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1.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 13(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678090

RESUMO

The writing performance of the easy-cone magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) and perpendicularly magnetized MTJ (pMTJ) under various temperatures was investigated based on the macrospin model. When the temperature is changed from 273 K to 373 K, the switching current density of the pMTJ changes by 56%, whereas this value is only 8% in the easy-cone MTJ. Similarly, the temperature-induced variation of the switching delay is more significant in the pMTJ. This indicates that the easy-cone MTJ has a more stable writing performance under temperature variations, resulting in a wider operating temperature range. In addition, these two types of MTJs exhibit opposite temperature dependence in the current overdrive and write error rate. In the easy cone MTJ, these two performance metrics will reduce as temperature is increased. The results shown in this work demonstrate that the easy-cone MTJ is more suitable to work at high temperatures compared with the pMTJ. Our work provides a guidance for the design of STT-MRAM that is required to operate at high temperatures.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2208954, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647621

RESUMO

Spin-orbit torque (SOT) induced switching of perpendicular magnetization in the absence of magnetic field is crucial for the application of SOT-based spintronic devices. Recent works have demonstrated that the low-symmetry crystal structure in CuPt/CoPt can give rise to an out-of-plane (OOP) spin torque and lead to deterministic magnetization switching without external field. However, it is essential to improve OOP effective field for the efficient switching. In this work, we systematically studied the impact of interface oxidation on the generation of OOP effective field in a CuPt/ferromagnet heterostructure. By introducing an oxidized CuPt surface, we found the field-free switching performance shows remarkable improvement. OOP effective field measurement indicates that the oxidation treatment can enhance the OOP effective field by more than 2 times. We also demonstrate that this oxidation-induced OOP SOT efficiency enhancement is independent of the device shapes, magnetic materials or magnetization easy axis. Our work contributes to improve the performance of SOT devices and provides an effective fabrication guidance for future spintronic devices which utilizes OOP SOT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Virus Res ; : 199054, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36717022

RESUMO

Biofilm, as a complex microbial community, is a serious and major safety concern in the food industry. Interestingly, some phages could effectively disrupt biofilms. This study characterized a novel isolated Salmonella bacteriophage T102, and its ability to control and remove biofilm produced by multidrug-resistant Salmonella. Phage T102 exhibited a broad host range within the Salmonella genus, especially drug-resistant Salmonella. The genome of phage T102 was comprised of 41,941bp with 49.7% G+C composition, and with no genes associated with antibiotic resistance or virulence factors. The structural protein profile of phage T102 was subjected to SDS-PAGE and UPLC-MS/MS analysis, among them, 34 peptides were consistent with the hypothetical protein sequences annotated in the genome of T102. The biofilm inhibition assay revealed that phage T102 inhibited the formation of 6-hour biofilms by two multidrug-resistant S. typhimurium strains by 43.17% and 32.42%, respectively. 24-hour biofilms formed by S. typhimurium decreased by 54.94% and 53.67%, respectively, after 2 h of exposure to phage T102. Microscopic observation confirmed the inhibition effect of phage T102 on biofilm formation on spiked lettuce. Overall, our results support new research into the application of bacteriophage for biofilm reduction.

4.
iScience ; 26(1): 105825, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36636351

RESUMO

Characterization of molecular mechanisms underlying pregnancy development of sows is important for the genetic improvement of pig breeding traits, and also provides resources for biomedical research on human pregnancy diseases. However, the transcriptome and metabolome across multiple developmental stages of sow pregnancy were still lacking. In this study, we obtained 84 distinct RNA sequencing and 42 metabolome datasets of pig blood across six development stages from estrus to lactation. We confirmed the initial sequence and exonic structural features, stage-specific molecules, expression or accumulation pattern of molecules, the regulatory mechanism of transcriptome and metabolome, and important pregnancy-related metabolites both in pigs and humans. In conclusion, we proposed the key differences among the stages of sows from estrus to lactation in RNAs and metabolites and put forward key markers. These data results were expected to provide essential resources for pig breeding and biomedical research on human pregnancy disease.

