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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2292-2300, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492239

RESUMO

Fluorine-free superhydrophobic cotton fabric was fabricated by coating polyacrylate (PA)/SiO2 nanocomposite. PA/SiO2 nanocomposite was prepared based on the modified SiO2 nanoparticles with double bonds and hexadecyl groups by solution polymerization of butyl acrylate (BA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and octadecylmethacrylate (OMA). The obtained cotton fabric showed excellent superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 152.2±0.4° and a water shedding angle of 8.0±0.2°, due to the simultaneous introduction of surface topography constructed by modified SiO2 nanoparticles and low surface free energy PA adhesive layer and hexadecyl groups onto cotton fibers. The as-obtained products were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and size distribution analysis. The obtained superhydrophobic fabric coated by PA/SiO2 demonstrated good mechanical stability and self-cleaning. The PA/SiO2 coating treatment caused little loss in the tensile strength, breathability, and whiteness of the treated fabric. This approach with improved human/environmental friendliness can pave the potential way for the preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces.

2.
Environ Technol ; : 1-23, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580199

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of red mud based-passivator (RM based-passivator) on rice yield, cadmium (Cd) in brown rice, pH and available Cd in Cd-polluted soil by pot experiments, and to explore the adsorption mechanism of the passivator by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results showed that this passivator obviously improved the pH, reduced the available Cd in soil and the Cd content in brown rice in Changsha Cd polluted soil (CS soil), while had little effect on Hengyang Cd polluted soil (HY soil). Compared with the control, the soil pH increased in the range from 0.31 to 1.37, the available Cd in soil decreased in the range from 13.25% to 52.34%, and the total Cd in brown rice decreased in the range from 46.44% to 84.98 % in CS soil. Considering the impacts of RM based-passivator on the growth of rice, the Cd content in brown rice, and the pH and available Cd in soil, 0.10-0.30% (w/w) of the passivator is recommended to apply in CS soil but not in HY soil. Based on the analysis of SEM, EDX, FTIR, XRD, the mechanism of Cd(II) adsorption by RM based-passivator included physical adsorption, surface complexation, and ion exchange. The present results indicated that the appropriate addition of RM based-passivator could be an effective strategy for the remediation of acidic Cd-polluted soils.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a fatal disease with rapid progress. The malignancy usually presents with metastasis and poor prognosis, and usually causes 100% mortality. Therefore, the treatment of CRPC is extremely challenging, and its pathogenesis needs to be elucidated urgently. OBJECTIVE: The high throughput sequencing technology was used to whole exome associated with CRPC, and to explore the molecular mechanism of CRPC and find the potential therapeutic targets. METHODS: We performed whole exome sequencing of FFPE tissue from 11 Chinese adult male patients. Genomic DNA was fragmented and enriched for whole exome sequences using the QiAamp DNA FFPE Tissue KIT, sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq2000 blatform, and the relevant genes were analyzed using biological information. Finally, immunohistochemistry method was used to detect the phosphorylation level of LATS1 in CRPC tissues of MST1 mutant and non-mutant patients. RESULTS: We have screened 85 significant mutant genes with relatively high mutation rates of TP53, AR, KMT2, DMAPK1, PIK3R1, SH2B3, WHSC1, KMT2D, MST1 and MAPK1. We first found that MST1 has multiple mutations in CRPC patients, and the MST1 plays an important role in the Hippo pathway. Immunohistochemistry results showed that the phosphorylation level of LATS1 in the mutant patients was significantly lower than that in the non-mutant patients. CONCLUSION: we speculate that MST1 would be a new potential target for the treatment of CRPC by regulating of Hippo signaling pathway. The results provided an important clue to the molecular mechanism of CRPC.

