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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2196: 235-244, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889726

RESUMO

Live-cell imaging is widely used by researchers to study cellular dynamics and obtain a deep understanding of cell biological processes. Keeping cells in the proper growing environment and immobilizing the cells are essential for the imaging of live yeast cells. Here we describe a protocol for monitoring cytoophidia in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe using inverted confocal fluorescence microscopy. This protocol includes yeast culture, sample preparation, fluorescence imaging, and data analysis.

2.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(10): e1008848, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007034

RESUMO

Colonization factor CFA/I defines the major adhesive fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and mediates bacterial attachment to host intestinal epithelial cells. The CFA/I fimbria consists of a tip-localized minor adhesive subunit, CfaE, and thousands of copies of the major subunit CfaB polymerized into an ordered helical rod. Biosynthesis of CFA/I fimbriae requires the assistance of the periplasmic chaperone CfaA and outer membrane usher CfaC. Although the CfaE subunit is proposed to initiate the assembly of CFA/I fimbriae, how it performs this function remains elusive. Here, we report the establishment of an in vitro assay for CFA/I fimbria assembly and show that stabilized CfaA-CfaB and CfaA-CfaE binary complexes together with CfaC are sufficient to drive fimbria formation. The presence of both CfaA-CfaE and CfaC accelerates fimbria formation, while the absence of either component leads to linearized CfaB polymers in vitro. We further report the crystal structure of the stabilized CfaA-CfaE complex, revealing features unique for biogenesis of Class 5 fimbriae.

3.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e038293, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Perioperative shivering (POS) is a common complication in patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia. The present study investigated the efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in preventing POS following spinal anaesthesia. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Pubmed, Embase, the Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched from database establishment on 31 July 2019. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials that reported the effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in the prevention of POS in patients after spinal anaesthesia. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two reviewers independently extracted data. The primary outcome of the present study was the incidence of POS. The risk of bias for the included studies was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook. The quality of primary outcome was evaluated by Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. Trial sequential analysis for the primary outcome was performed to reduce the type 1 error caused by repeated meta-analysis and the required information size was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 13 randomised controlled trials consisting of 1139 patients were included. The overall incidence of POS was significantly lower in the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists group (risk ratio 0.31; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.38; p<0.01; I2=0%). Subgroup analysis for different types of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and timing of administration produced similar results. Also, patients had a lower incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting after administrating 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. No statistically significant differences in drug-related adverse effects were observed. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation revealed a high level of evidence. The cumulative z-curve crossed the trial sequential monitoring boundary. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that prophylactic 5-HT3 receptor antagonists were an effective measure for reducing the incidence of POS in patients after spinal anaesthesia. However, further studies investigating the different types of surgeries are required. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019148191.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030897

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is bioaccumulative in crops. PFOA bioaccumulation potential varies largely among crop varieties. Root exudates are found to be associated with such variations. Concentrations of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) in root exudates from a PFOA-high-accumulation lettuce variety are observed significantly higher than those from PFOA-low-accumulation lettuce variety (p < 0.05). Root exudates and their LMWOAs components exert great influences on the linear sorption-desorption isotherms of PFOA in soils, thus activating PFOA and enhancing its bioavailability. Among root exudate components, oxalic acid is identified to play a key role in activating PFOA uptake, with >80% attribution. Oxalic acid at rhizospheric concentrations (0.02-0.5 mM) can effectively inhibit PFOA sorption to soils by decreasing hydrophobic force, electrostatic attraction, ligand exchange, and cation-bridge effect. Oxalic acid enhances dissolution of metallic ions, iron/aluminum oxides, and organic matters from soils and forms oxalate-metal complexes, based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, ultraviolet spectra, and analyses of metal ions, iron/aluminum organometallic complexes, and dissolved organic carbon. The findings not only reveal the activation process of PFOA in soils by root exudates, particularly oxalic acid at rhizospheric concentrations, but also give an insight into the mechanism of enhancing PFOA accumulation in lettuce varieties.

