affected in three post-grafting generations. In the TG and DG treatments, shoot biomass, soluble protein content, and antioxidant enzyme activities were increased, and the shoot and seed Cd contents were decreased in three post-grafting generations. The seed Cd contents in the first, second, and third post-grafting generations were 15.00%, 9.46%, and 12.44%, respectively, lower in the TG than UG treatments. The seed Cd contents in the first, second, and third post-grafting generations were 32.73%, 27.03%, and 32.22%, respectively, lower in the DG than UG treatments. Different grafting methods promoted growth and decreased Cd accumulation to different degrees in three post-grafting generations. Grafting seedlings at different developmental stages had the strongest effects.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Biomassa , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 674: 213-222, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004898

RESUMO

Biologically modified biochars derived from digestion residue of corn straw silage at different pyrolysis temperature (300-700 °C) were prepared for removing Cd from water. Compared with the pristine biochar derived from corn straw (CB), transabdominal transformation of corn straw silage (TCB) significantly increased surface area (4.24-56.58 m2 g-1), oxygen-containing functional group (COC, MgO, SiO) and mineral components (CaCO3, KCl). The sorption isotherms could be well described by Langmuir model, the kinetic data was best fitted by the Pseudo second order model. The maximum sorption capacity (Qm) obtained from Langmuir model for TCB700 (175.44 mg g-1) was 3 times of CB700 (56.82 mg g-1). Precipitation with minerals, ion exchange and complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups were the main mechanisms of Cd(II) sorption on TCB. These results imply that biologically modified biochar derived from digestion residue of corn straw silage at ≥600 °C is an effective sorbent for Cd removal from water.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Silagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zea mays
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(30): 30671-30679, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178407

RESUMO

The effects of application of straw derived from cadmium (Cd) accumulator plants (Siegesbeckia orientalis, Conyza canadensis, Eclipta prostrata, and Solanum photeinocarpum) on growth and Cd accumulation of lettuce plants grown under Cd exposure were studied. Treatment with straw of the four Cd-accumulator species promoted growth, photosynthesis, and soluble protein contents and enhanced the activities of peroxidase in leaves of lettuce seedlings. The biomass of shoot of lettuce from high to low in turn is the treatment of C. canadensis straw > S. photeinocarpum straw > S. orientalis > E. prostrata > Control. The Cd content in edible parts (shoots) of the lettuce plants was significantly decreased in the presence of straw from the Cd-accumulator species, except the presence of the straw of E. prostrata. And, the greatest reduction in Cd content in shoots was 27.09% in the S. photeinocarpum straw treatment compared with that of the control. Therefore, application of straw of S. orientalis, C. canadensis, and S. photeinocarpum can promote the growth of lettuce seedlings, and decrease their Cd accumulation, when grown in Cd-contaminated soil, which is beneficial for production of lettuce safe for human consumption.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Alface/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Caules de Planta/química , Asteraceae/química , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Biomassa , Cádmio/análise , Produção Agrícola , Alface/química , Alface/enzimologia , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Solanum/química , Solanum/metabolismo
8.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 20(9): 855-861, 2018 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873543

RESUMO

In this study, three cadmium (Cd) accumulator species (Conyza canadensis, Cardamine hirsuta, and Cerastium glomeratum) were co-cultured in Cd-contaminated soil in pots to study the effects of intercropping on co-remediation. Only C. canadensis intercropped with C. glomeratum, C. hirsuta intercropped with C. glomeratum, and three-species intercropping increased plant biomass compared with their respective monocultures. The treatments of C. canadensis intercropped with C. glomeratum and three-species intercropping increased the Cd contents in roots and shoots of C. canadensis, whereas the other intercropping treatments decreased or had no significant impact on Cd contents. As for Cd accumulation, the treatments of C. canadensis intercropped with C. glomeratum, C. hirsuta intercropped with C. glomeratum, and three-species intercropping increased Cd accumulation in a single plant compared with that of their respective monocultures, whereas other intercropping treatments decreased Cd accumulation in individual plants. Only the treatments of C. canadensis intercropped with C. glomeratum and C. hirsuta intercropped with C. glomeratum increased Cd accumulation in shoots of a single pot compared with that of their respective monocultures. Therefore, C. canadensis intercropped with C. glomeratum and C. hirsuta intercropped with C. glomeratum may improve the phytoremediation efficiency for Cd-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Cardamine , Caryophyllaceae , Conyza , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 155: 109-116, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510305

RESUMO

To determine whether the living hyperaccumulator plants and their straws have the same effects on the growth and heavy metal accumulation of common plants, two pot experiments (intercropping experiment and straw mulch experiment) were conducted to study the effects of living hyperaccumulator plants (Solanum photeinocarpum, Tagetes erecta, Galinsoga parviflora and Bidens pilosa) and their straws on the growth and cadmium (Cd) accumulation of common plant Cyphomandra betacea seedlings. Intercropping with T. erecta or B. pilosa promoted the growth of C. betacea seedlings compared with the monoculture, while intercropping with S. photeinocarpum or G. parviflora inhibited that. Intercropping with S. photeinocarpum decreased the Cd contents in the roots and shoots of C. betacea seedlings compared with the monoculture, but intercropping with the other plants did not. In the straw mulch experiment, the straw of S. photeinocarpum or T. erecta promoted the growth of C. betacea seedlings compared with the control, while the straw of G. parviflora or B. pilosa did not. The straw of S. photeinocarpum or T. erecta decreased the Cd contents in the shoots of C. betacea seedlings, and the straw of G. parviflora or B. pilosa increased the shoot Cd contents. Thus, intercropping with S. photeinocarpum and applying S. photeinocarpum or T. erecta straw can reduce the Cd uptake of C. betacea.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solanaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Solanaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanaceae/metabolismo
10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4836, 2018 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555986