4.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566960

RESUMO

In this work, a highly integrated microfluidic chip with multi-functions coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for on-line analysis of seven different regulated quinolones (QNs) in milk samples. Procedures of sample extraction, immunoaffinity enrichment, magnetic separation, and online elution were performed simultaneously on the specifically designed device. Based on the specificity of antibodies, direct (electrospray ionization) ESI MS at full scan mode without liquid chromatography (LC) separation and further tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis was developed for the identification of target QNs. One single isotope internal standard (IS) method was presented for quantitative analysis of seven QNs. Upon targeted online extraction and enrichment by antibody conjugated magnetic beads, seven QNs were quantitatively determined by the IS method with the linear range of 0.2/0.5-10 ng/mL (R2 >0.991). The limits of detection (LODs) for the seven QNs were in the range of 0.047-0.490 ng/mL. This system permits automated on-chip immunoaffinity enrichment and accurate MS detection without additional off-line cleanup procedures.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566971

RESUMO

Dietary phenolic compounds display strong antioxidant capabilities but face limited practical applications due to their poor biocompatibility (high immune-resistance). Some food proteins possess mild antioxidant capabilities but are often not sufficient to maintain ROS balance. In this study, we overcome these barriers by covalently conjugating a natural phenolic antioxidant, gentisic acid (GA), onto an antioxidant protein, ß-Lactoglobulin (ßLG). Upon optimization of conjugation conditions, we confirm the formation of ßLG-GA conjugates with mass spectrometry (MS), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption. Surface charge analysis revealed a saturation molar ratio of 150:1 (GA: ßLG), while far-ultraviolet circular dichroism (CD) revealed substantial changes in protein secondary structure upon conjugation. The antioxidant capability of resultant conjugates was probed by monitoring the decay of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical content via time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, which suggested two possible pathways to scavenge radicals, i.e. the antioxidant GA on protein surface and the protein conformational change that expose more antioxidant amino acids. To our best knowledge, this work is the first report on the fabrication of dual effect antioxidant biopolymer using a nature inspired template via covalent linking with antioxidant mechanism probed. Our findings are essential for opening a new route to design functional materials with enhanced antioxidant activity and biocompatibility.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567058

RESUMO

Adjuvanted-influenza vaccination is an efficient method for enhancing the immunogenicity of influenza split-virus vaccines for preventing influenza. However, the medical community's understanding of its performance in patients infected with HIV remains limited. To identify the advantages, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort and case-control studies that have the immunogenicity and safety of influenza vaccines in patients infected with HIV as outcomes. We searched six different databases, and 1698 patients infected with HIV in 11 studies were included. Statistical analysis was performed to calculate the pooled standardized mean differences (SMD) or relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Regarding immunogenicity, the pooled SMD of GMT (Geometric mean titer) for A/H1N1 was 0.61 (95%CI (0.40,0.82)), the pooled RR of seroconversion was 1.34 (95%CI (0.91,1.98)) for the H1N1 vaccine, 1.27(95%CI (0.64,2.52)) for the H3N2 vaccine, 1.19(95%CI (0.97,1.46)) for the B-type influenza vaccine. The pooled RR of seroprotection was 1.61 (95%CI (1.00,2.58)) for the H1N1 vaccine, 1.06 (95%CI(0.83,1.35)) for the H3N2 vaccine, and 1.13(95%CI(0.91,1.41)) for the B-type vaccine. Adjuvanted-influenza vaccination showed good general tolerability in patients infected with HIV, with the only significant increase being the rate of local pain at the injection site (RR = 2.03, 95%CI (1.06,3.86)). In conclusion, all studies evaluating injected adjuvanted influenza vaccination among patients infected with HIV showed acceptable levels of safety and immunogenicity.

7.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is a common manifestation of Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome, which is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutation of the folliculin (FLCN) gene. This study was established to investigate the mutation of the FLCN gene and the phenotype in a family with PSP. METHODS: We investigated the clinical and genetic characteristics of a large Chinese family with recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. Genetic testing was performed by Sanger sequencing of the coding exons (4-14 exons) of the FLCN gene. RESULTS: Among ten affected members in a multi-generational PSP kindred, with a total of 18 episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax, the median age for the initial onset of pneumothorax was 42.5 years (interquartile range: 28.8-57.2 years). Chest computed tomography scan of the proband showed pulmonary cysts and pneumothorax. A novel nonsense mutation (c.1273C>T) in exon 11 of FLCN gene that leads to a pre-mature stop codon (p.Gln425*) was identified in the family. The genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of BHD syndrome in this family in the absence of skin lesions or renal tumors. CONCLUSIONS: A novel nonsense mutation of FLCN gene was found in a large family with PSP in China. Our results expand the mutational spectrum of FLCN gene in patients with BHD syndrome.