5.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer with limited therapeutic options. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of HCC in response to ROS1-targeted therapy. METHODS: Recombinant RNases were purified, and the ligand-receptor relationship between RNase7 and ROS1 was validated in HCC cell lines by Duolink, immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation assays. Potential interacting residues between ROS1 and RNase7 were predicted by protein-protein docking approach. Oncogenic function of RNase7 was analyzed by cell proliferation, migration, invasion assays and xenograft mouse model. The anti-ROS1 inhibitor treatment efficacy was evaluated in HCC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) and orthotopic models. Two independent HCC patient cohorts were analyzed to evaluate the pathological relevance by immunohistochemistry. Plasma level of RNase7 in HCC patient was detected by ELISA. RESULTS: RNase7 associated with ROS1's N3-P2 domain and promoted ROS1-mediated oncogenic transformation. HCC patients exhibited elevated plasma RNase7 levels compared with normal subjects. High ROS1 and RNase7 expression were highly associated with poor prognosis in HCC. In both HCC PDX and orthotopic mouse models, ROS1 inhibitor treatment markedly suppressed RNase7-induced tumorigenesis and led to decreased plasma RNase7 level with tumor shrinkage in mice. CONCLUSIONS: RNase7 serves as a high-affinity ligand for ROS1, and plasma RNase7 has the potential to function as a biomarker to stratify HCC patients for anti-ROS1 treatment.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034554

RESUMO

An aerobic, non-motile, Gram-stain-negative, pink, convex, coccobacilli-shaped, mesophilic bacterium, designated strain BU-1T, was isolated from an urban soil sample from Zibo city, Shandong province, PR China. The strain grew at 20-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), pH 5-10 (optimum, pH 7) and growth occurred with 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally with 0.5 %). The results of phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that BU-1T was closely related to members of the genus Roseomonas and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Roseomonas frigidaquae JCM 15073T (97.8 %), Roseomonas tokyonensis JCM 14634T (96.9 %), Roseomonas stagni JCM 15034T (96.5 %), and Roseomonas riguiloci JCM 17520T (95.9 %). BU-1T also formed a subcluster with R. frigidaquae JCM 15073T and R. stagni JCM 15034T in phylogenetic trees based on genomic sequences. The genome size of BU-1T was 5.79 Mb and the DNA G+C content was 71.7 %. ANI, dDDH and AAI values between BU-1T and R. frigidaquae JCM 15073T were 84.0, 27.2 and 86.7 %, respectively. Furthermore, the genome of BU-1T contained 5446 predicted protein coding genes and 4945 (90.8%) of them had classifiable functions. BU-1T contained Q-10 as the main ubiquinone. The predominant fatty acids (>10 %) were summed feature 3, summed feature 8 and C16:0. The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and five unidentified aminolipids. Combined data from phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic studies indicated that strain BU-1T is a representative of a novel species of the genus Roseomonas. Since strain BU-1T can reduce highly toxic selenite [Se(IV)] to low toxicity elemental selenium [Se(0)], the name Roseomonas selenitidurans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BU-1T (=KACC 21750T =GDMCC 1.1776T).

7.
Otol Neurotol ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent publications reported that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience an increased risk of suffering sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), however, these cases are poorly understood. This study aims to explore the clinical presentations and hearing recovery of SSNHL patients with RA. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary medical center. PATIENTS: Forty-seven SSNHL patients with RA (RA group) and 431 SSNHL patients without RA (non-RA group) were recruited between April 2015 and June 2019. INTERVENTIONS: In the non-RA group, all patients were administrated with oral steroids. In the RA group, 21 patients were treated with oral steroid (OS group) and 26 patients were administrated with intratympanic steroids plus oral steroids (IS+OS group). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We explored the clinical features and hearing recovery of SSNHL patients with RA in comparison with patients without RA, we also evaluated the therapeutic effect of combined steroids in SSNHL patients with RA. RESULTS: RA group had higher initial hearing loss level (mean 68.5 dB), final hearing threshold (mean 52.3 dB), the rates of profound hearing loss (48.9%), and no recovery (48.9%) than non-RA group (mean 55.1 dB, mean 34.8 dB, 32.9 and 27.6%, all p < 0.05), however, had lower hearing gains (mean 16.1 dB) and the rate of partial recovery (12.8%) than non-RA group (mean 20.3 dB and 28.8%, all p < 0.05). Furthermore, IS+OS group had higher hearing gains (mean 21.1 dB) and lower rate of no recovery (30.8%) than in the OS group (mean 10.0 dB and 71.4%, all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SSNHL patients with RA experienced severe hearing loss and had poor hearing prognosis. IS+OS provide better hearing recovery than OS for this population.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030159