5.
Br J Cancer ; 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PIT1-positive pituitary adenoma (PIT1-PA) is one of the most important lineages of pituitary adenoma (PA), which causes systematic endocrine disorders and a worse prognosis. Tumour-associated fibroblast (TAF) is a crucial stroma cell type in the tumour microenvironment (TME). However, cellular and functional heterogeneity of TAF and immune cells in PIT1-PA have not been fully investigated. METHODS: By single-cell RNA sequencing of four PIT1-PAs and further analyses, we characterised the molecular and functional profiles of 28 different cell subtypes. RESULTS: PA stem cells in PIT1/SF1-positve PA were in a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal state, and differentiated along the PIT1- and SF- dependent branches. C1Q was overwhelmingly expressed in tumour-associated macrophages, indicating its pro-tumoral functionality. PIT1-PA progression was characterised by lower cell-cell communication strength and higher cell adhesion-associated signals, indicating the immunosuppressive but pro-invasive microenvironment. IFN-γ signal repressed functional remodelling of myofibroblastic TAF (mTAF) towards inflammatory TAF/antigen-presenting TAF. IFN-γ inhibited mTAF phenotypes and N-cadherin expression through STAT3 signal axis. CDH2 knockdown in TAFs abrogated their pro-tumour function in PAs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study builds up a cellular landscape of PIT1-PA TME and highlights anti-tumour function of IFN-γ mediated TAF remodelling, which benefits clinical treatments and drug development.

6.
Pathol Res Pract ; 242: 154325, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680929

RESUMO

High levels of S100A6 have been associated with progression in some types of human cancers. Cancers related to S100A6 have been reported to include lung cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, etc., but its role in the molecular pathogenesis of these cancers is largely unknown. This study investigated the expression and functional roles of S100A6 in human thyroid cancer. The expression level of S100A6 in thyroid cancer cells was determined by bioinformatics and transcriptomic analysis. Furthermore, the potential functions of S100A6 in tumorigenesis were analyzed by cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and Western blot assays in human thyroid cancer cells. Public database queries revealed high S100A6 expression in thyroid cancer. In addition, we also found that high expression of S100A6 was positively correlated with malignant clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancer in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. qPCR results confirmed the high expression of S100A6 in thyroid cancer cells. S100A6 silencing inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Western blot assays and response experiments showed that S100A6 promotes cell proliferation and tumorigenicity partly through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. These results suggest that S100A6 affects the progression of thyroid cancer and can be used as a target in the future treatment of thyroid cancer.

7.
Vaccine ; 41(3): 756-765, 2023 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526500

RESUMO

Avian coccidiosis causes huge economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide and currently lacks effective live vector vaccines. Achieving efficient antigen delivery to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is critical for improving the effectiveness of vaccines. Here, chicken claudin-3 (CLDN3), a tight junction protein expressed in MALT, was identified as a target, and the C-terminal region of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) was proven to bind to chicken CLDN3. Then, a CLDN3-targeting Lactobacillus plantarum NC8-expressing C-CPE surface display system (NC8/GFP-C-CPE) was constructed to successfully express the heterologous protein on the surface of L. plantarum. The colonization level of NC8/GFP-C-CPE was significantly increased compared to the non-targeting strain and could persist in the intestine for at least 72 h. An oral vaccine strain expressing five EGF domains of Eimeria tenella microneme protein 8 (EtMIC8-EGF) (NC8/EtMIC8-EGF-C-CPE) was constructed to evaluate the protective efficacy against E. tenella infection. The results revealed that CLDN3-targeting L. plantarum induced stronger mucosal immunity in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) as well as humoral responses and conferred better protection in terms of parasite replication and pathology than the non-targeting strain. Overall, we successfully constructed a CLDN3-targeting L. plantarum NC8 surface display system characterized by MALT-targeting, which is an efficient antigen delivery system to confer enhanced protective efficacy in chickens against E. tenella infection.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria tenella , Lactobacillus plantarum , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas Protozoárias , Animais , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Claudina-3/metabolismo , Galinhas , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/metabolismo , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/veterinária
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(19): 5140-5157, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36472021

RESUMO

Angelicae Sinensis Radix, as a medicinal and edible Chinese medicinal herb, is widely used in clinical practice. It is mainly cultivated in Minxian, Tanchang, Zhangxian and Weiyuan counties of Gansu province. In recent years, with the comprehensive and in-depth study of Angelicae Sinensis Radix in China and abroad, its chemical composition, pharmacological effects and application and development have attracted much attention. In this study, the chemical composition, traditional efficacy, and modern pharmacological effects of Angelicae Sinensis Radix were summarized. On this basis, combined with the core concept of quality markers(Q-markers), the Q-markers of Angelicae Sinensis Radix were discussed from the aspects of mass transfer and traceability and chemical composition specificity, availability, and measurability, which provided scientific basis for the quality evaluation of Angelicae Sinensis Radix.