8.
Exp Eye Res ; : 107819, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574285

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants of the G-protein coupled receptor 143 (GPR143) gene may result in Ocular albinism type I (OA1). In this study, we describe the clinical features and investigate the GPR143 gene mutations in six Chinese families with OA1 and evaluate the thickness changes of iris for the affected males and female carriers. METHODS: Families were ascertained, and patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations, including the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), anterior segment of the eyes, vitreous and fundus changes. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to measure the full iris thickness, the stroma/anterior border (SAB) layer, and the posterior epithelial layer (PEL) at the pupillary and ciliary regions. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood vessels after confirmed consent information. GPR143 gene was directly sequenced by the Sanger method. RESULTS: The affected males had variable reduced visual acuity, nystagmus and macular hypoplasia. Four novel frameshift mutations and two previously reported missense/nonsense mutations in the GPR143 gene were detected in these families. The thickness of the iris was significantly reduced at the ciliary region in the affected males, compared with that in the normal controls and the female carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Pathogenic variants in the GPR143 gene may disturb the normal melanogenesis in the pigmented tissues of the eye, result in macular hypoplasia, and alter the thickness of the iris.

9.
Phys Rev E ; 100(2-1): 022220, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574688

RESUMO

Vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs) have been observed on a long-span suspension bridge. The nonstationary wind in the field characterized by the time-varying mean wind speed is likely to lead to time-varying aerodynamics of the wind-bridge system during VIVs, which is different from VIVs induced by stationary or even steady wind in wind tunnels. In this paper, data-driven methods are proposed to reveal the time-varying aerodynamics of the wind-bridge system during VIV events based on field measurements on a long-span suspension bridge. First, a variant of the sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics algorithm is proposed to identify parsimonious, time-varying aerodynamical systems that capture VIV events of the bridge. Thus we are able to posit new, data-driven, and interpretable models highlighting the aeroelastic interactions between the wind and bridge. Second, a density-based clustering algorithm is applied to discovering the potential modes of dynamics during VIV events. As a result, the time-dependent model is obtained to reveal the evolution of the aerodynamics of the wind-bridge system over time during an entire VIV event. It is found that the level of self-excited effects of the wind-bridge system is significantly time varying with the real-time wind speed and bridge motion state. The simulations of VIVs by the obtained time-dependent models show high accuracies of the models with an averaged normalized mean-square error of 0.0023. The clustering of obtained models shows underlying distinct dynamical regimes of the wind-bridge system, which are distinguished by the level of self-excited effects.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 803-812, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564438

RESUMO

Concurrent hearing and genetic screening of newborns is expected to play important roles not only in early detection and diagnosis of congenital deafness, which triggers intervention, but also in predicting late-onset and progressive hearing loss and identifying individuals who are at risk of drug-induced HL. Concurrent hearing and genetic screening in the whole newborn population in Beijing was launched in January 2012. This study included 180,469 infants born in Beijing between April 2013 and March 2014, with last follow-up on February 24, 2018. Hearing screening was performed using transiently evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR). For genetic testing, dried blood spots were collected and nine variants in four genes, GJB2, SLC26A4, mtDNA 12S rRNA, and GJB3, were screened using a DNA microarray platform. Of the 180,469 infants, 1,915 (1.061%) were referred bilaterally or unilaterally for hearing screening; 8,136 (4.508%) were positive for genetic screening (heterozygote, homozygote, or compound heterozygote and mtDNA homoplasmy or heteroplasmy), among whom 7,896 (4.375%) passed hearing screening. Forty (0.022%) infants carried two variants in GJB2 or SLC26A4 (homozygote or compound heterozygote) and 10 of those infants passed newborn hearing screening. In total, 409 (0.227%) infants carried the mtDNA 12S rRNA variant (m.1555A>G or m.1494C>T), and 405 of them passed newborn hearing screening. In this cohort study, 25% of infants with pathogenic combinations of GJB2 or SLC26A4 variants and 99% of infants with an m.1555A>G or m.1494C>T variant passed routine newborn hearing screening, indicating that concurrent screening provides a more comprehensive approach for management of congenital deafness and prevention of ototoxicity.