RESUMO

In the present work, a new liquid metal model (Wulff cluster model) which has been proved to describe the structures of pure metal melts has been extended to binary homogeneous alloy melts (Cu-Ni and Ag-Au). The shapes of the nano-particles are determined by surface energies of different families of crystal planes, calculated by density functional theory (DFT), whereas the size was given by the pair distribution function (PDF) g(r) which was converted from experimental high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD). We demonstrated that the simulated X-ray diffraction (XRD) curves from present models match the experimental results quite well at high temperatures above the liquid-solid two-phase region, including not only the position and width of the peaks but also the relative intensity of the first and second peaks. Moreover, when the temperature is near the liquid-solid two-phase region, our model also fits the experimental strength curve well after modification using the solid XRD pattern of a relatively high melting point metal instead of its nano-particle. The agreement indicates the nucleation processes in homogeneous alloy melts.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022177

RESUMO

A novel 3D luminescent coordination polymer (LCP) [Zn4(3-dpyb)2(odpa)2(H2O)3]·4H2O (1) (3-dpyb = N,N'-bis (3-pyridinecarboxamide)-1,4-butane, H4 odpa = 4, 4'-oxidiphthalic acid) was successfully synthesized under solvothermal conditions. LCP 1 displays remarkable fluorescent behavior and stability in a wide range of pH values and different pure organic solvents. More importantly, LCP 1 can become an outstanding candidate in the selective sensing of Fe3+, Bi3+, Cr2O72-, MnO4-, nitrobenzene (NB), acetaldehyde (AH), and acetylacetone (Hacac) under a lower detection limit. The change process of fluorescent intensity of these seven analytes in a diverse pH range indicates that LCP 1 can be an excellent luminescent sensor in multiple acid/base solutions. As far as we know, it is an infrequent example of a CP-based multiresponsive fluorescent sensor for metal cations, oxyanions, and toxic organic solvents under an acid or alkaline environment.

10.
Theranostics ; 10(25): 11376-11403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052221

RESUMO

Neuropsychological deficits, including impairments in learning and memory, occur after spinal cord injury (SCI). In experimental SCI models, we and others have reported that such changes reflect sustained microglia activation in the brain that is associated with progressive neurodegeneration. In the present study, we examined the effect of pharmacological depletion of microglia on posttraumatic cognition, depressive-like behavior, and brain pathology after SCI in mice. Methods: Young adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to moderate/severe thoracic spinal cord contusion. Microglial depletion was induced with the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) antagonist PLX5622 administered starting either 3 weeks before injury or one day post-injury and continuing through 6 weeks after SCI. Neuroinflammation in the injured spinal cord and brain was assessed using flow cytometry and NanoString technology. Neurological function was evaluated using a battery of neurobehavioral tests including motor function, cognition, and depression. Lesion volume and neuronal counts were quantified by unbiased stereology. Results: Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that PLX5622 pre-treatment significantly reduced the number of microglia, as well as infiltrating monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased reactive oxygen species production in these cells from injured spinal cord at 2-days post-injury. Post-injury PLX5622 treatment reduced both CD45int microglia and CD45hi myeloid counts at 7-days. Following six weeks of PLX5622 treatment, there were substantial changes in the spinal cord and brain transcriptomes, including those involved in neuroinflammation. These alterations were associated with improved neuronal survival in the brain and neurological recovery. Conclusion: These findings indicate that pharmacological microglia-deletion reduces neuroinflammation in the injured spinal cord and brain, improving recovery of cognition, depressive-like behavior, and motor function.

11.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(5): 3340-3349, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to use kinematic gait analysis, to evaluate the clinically curative effects of minimally invasive needle-knife scope therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the knee joint. METHODS: A total of 32 patients with RA of the knee joint were treated with minimally invasive needle-knife scope therapy. All patients were assessed with a kinematic gait analysis system, and then analyzed and compared the measurements with the kinematic gait performances of 28 healthy middle-aged and elderly participants. RESULTS: Before receiving the therapy, the ranges of motion (ROMs) of the patients' tibial inward and outward rotation, flexion and extension, anterior and posterior displacement of the tibia, and tibial upward and downward movement were all smaller than those of the healthy middle-aged and elderly group (P<0.05). After receiving the therapy, the patients' knees had a remarkably larger ROM. After one month of this therapy, they had a noticeably greater ROM in flexion and extension, tibial inward and outward rotation, and upward and downward movement of the tibia (P<0.05). After 1 month of therapy, the patients' maximum flexion angle and tibial posterior displacement angle were noticeably greater than beforehand (P<0.01). After 1 year of therapy, the patients' flexion and extension range became remarkably greater than it was after 1 month of the therapy (P<0.01). Their ranges of DOF reflected no apparent difference to the healthy middle-aged and elderly group, which remained smaller than the latter (P<0.05). After 1 year of therapy, the maximum values of the patients' flexion angle, tibial internal rotation angle, tibial posterior displacement angle, and tibial downward movement angle were remarkably higher than before commencing treatment (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Minimally invasive needle-knife scope therapy enables a good recovery of function for patients with RA and remarkably improves the DOF of knees. Gait analyses are more objective, accurate, and quantitative than other indexes, and thus may become a new means to assess the changes in knee joint functions.