Assuntos
Angelica sinensis , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Angelica sinensis/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , China
9.
Breast ; 67: 36-45, 2022 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taxane-induced peripheral neuropathy (TIPN) is a debilitating adverse effect of cancer treatments with taxanes which may require a reduction or discontinuation chemotherapy and affect clinical and survival outcomes. A number of factors have contributed to the increasing prevalence of TIPN. Nonetheless, limited knowledge exists of potential prechemotherapy blood-based biochemical factors associated with TIPN development. METHODS: We recruited breast cancer patients at seven cancer institutions in China. Participants aged 18 years or older with stage I to III breast cancer who scheduled to undergo primary neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy with taxanes were eligible. Eligible patients underwent patient-reported neuropathy assessments using the EORTC-CIPN20 questionnaire. Patients completed the questionnaire before commencing treatment and after every cycle. For every patient, we selected the highest TIPN toxicity score for analysis since the first cycle. The posttreatment TIPN severity was compared with blood-based biochemical factors within 30 days before commencing treatment. Independent samples t tests, Mann-Whitney U tests and linear regression were used to identify blood-based and clinical associations with TIPN development. RESULTS: The study included 873 breast cancer participants who received paclitaxel, docetaxel or nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel. In the whole cohort, factors associated with higher TIPN toxicity scores were higher cumulative chemotherapy dose (ß = 0.005; 95% CI, 0.004 to 0.006; P < .001), lower sodium ions (ß = -0.24; 95% CI, -0.39 to -0.09; P = .002) and higher chloride ions (ß = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.44; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that breast cancer patients with a higher cumulative chemotherapy dose, lower pretreatment sodium ions, and higher pretreatment chloride ions receiving taxanes should receive closer monitoring to mitigate the development of short-term and long-term TIPN.

10.
Foods ; 11(23)2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496688

RESUMO

Pesticide residues directly or indirectly threaten the health of humans and animals. We need a rapid and nondestructive method for the safety evaluation of fruits. In this study, the feasibility of visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy technology was explored for the discrimination of pesticide residue levels on the Hami melon surface. The one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN) model was proposed for spectral data discrimination. We compared the effect of different convolutional architectures on the model performance, including single-depth, symmetric, and asymmetric multiscale convolution. The results showed that the 1D-CNN model could discriminate the presence or absence of pesticide residues with a high accuracy above 99.00%. The multiscale convolution could significantly improve the model accuracy while reducing the modeling time. In particular, the asymmetric convolution had a better comprehensive performance. For two-level discrimination, the accuracy of lambda-cyhalothrin and beta-cypermethrin was 93.68% and 95.79%, respectively. For three-level discrimination, the accuracy of lambda-cyhalothrin and beta-cypermethrin was 86.32% and 89.47%, respectively. For four-level discrimination, the accuracy of lambda-cyhalothrin and beta-cypermethrin was 87.37% and 93.68%, respectively, and the average modeling time was 3.5 s. This finding will encourage more relevant research to use multiscale 1D-CNN as a spectral analysis strategy for the detection of pesticide residues in fruits.

11.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(12)2022 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36552318

RESUMO

Drought stress influences the vigor of plant seeds and inhibits seed germination, making it one of the primary environmental factors adversely affecting food security. The seed germination stage is critical to ensuring the growth and productivity of soybeans in soils prone to drought conditions. We here examined the genetic diversity and drought-tolerance phenotypes of 410 accessions of a germplasm diversity panel for soybean and conducted quantitative genetics analyses to identify loci associated with drought tolerance of seed germination. We uncovered significant differences among the diverse genotypes for four growth indices and five drought-tolerance indices, which revealed abundant variation among genotypes, upon drought stress, and for genotype × treatment effects. We also used 158,327 SNP markers and performed GWAS for the drought-related traits. Our data met the conditions (PCA + K) for using a mixed linear model in TASSEL, and we thus identified 26 SNPs associated with drought tolerance indices for germination stage distributed across 10 chromosomes. Nine SNP sites, including, for example, Gm20_34956219 and Gm20_36902659, were associated with two or more phenotypic indices, and there were nine SNP markers located in or adjacent to (within 500 kb) previously reported drought tolerance QTLs. These SNPs led to our identification of 41 candidate genes related to drought tolerance in the germination stage. The results of our study contribute to a deeper understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in soybeans at the germination stage, thereby providing a molecular basis for identifying useful soybean germplasm for breeding new drought-tolerant varieties.