11.
RNA Biol ; : 1-10, 2019 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566065

RESUMO

Once believed to be unique features of neoplasia, chimeric RNAs are now being discovered in normal physiology. We speculated that some chimeric RNAs may be functional precursors of genes, and that forming chimeric RNA at the transcriptional level may be a 'trial' mechanism before the functional element is fixed into the genome. Supporting this idea, we identified a chimeric RNA, HNRNPA1L2-SUGT1 (H-S), whose sequence is highly similar to that of a 'pseudogene' MRPS31P5. Sequence analysis revealed that MRPS31P5 transcript is more similar to H-S chimeric RNA than its 'parent' gene, MRPS31. Evolutionarily, H-S precedes MRPS31P5, as it can be detected bioinformatically and experimentally in marmosets, which do not yet possess MRPS31P5 in their genome. Conversely, H-S is minimally expressed in humans, while instead, MRPS31P5 is abundantly expressed. Silencing H-S in marmoset cells resulted in similar phenotype as silencing MRPS31P5 in human cells. In addition, whole transcriptome analysis and candidate downstream target validation revealed common signalling pathways shared by the two transcripts. Interestingly, H-S failed to rescue the phenotype caused by silencing MPRS31P5 in human and rhesus cells, whereas MRPS31P5 can at least partially rescue the phenotype caused by silencing H-S in marmoset cells, suggesting that MRPS31P5 may have further evolved into a distinct entity. Thus, multiple lines of evidence support that MRPS31P5 is not truly a pseudogene of MRPS31, but a likely functional descendent of H-S chimera. Instead being a gene fusion product, H-S is a product of cis-splicing between adjacent genes, while MRPS31P5 is likely produced by genome rearrangement.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566435

RESUMO

The metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibits the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), a key regulator of salt reabsorption by the kidney and thus total body volume and blood pressure. Recent studies suggest that AMPK promotes the association of the PAK-interacting exchange factor ß1Pix, 14-3-3 proteins, and the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 into a complex that inhibits ENaC by enhancing Nedd4-2 binding to ENaC and ENaC degradation. Functional ß1Pix is required for ENaC inhibition by AMPK and promotes Nedd4-2 phosphorylation and stability in mouse kidney cortical collecting duct (CCD) cells. Here, we report that AMPK directly phosphorylates ß1Pix in vitro. Among several AMPK phosphorylation sites on ß1Pix detected by mass spectrometry (MS), Ser-71 was validated as functionally significant. Compared to wild-type ß1Pix, overexpression of a phosphorylation-deficient ß1Pix-S71A mutant attenuated ENaC inhibition and the AMPK-activated interaction of both ß1Pix and Nedd4-2 to 14-3-3 proteins in CCD cells. Similarly, overexpression of a ß1Pix-Δ602-611 deletion-tract mutant unable to bind 14-3-3 proteins decreased the interaction between Nedd4-2 and 14-3-3 proteins, suggesting that 14-3-3 binding to ß1Pix is critical for the formation of a ß1Pix/Nedd4-2/14-3-3 complex. With expression of a general peptide inhibitor of 14-3-3-target protein interactions (R18), binding of both ß1Pix and Nedd4-2 to 14-3-3 proteins were reduced, and AMPK-dependent ENaC inhibition was also attenuated. Altogether, our results demonstrate the importance of AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of ß1Pix at Ser-71, which promotes 14-3-3 interactions with ß1Pix and Nedd4-2 to form a tripartite ENaC inhibitory complex, in the mechanism of ENaC regulation by AMPK.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588468

RESUMO

The C-C bond cleavage/coupling of 2-(azetidin-3-ylidene)acetates with aryl boronic acids catalyzed by a rhodium complex was studied with a "conjugate addition/ß-C cleavage/protonation" strategy.