RESUMO

Genetic maps are a prerequisite for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, marker-assisted selection (MAS), fine gene mapping, and assembly of genome sequences. So far, several asparagus bean linkage maps have been established using various kinds of molecular markers. However, these maps were all constructed by gel- or array-based markers. No maps based on sequencing method have been reported. In this study, an NGS-based strategy, SLAF-seq, was applied to create a high-density genetic map for asparagus bean. Through SLAF library construction and Illumina sequencing of two parents and 100 F2 individuals, a total of 55,437 polymorphic SLAF markers were developed and mined for SNP markers. The map consisted of 5,225 SNP markers in 11 LGs, spanning a total distance of 1,850.81 cM, with an average distance between markers of 0.35 cM. Comparative genome analysis with four other legume species, soybean, common bean, mung bean and adzuki bean showed that asparagus bean is genetically more related to adzuki bean. The results will provide a foundation for future genomic research, such as QTL fine mapping, comparative mapping in pulses, and offer support for assembling asparagus bean genome sequence.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genômica , Vigna/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Sequência
11.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 20(4): 295-300, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29053350

RESUMO

Phytoremediation technology has become one of the main techniques for remediating soils polluted by heavy metals because it does not damage the environment, but heavy metal-tolerant plants have the disadvantages of low biomass and slow growth. A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of melatonin (Mel) on growth and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the Cd accumulator Malachium aquaticum and hyperaccumulator Galinsoga parviflora by spraying different concentrations of Mel on them. The results showed that shoot biomass, photosynthetic pigment content and antioxidant enzyme activity were increased in both species after Mel was sprayed on their leaves. Mel reduced the Cd content in shoots of M. aquaticum and increased it in those of G. parviflora. In general, Cd accumulation was greatest in M. aquaticum when Mel was 200 µmol L-1 (120.71 µg plant-1, increased by 15.97% than control) and in G. parviflora when Mel was 100 µmol L-1 (132.40 µg plant-1, increased by 68.30% than control). Our results suggest it is feasible to improve the remediation efficiency of lightly Cd-contaminated soil by spraying G. parviflora with100 µmol L-1 Mel.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Raízes de Plantas
12.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0151105, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26954786

RESUMO

Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and advance our knowledge of the genes involved in the complex regulatory networks of this plant under cold stress.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Fabaceae/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Análise por Conglomerados , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(13): 2719-26, 2016 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26996195

RESUMO

Recently, we developed a novel tea cultivar 'Ziyan' with distinct purple leaves. There was a significant correlation between leaf color and anthocyanin pigment content in the leaves. A distinct allocation of metabolic flow for B-ring trihydroxylated anthocyanins and catechins in 'Ziyan' was observed. Delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin (88.15 mg/100 g FW in total) but no other anthocyanin pigments were detected in 'Ziyan', and delphinidin (70.76 mg/100 g FW) was particularly predominant. An analysis of the catechin content in 'Ziyan' and eight other cultivars indicated that 'Ziyan' exhibits a preference for synthesizing B-ring trihydroxylated catechins (with a proportion of 74%). The full-length cDNA sequences of flavonoid pathway genes were isolated by RNA-Seq coupled with conventional TA cloning, and their expression patterns were characterized. Purple-leaved cultivars had lower amounts of total catechins, polyphenols, and water extract than ordinary non-anthocyanin cultivars but similar levels of caffeine. Because dark-purple-leaved Camellia species are rare in nature, this study provides new insights into the interplay between the accumulations of anthocyanins and other bioactive components in tea leaves.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Catequina/análise , Antocianinas/química , Cafeína/análise , Camellia sinensis/genética , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/análise , Chá
14.
J Environ Biol ; 35(4): 751-7, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25004763

RESUMO

Root anatomical structures of four rice breeding materials (maintainer lines YixiangB and E2B, restorer lines R892 and Mianhui725), grown under different Cd2+ levels, were observed and the root resistance to Cd2+ ions was evaluated. Under low Cd stress, the new roots appeared in the cortex of four rice genotypes. The diameter of the new root in YixiangB was larger than that of E2B. The restorer line R892 generated more roots than Mianhui725. Under high Cd2+ stress, broken epidermis, damaged cortex and black spots appeared in both maintainer and restorerlines. In general, anatomical damages in the restorer lines (R892 and Mianhui725) were slighter than those of the maintainer lines (YixiangB and E2B). Thus, the restorer lines had more adaptive ability to Cd2+ stress than maintainer lines.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Genótipo , Oryza/anatomia & histologia , Oryza/genética , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Espectrofotometria Atômica
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