12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 17: 5915-5931, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36506343

RESUMO

Introduction: Glaucoma is a chronic disease that requires long-term adherence to treatment. Topical application of conventional eye drops results in substantial drug loss due to rapid tear turnover, with poor drug bioavailability being a major challenge for efficient glaucoma treatment. We aimed to prepare the anti-glaucoma drug betaxolol hydrochloride (BH) as a novel nano-delivery system that prolonged the retention time at the ocular surface and improved bioavailability. Methods: We constructed multifunctional nanoparticles (MMt-BH-HA/CS-ED NPs) by ion cross-linking-solvent evaporation method. The particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of MMt-BH-HA/CS-ED NPs were physicochemically characterized. The structure of the preparations was characterized by microscopic techniques of SEM, TEM, XPS, XRD, FTIR and TGA, and evaluated for their in vitro release performance as well as adhesion properties. Its safety was investigated using irritation assays of hemolysis experiment, Draize test and histopathology examination. Precorneal retention was examined by in vivo fluorescence tracer method and pharmacokinetics in tear fluid was studied. A model of high IOP successfully induced by injection of compound carbomer solution was used to assess the IOP-lowering efficacy of the formulation, and it was proposed that micro-interactions between the formulation and the tear film would be used to analyze the behavior at the ocular surface. Results: The positively charged MMt-BH-HA/CS-ED NPs were successfully prepared with good two-step release properties, higher viscosity, and slower pre-corneal diffusion rate along with longer precorneal retention time compared to BH solution. The micro-interactions between nanoparticles and tear film converted the drug clearance from being controlled by fast aqueous layer turnover to slow mucin layer turnover, resulting in higher drug concentration on the ocular surface, providing more durable and stable IOP-lowering efficacy. Conclusion: The novel multifunctional MMt-BH-HA/CS-ED NPs can effectively reduce IOP and are suitable for the treatment of chronic disease glaucoma.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Nanopartículas , Humanos , Betaxolol , Pressão Intraocular , Nanopartículas/química , Glaucoma/patologia , Córnea , Tamanho da Partícula , Portadores de Fármacos/química
13.
Adv Mater ; : e2209567, 2022 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584285

RESUMO

Upgrading carbon dioxide/monoxide to multi-carbon C2+ products using renewable electricity offers one route to more sustainable fuel and chemical production. One of the most appealing products is acetate, the profitable electrosynthesis of which demands a catalyst with higher efficiency. Here, a coordination polymer (CP) catalyst is reported that consists of Cu(I) and benzimidazole units linked via Cu(I)-imidazole coordination bonds, which enables selective reduction of CO to acetate with a 61% Faradaic efficiency at -0.59 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode at a current density of 400 mA cm-2 in flow cells. The catalyst is integrated in a cation exchange membrane-based membrane electrode assembly that enables stable acetate electrosynthesis for 190 h, while achieving direct collection of concentrated acetate (3.3 molar) from the cathodic liquid stream, an average single-pass utilization of 50% toward CO-to-acetate conversion, and an average acetate full-cell energy efficiency of 15% at a current density of 250 mA cm-2 .

14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 977428, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36387885

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Acylcarnitines (ACars) are important for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, their roles in diabetic retinopathy (DR) remain controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of ACars with DR and their values in DR detection. Methods: This was a two-center case-control study based on the propensity score matching approach between August 2017 to June 2018 in Eastern China. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to estimate the association of plasma ACars with DR. Differential ACars were screened by models of least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, elastic net, and weighted quantile sum regression, and their roles in DR identification were further evaluated by the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Results: Eight of twenty plasma ACars (8:0, 12:0, 12:1, 14:1, 16:2, 18:0, 18:2 and 18:3) were associated with DR, while only ACar 8:0 was selected by three variable selection methods. As compared to those with the 1st tertile of ACar 8:0, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of DR were 0.22 (0.08, 0.59) and 0.12 (0.04, 0.36) for subjects in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles, respectively (P for trend < 0.001). Consistent associations were also observed in both restricted cubic spline regression models and subgroup analyses. AUC (95% CI) were 0.74 (0.66, 0.82) for ACar 8:0 alone and 0.77 (0.70, 0.85) for ACar 8:0 combined with covariates. Conclusions: Our findings suggest higher ACar 8:0 is significantly associated with a decreased risk of DR, which provides a unique window for early identification of DR.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Retinopatia Diabética , Humanos , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia
15.
Soft Matter ; 18(46): 8907-8908, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382591

RESUMO

Correction for 'Synthesis and properties of siloxane modified perylene bisimide discotic liquid crystals' by Tingjie Zhang et al., Soft Matter, 2013, 9, 10739-10745, https://doi.org/10.1039/C3SM52054D.