14.
Head Neck ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is the most common malignant tumor derived from the oral cavity, yet its specific molecular mechanisms have not been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between potential genes and clinical features through constructing gene co-expression networks. METHODS: The weighted gene co-expression network analysis was used to construct gene co-expression networks and to identify candidate key modules and hub genes. The gene expression profiles of GSE31056 obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database was used to construct co-expression networks. RESULTS: Five hub genes (FAP, AGTRAP, PLOD1, POSTN, and TSHZ3) were identified and validated at transcriptional levels. Moreover, the protein levels of these five hub genes were also found significantly higher in tumor tissues. Among them, FAP was most associated with immune infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: These five candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets are worthy of further investigation and discussion.

15.
Chemistry ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589353

RESUMO

Poly(hydroxy acid)s are a family of biocompatible and (bio)degradable polyesters with various outcomes in different domains of application. To date, poly(hydroxy acid)s are best prepared by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of the corresponding cyclic esters. Using racemic chiral monomers featuring side-chain groups enables to access, providing a stereoselective catalyst/initiator system is implemented, stereoregular functional polymers, thereby improving their physico-chemical properties and ultimately widening their range of uses. Here, we highlight a few important advances in metal-mediated stereoselective ROP of cyclic esters towards the synthesis of (functional) stereoregular poly(hydroxy acid)s that have recently been disclosed, emphasizing on (functional) ß- and γ-lactones, diolide and O -carboxyanhydride (OCA) monomers and yttrium-based catalysis. Fine-tuning of the substituents flanked on the catalyst ligand enables reaching poly(hydroxy acid)s with syndiotactic and also isotactic microstructures. The stereocontrol mechanisms at work and their probable origin, relying on steric but also electronic factors imparted in particular by the ligand substituents, are discussed. Taking advantages of such stereoselective ROPs, original copoly(hydroxy acid)s with gradient or alternated patterns then become accessible from the use of mixtures of chemically different, oppositely configurated enantiopure monomers.

16.
Respiration ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ILD-GAP model was developed and validated in a Western cohort to predict 1-, 2- and 3-year mortality in chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to validate the ILD-GAP model and identify predictors of mortality to derive a nomogram to predict mortality in our local Asian population. METHODS: Characteristics of patients on follow-up in a tertiary ILD referral center were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: There were 181 patients and 48 mortalities. 29.8% had idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 2.8% unclassifiable ILD, 33.1% connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD), 28.7% idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and 5.5% chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Univariable analysis showed that a higher ILD-GAP index, unclassified ILD, males, older age, higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure, lower forced vital capacity percent predicted and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) correlated with increased mortality, and CTD had lower mortality. Multivariable analysis utilizing Akaike's information criterion stopping rule showed males and a lower DLCO predicted increased mortality, while CTD predicted lower mortality. These were used to generate a nomogram which predicted overall mortality better (C index 0.817, adequacy index 99.5%) than ILD-GAP (C index 0.777, adequacy index 60.7%) and provided superior estimates based on likelihood ratio testing. Calibration plots showed the nomogram predicted 1-year mortality better, whilst the ILD-GAP model predicted 2- and 3-year mortality closer to actual mortality rates but underpredicted 1-year mortality. CONCLUSION: The nomogram performed better than ILD-GAP in predicting overall mortality and 1-year mortality. Both demonstrated good performance in predicting mortality risk.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580705