12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 246: 119040, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068900

RESUMO

The interaction between a DPP-4 inhibitor, alogliptin benzoate (AB), and human serum albumin (HSA) was systematically investigated via spectroscopy, microcalorimetry and molecular simulations. Steady-state fluorescence and time-resolved fluorescence spectrometry illustrated that the fluorescence quenching type of AB to HSA was static and caused by the formation of ground state AB-HSA complex. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) combined with fluorescence spectra revealed that the affinity of AB to the subdomain IIA of HSA was moderate with a binding constant in the order of 104. Molecular docking analysis and thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that this combination was maintained by hydrogen bonding along with van der Waals force and hydrophobic force. Circular dichroism and three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence showed that AB increased the hydrophobicity of Trp residue and the α-helix content of HSA by 1.99%. Microdifferential scanning calorimetry revealed that the addition of AB enhanced the thermal stability of HSA. The action forces, binding stability, binding sites, and protein structure of the AB-HSA system were evaluated via molecular dynamics analysis in the simulated environment. On the basis of molecular docking, MD simulation constructed a more reliable 3D model of the AB-HSA complex in terms of spatial structure.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; : 142716, 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069474

RESUMO

Uranyl carbonate (UC) and silica colloids (cSiO2) are widely distributed in carbonate-rich subsurface environments associated with uranium pollution. Mobile colloids such as cSiO2 can affect uranium's transport efficiency in the groundwater environment. Therefore, elucidating the mechanism of UC and cSiO2 co-transport in a saturated porous medium with different ionic strength (IS), pH, and UC concentration is essential for the prevention and control of groundwater radioactive pollution. At low UC concentrations (<2.1 × 10-5 M), cSiO2 is more prone to be deposited on the surfaces of quartz sand (QS) than UC, resulting in cSiO2 preventing UC transport. Compared to pH 7 and 9, at pH 5 the adsorption of uranium [in the form of 81.5% UO2CO3(aq), 8.6% UO22+, and 5.2% UO2OH+] on cSiO2 renders cSiO2 more prone to aggregate, causing smaller amounts of cSiO2 (86.6%) and UC (55.8%) to be recovered. Mechanisms responsible for the evolution of the pH and zeta potential in effluents have been proposed. Chemical reactions (ligand-exchange reactions and deprotonation) that occur in the QS column between UC and cSiO2/QS cause the pH of the suspension to varying, which in turn causes changes in the zeta potential and particle size of cSiO2. Eventually, the recovery rates of cSiO2 and UC are changed, depending upon the colloid particle size. Changes in ionic strength can seriously affect the stability of cSiO2 particles, and that effect is more significant when UC is present. Moreover, colloidal filtration theory, a non-equilibrium two-site model, and the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory successfully describe the individual-transport and co-transport of cSiO2 and UC in the column. This study provides a strong basis for investigating UC pollution control in porous media.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069661