16.
Natl Sci Rev ; 9(10): nwac025, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415320

RESUMO

Beyond the state-of-the-art Cd-containing quantum wires (QWs), heavy-metal-free semiconductor QWs, such as ZnSe, are of great interest for next-generation environmental-benign applications. Unfortunately, simultaneous, on-demand manipulation of their radial and axial sizes-that allows strong quantum confinement in the blue-light region-has so far been challenging. Here we present a two-step catalyzed growth strategy that enables independent, high-precision and wide-range controls over the diameter and length of ZnSe QWs. We find that a new epitaxial orientation between the cubic-phase Ag2Se solid catalyst and wurtzite ZnSe QWs kinetically favors the formation of defect-free ultrathin QWs. Thanks to their high uniformity, the resulting blue-light-active, phase-pure ZnSe QWs exhibit well-defined excitonic absorption with the 1Se-1Sh transition linewidth as narrow as sub-13 nm. Combining the transient absorption spectroscopy, we further show that surface electron traps in these ZnSe QWs can be eliminated by thiol passivation, which results in long-lived charge carriers and high-efficiency solar-to-hydrogen conversion.

17.
Redox Biol ; 58: 102538, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417796

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is prevalent in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and can adversely affect their outcomes. This study aims to explore the key mechanisms in the crosstalk between sarcopenia and HCC based on multi-omics profiling. A total of 136 male patients with HCC were enrolled. Sarcopenia was an independent risk factor for poor outcomes after liver transplantation (p < 0.05). Inflammatory cytokine and metabolomic profiling on these patients identified elevated plasma sTNF-R1/CHI3L1 and dysregulated lipid metabolism as related to sarcopenia and tumor recurrence risk concurrently (p < 0.05). Integrated analysis revealed close relationship between CHI3L1 and fatty acid metabolism. In mouse cachectic models by intraperitoneal injection of H22 cells, CHI3L1 was significantly elevated in the atrophic muscle tissue, as well as in circulation. In-vitro, CHI3L1 was up-regulated in muscle cells to protect itself from inflammatory damage through TNF-α/TNF-R1 signaling. CHI3L1 secreted by the muscle cells promoted the invasion of co-cultured HCC cells. Tumor tissue transcriptome data for 73 out of the 136 patients revealed that CHI3L1 may regulate fatty acid metabolism and oxidative stress. In vitro, CHI3L1 caused ROS and lipid accumulation. Targeted lipid profiling further proved that CHI3L1 was able to activate arachidonic acid metabolism, leading to lipid peroxide (LPO) accumulation. Meanwhile, LPO inhibition could compromise the remarkable pro-cancerous effects of CHI3L1. In conclusion, sarcopenia adversely affects the outcomes of liver transplantation for HCC. In sarcopenic patients, CHI3L1 was up-regulated and secreted by the skeletal muscle to protect itself through TNF-α/TNF-R1 signaling, which, in turn, can promote HCC tumor progression by inducing LPO accumulation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Quitinases , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Sarcopenia , Camundongos , Animais , Masculino , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Sarcopenia/genética , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral , Proteína 1 Semelhante à Quitinase-3 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos , Lipídeos
18.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(21)2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364614

RESUMO

A nanostrip magnonic-crystal waveguide with spatially periodic width modulation can serve as a gigahertz-range spin-wave filter. Compared with the regular constant-width nanostrip, the periodic width modulation creates forbidden bands (band gaps) at the Brillouin zone boundaries due to the spin-wave reflection by the periodic potential owing to the long-range dipolar interactions. Previous works have shown that there is a critical challenge in tuning the band structures of the magnonic-crystal waveguide once it is fabricated. In this work, using micromagnetic simulations, we show that voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy can effectively tune the band structures of a ferromagnetic-dielectric heterostructural magnonic-crystal waveguide. A uniformly applied voltage of 0.1 V/nm can lead to a significant frequency shift of ~9 GHz. A spin-wave transistor prototype employing such a kind of spin-wave filter is proposed to realize various logical operations. Our results could be significant for future magnonic computing applications.