RESUMO

Objectives: Large sample and high-quality evidence to evaluate the preliminary safety of the mobilizations and massage for cervical vertigo are not yet available. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the comparative effectiveness and preliminary safety of Shi-style cervical mobilizations (SCM) compared with traditional massage (TM) in cervical vertigo patients. Design: A prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Settings: Five academic medical centers. Subjects: A total of 360 adult patients with a diagnosis of cervical vertigo. Interventions: The patients were randomly allocated to either an SCM (n = 180) or TM (n = 180) group. The patients were treated during six sessions over 2 weeks. The primary outcome was the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) total scale score, and secondary outcomes included the DHI subscales, Chinese version of the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (CSF-36), and adverse events (AEs). Outcomes were assessed in the short term at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months, and in the intermediate term at 6 months after randomization. Results: Significant changes were observed from the baseline in the DHI total scale and subscales at 2 weeks and 1, 3, and 6 months in both groups (all p < 0.05). However, the differences between the two groups were not significant (all p > 0.05). Furthermore, we noted significant changes from the baseline in SF-36 scores at 2 weeks in both groups (all p < 0.05), whereas CSF-36 scores were not significantly higher in the SCM group (all p > 0.05) compared with the TM group. No serious AEs were reported in either of the two groups. Conclusions: No differences in outcomes were detected between the SCM and TM groups in terms of treatment of cervicogenic dizziness. Efficacy trials are required to determine whether the improvement observed for each treatment was causally related to the interventions.

18.
New Phytol ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581317

RESUMO

Seed vigour and early establishment are important factors determining the yield of crops. A wheat nitrate-inducible NAC transcription factor, TaNAC2 plays a critical role in promoting crop growth and nitrogen use efficiency and now we show its role in seed vigour. We identified a TaNAC2 regulated gene that is a NRT2-type nitrate transporter TaNRT2.5 with a key role in seed vigour. Overexpressing TaNAC2-5A increases grain nitrate concentration and seed vigour by directly binding to the promoter of TaNRT2.5-3B and positively regulating its expression. TaNRT2.5 is expressed in developing grain, particularly the embryo and husk. In Xenopus oocyte assays TaNRT2.5 requires a partner protein TaNAR2.1 to give nitrate transport activity, and the transporter locates to the tonoplast in a tobacco leaf transient expression system. Furthermore, in the root TaNRT2.5 and TaNRT2.1 function in post-anthesis acquisition of soil nitrate. Overexpression of TaNRT2.5-3B increases seed vigour, grain nitrate concentration and yield, while RNA interference of TaNRT2.5 has the opposite effects The TaNAC2-NRT2.5 module has a key role in regulating grain nitrate accumulation and seed vigour. Both genes can potentially be used to improve grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in wheat.

19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584042

RESUMO

A sequential solvent-assisted linker exchange (SSALE) method was used to contract the unit cell dimensions of an interpenetrated layer-pillared Zn-MOF. The 15.3 Å N,N'-di-4-pyridylnaphthalenetetracarboxydiimide (DPNDI) pillar was replaced stepwise by 9.4 Å trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene (BPE) and 2.8 Å pyrazine (PYZ). Notably, the sequential transformations lead to more than five times reduction in the linker size, which is the largest change in linker size by the SALE method so far.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4537, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586095

RESUMO

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal genetic disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. To enable the non-invasive analysis of DMD gene correction strategies in vivo, we introduced a luciferase reporter in-frame with the C-terminus of the dystrophin gene in mice. Expression of this reporter mimics endogenous dystrophin expression and DMD mutations that disrupt the dystrophin open reading frame extinguish luciferase expression. We evaluated the correction of the dystrophin reading frame coupled to luciferase in mice lacking exon 50, a common mutational hotspot, after delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing machinery with adeno-associated virus. Bioluminescence monitoring revealed efficient and rapid restoration of dystrophin protein expression in affected skeletal muscles and the heart. Our results provide a sensitive non-invasive means of monitoring dystrophin correction in mouse models of DMD and offer a platform for testing different strategies for amelioration of DMD pathogenesis.

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