RESUMO

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a severe global acute respiratory pandemic around the world in just a few months with an increasing number of infections and deaths. COVID-19 is a highly contagious and fatal disease. Almost everyone in the population is susceptible, and the incubation period is 1-14 days, mostly 3-7 days. The clinical symptoms of the COVID-19 are fever, dry cough and fatigue. Some patients are accompanied by symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, myalgia and diarrhea. Severe patients could even develop acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shocks, metabolic acidosis and multifunctional organ failure, etc. Due to the relatively closed environment of dental clinics and the unique nature of dental procedures, both dental personnel and patients are easy to get infection through currently known respiratory droplet transmission, aerosol transmission, close contact transmission and other ways, inducing mutual cross-infection. Dental practitioners are facing unprecedented challenges due to the high risk of exposure to droplets and aerosols from saliva and other body fluids during dental procedures. Based on our experience and relevant research, this article introduces the basic knowledge about COVID-19 and the corresponding protective measures for dental practitioners, includes the risk of infection during dental procedures, the precautions related to the patients, infection control measures during dental treatment in clinics, protection measures at different levels for dental practitioners, and emergency dental treatment for confirmed COVID-19. It is the responsibility of every dental practitioner to fully understand the characteristics of the new coronavirus and strictly implement the most appropriate protective measures to reduce and control the risk of cross infection in dental procedures.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Use of corticosteroids is common in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019, but the clinical effectiveness was controversial. We aimed to investigate the association of corticosteroids therapy with clinical outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this single center, retrospective cohort study, adult patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 and dead or discharged between December 29, 2019 and February 15, 2020 were studied. 1:1 propensity score matchings were performed between patients with or without corticosteroids treatment. Multivariable COX proportional hazards model was used to estimate the association between corticosteroids treatment and in-hospital mortality by taking corticosteroids as a time-varying covariate. RESULTS: Among 646 patients, in-hospital death rate was higher in 158 patients with corticosteroids administration (72/158, 45.6% vs 56/488, 11.5%, p<0.0001). After propensity score-match analysis, no significant differences were observed in in-hospital death between patients with and without corticosteroids treatment (47/124, 37.9% vs 47/124, 37.9%, p=1.000). When patients received corticosteroids before they required nasal high-flow oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, in-hospital death rate was lower than that in patients who were not administered with corticosteroids (17/86, 19.8% vs. 26/86, 30.2%, log rank p=0.0102), whereas time from admission to clinical improvement was longer (13 [IQR, 10∼17] days vs 10 [IQR, 8∼13] days; p<0.001). Using Cox proportional hazards regression model accounting for time varying exposures in matched pairs, corticosteroid therapy was not associated with mortality difference (HR=0.98, 95%CI: 0.93-1.03, p=0.4694). CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids use in COVID-19 patients may not be associated with in-hospital mortality.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations are associated with heightened asthma symptoms, which can result in hospitalization in severe cases. However, the molecular immunological processes that determine the course of an exacerbation remains poorly understood, impeding the progression of developing effective therapies. OBJECTIVE: To identify candidate genes that are strongly associated with asthma exacerbation at a cellular level. METHODS: Asthmatic and healthy control subjects were recruited, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was isolated from these subjects via bronchoscopy. Cells were isolated through FACS, and single-cell RNA sequencing was performed on enriched cell populations. RESULTS: We show that the levels of monocyte, CD8+ T cells, and macrophages are significantly elevated in the BALF of patients. A set of cytokines and intracellular transduction regulators are associated with asthma exacerbations and are shared across multiple cell clusters, forming a complicated molecular framework. An additional group of core exacerbation-associated modules is activated, including EIF2 signaling, Ephrin receptor signaling, and CXCR4 signaling in the subpopulations of CD8+ T cells (C1-a) and monocytes (C7) clusters, which are associated with infection. CONCLUSION: Our study identifies a significant number of severe asthma-associated genes that are differentially expressed by multiple cell clusters CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our study provides an insightful framework to explore, in a clinical setting, the pathogenesis of the disease and identifies therapeutic targets that should be further explored in exacerbation treatments.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) in the murine nasal epithelium are discrete specialized cells that respond to irritants and activate trigeminal nerve fibers through the release of acetylcholine (ACh), resulting in local neurogenic inflammation. In addition to releasing ACh, SCCs are the exclusive epithelial source of interleukin (IL)-25. In humans, SCCs are significantly expanded in sinonasal polyps (NPs). However, the SCC-trigeminal synapse has yet to be demonstrated in human sinonasal epithelium. METHODS: Immunofluorescence for trigeminal nerve fiber markers, nicotinic ACh receptors (nChR), and SCC markers was performed in vibratome sections from polyp and healthy turbinate tissue. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence of cultured epithelial cells were used to evaluate the expansion of SCCs. Last, intracellular calcium imaging was used to demonstrate cholinergic signaling in sinonasal epithelial cells. RESULTS: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunostaining was used to identify cholinergic nerve endings, which were only evident in sections from the inferior turbinate and intertwined with SCCs (α-gustducin-positive cells). CGRP-positive nerve endings were not identified in sections from NPs. Human SCCs expressed nChR as well as the ACh synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase. Live cell calcium imaging demonstrated functionally active cholinergic signaling in discrete sinonasal epithelial cells, consistent with SCCs. Finally, SCC-specific genes were dramatically upregulated with pretreatment with IL-13 and nicotinic agonists. CONCLUSION: SCCs are innervated by trigeminal nerve endings in healthy turbinate tissue but not in NPs. SCCs express ACh receptors as well as choline acetyltransferase and, in the setting of a type 2 inflammatory environment, denervated SCCs dramatically expand with nicotinic stimulation.