19.
Mol Plant ; 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366781

RESUMO

Genomic prediction is an effective way to accelerate the rate of agronomic trait improvement in plants. Traditional methods typically use linear regression models with clear assumptions; such methods are unable to capture the complex relationships between genotypes and phenotypes. Nonlinear models (e.g., deep neural networks) have been proposed as a superior alternative to linear models because they can capture complex non-additive effects. We here introduce a deep learning method, Deep Neural Network Genomic Prediction (DNNGP), for integration of multi-omics data in plants. We trained DNNGP on four datasets and compared its performance to methods built with five classic models: genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP); two methods based on a machine learning (ML) framework, light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM) and support vector regression (SVR); and two methods based on a deep learning (DL) framework, deep learning genomic selection (DeepGS) and deep learning genome-wide association analysis (DLGWAS). DNNGP is novel in five ways. First, it can be applied to a variety of omics data to predict phenotypes. Second, the multilayered hierarchical structure of DNNGP dynamically learns features from raw data, avoiding over-fitting and improving the convergence rate using a batch normalization (BN) layer, and early stopping and rectified linear activation (ReLU) functions. Third, when used on small datasets, results from DNNGP were competitive with results from the other five methods, and it showed greater prediction accuracy than the other methods when large-scale breeding data were used. Fourth, the computation time required by DNNGP was comparable to commonly used methods, and it was up to ten times faster than DeepGS. Fifth, hyperparameters can easily be batch tuned on a local machine. Comparison of DNNGP with GBLUP, two ML methods, and two DL methods showed that this new DL method is superior to existing widely used GS methods. Moreover, DNNGP can generate robust assessments from diverse datasets, including omics data. DNNGP quickly incorporates complex and large datasets into usable models, making it a promising and practical approach for straightforward integration into existing GS platforms.

20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2239788, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322088

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding the detailed symptom spectrum of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) could facilitate shared decision-making and promote early intervention. Objective: To compare the symptom spectrum of patient-reported CIPN associated with nab-paclitaxel, paclitaxel, and docetaxel treatments among patients with breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study was conducted at 9 medical centers across China from 2019 to 2021. Participants included hospitalized women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, assessed with overlap propensity score weighting. Data were analyzed from from December 2021 to May 2022. Exposures: Treatment with nab-paclitaxel-, paclitaxel-, or docetaxel-based regimens. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patient-reported CIPN on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire: CIPN 20-item instruments, consisting of sensory, motor, and autonomic scales. Multiple regression models were adjusted for baseline patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Results: Of 1234 participants, the mean (SD) age was 50.9 (10.4) years, and 295 patients (23.9%) received nab-paclitaxel, 514 patients (41.7%) received paclitaxel, and 425 patients (34.4%) received docetaxel. The nab-paclitaxel group mostly reported numbness in hands or feet related to sensory symptoms (83 patients [81.4%]), while the paclitaxel and docetaxel groups reported mainly motor (eg, weakness in legs: 60 patients [47.2%] in the paclitaxel group; 52 patients [44.4%] in the docetaxel group) and autonomic (eg, blurred vision: 58 patients [45.7%] in the paclitaxel group; 51 patients [43.6%] in the docetaxel group) symptoms. Patients reported motor symptoms earlier than sensory abnormalities, with a median of 0.4 (95% CI, 0.4-2.3) weeks in the nab-paclitaxel group, 2.7 (95% CI, 1.7-3.4) weeks in the paclitaxel group, and 5.6 (95% CI, 3.1-6.1) weeks in the docetaxel group. After overlap propensity score weighting and compared with the nab-paclitaxel group, the risks of patient-reported CIPN were lower in the paclitaxel (hazard ratio [HR], 0.59 [95% CI, 0.41-0.87]; P = .008) and the docetaxel (HR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.45-0.94]; P = .02) groups. Similarly, patients who received paclitaxel (HR, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.30-0.64]; P < .001) or docetaxel (HR, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.36-0.75]; P < .001) reported less sensory discomfort compared with those who received nab-paclitaxel. However, the risk of patients in the paclitaxel or docetaxel groups reporting motor (paclitaxel: HR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.52-1.11]; P = .15; docetaxel: HR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.47-1.01]; P = .05) and/or autonomic (paclitaxel: HR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.68-1.49]; P = .98; docetaxel: HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.59-1.30]; P = .52) symptoms was not lower than that in the nab-paclitaxel group. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of women with invasive breast cancer, nab-paclitaxel was associated with more severe CIPN than either paclitaxel or docetaxel. In addition to sensory symptoms, the risk of motor and autonomic abnormalities was not low among these 3 taxanes, and patients-reported motor symptoms even earlier than sensory symptoms. These findings may facilitate early detection and intervention for CIPN in taxane treatments for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Docetaxel/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/epidemiologia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
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