18.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) under general anesthesia in left lateral position may lead to transient impairment of pulmonary function. We used electrical impedance tomography (EIT), an increasingly implied non-invasive instrument for bedside real-time monitoring regional changes in ventilation, to assess the changes of regional lung aeration and ventilation in patients undergoing ESD. METHODS: Twenty-two patients scheduled for elective ESD under mechanical ventilation in left lateral position were studied. We acquired 2-min EIT records at four time points: (M1) baseline, before induction of anesthesia, (M2) after the start of mechanical ventilation and before surgery, (M3) after surgery and before extubation, and (M4) after extubation and before leaving operation room, respectively. To quantify regional changes in lung ventilation, we calculated the ventilation proportion of left and right lung regions. Possible changes in lung aeration were detected by changes in end-expiratory lung impedance (EELI). Global inhomogeneity index (GI) was also analyzed. RESULTS: After tracheal intubation in the left lateral position, left lung showed a lower ventilation proportion (M1, 49.6% vs. M2, 36.2% P<0.05), a reduction in EELI {∆EELI -87 [-809; 253]} and a higher GI index value (M1, 0.29±0.09 vs. M2, 0.41±0.12, P<0.05), while right lung showed a higher ventilation proportion (M1, 50.4% vs. M2, 63.8%, P<0.05) and an increase in EELI {∆EELI 161 [-952; 1,905]}. During ESD operation, no changes in either regional ventilation distribution or GI index were observed. After extubation, the GI values in right and left lung were both returned to the level before anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with left lateral position undergoing ESD, left lung was characterized by decreased ventilation and more inhomogeneity while right lung was opposite after intubation. ESD procedure with carbon dioxide insufflation did not lead to significant changes in either regional ventilation or homogeneity. And the change of lung inhomogeneity during ESD procedure is transient.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037593

RESUMO

An economical source of nitrogen is one of the major limiting factors for sustainable cadaverine production. The utilization potential of soybean residue for enhanced cadaverine production by engineered Escherichia coli DFC1001 was investigated in this study. The SRH from soybean residue could get the protein extraction rate (PE) of 67.51% and the degree of protein hydrolysis (DH) of 22.49%. The protein molecular weights in SRH were mainly distributed in 565 Da (72.28%) and 1252 Da (17.11%). These proteins with small molecular weights and concentrated molecular weight distribution were favorable to be transformed by engineered E. coli DFC1001, and then SRH replaced completely yeast powder as an only nitrogen source for cadaverine production. The maximum cadaverine productivity was 0.52 g/L/h, achieved with a constant speed feeding strategy in the optimized SRH fermentation medium containing an initial total sugar concentration of 30 g/L and exogenous added minerals, which indicated that soybean residue could be a potential feedstock for economic cadaverine production.

20.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047226

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the capability of algorithms to build multivariate models integrating morphological and texture features derived from preoperative T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of gastric cancer (GC) to evaluate tumor- (T), node- (N), and metastasis- (M) stages. METHODS: A total of 80 patients at our hospital who underwent abdominal MR imaging and were diagnosed with GC from December 2011 to November 2016 were retrospectively included. Texture features were calculated using T2-weighted images with a manual region of interest. Morphological characteristics were also evaluated. Classifiers and regression analyses were used to build multivariate models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to assess diagnostic efficacy. RESULTS: There were 8, 10, and 3 texture parameters that showed significant differences in GCs at different overall (I-II vs. III-IV), T (1-2 vs. 3-4), and N (- vs. +) stages (all p < 0.05), respectively. Mild thickening was more common in stages I-II, T1-2, and N- GCs (all p < 0.05). An irregular outer contour was more commonly observed in stages III-IV (p = 0.001) and T3-4 (p = 0.001) GCs. T3-4 and N+ GCs tended to be thickening type lesions (p = 0.005 and 0.032, respectively). The multivariate models using the naive bayes algorithm showed the highest diagnostic efficacy in predicting T and N stages (area under the ROC curves [AUC] = 0.900 and 0.863, respectively), and the model based on regression analysis had the best predictive performance in overall staging (AUC = 0.839). CONCLUSION: Multivariate models combining morphological characteristics with texture parameters based on machine learning algorithms were able to improve diagnostic efficacy in predicting the overall, T, and N stages of GCs.

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