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1.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 174: 113830, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001235

RESUMO

High glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction is a critical initiating factor in the development of diabetic vascular complications. Omentin-1 has been regarded as a novel biomarker of endothelial function in subjects with type-2 diabetes (T2D); however, it is unclear whether omentin-1 has any direct effect in ameliorating high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of omentin-1 on high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction in isolated mouse aortas and mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). Vascular reactivity in aortas was measured using wire myography. The expression levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ), Akt, endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress markers in MAECs were determined by Western blotting. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) was assessed by diluted fluoroprobe, 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM DA), respectively. We found that ex vivo treatment with omentin-1 reversed impaired endothelial-dependent relaxations (EDR) in mouse aortas after high-glucose insult. Elevated ER-stress markers, oxidative stress, and reduction of NO production induced by high glucose in MAECs were reversed by omentin-1 treatment. Omentin-1 also effectively reversed tunicamycin-induced ER stress responses in MAECs, as well as ameliorated impairment of endothelial-dependent relaxation in mouse aortas. Moreover, omentin-1 increased AMPK phosphorylation with a subsequent increase in PPARδ expression, while also restoring the decreased phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. The effects of omentin-1 were abolished by cotreatment of compound C (AMPK inhibitor) and GSK0660 (PPARδ antagonist). These data indicate that omentin-1 protects against high glucose-induced vascular-endothelial dysfunction through inhibiting ER stress and oxidative stress and increasing NO production via activation of AMPK/PPARδ pathway.

2.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 31, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between natural killer (NK) cells and survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients remains controversial. This study aimed to clarify the prognostic value of peripheral blood NK cells in CRC patients. METHODS: A total of 447 CRC patients who underwent radical surgery and chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Cox regression analyses were used to identify independent prognostic indicators. Correlation between NK cell percentage and other clinicopathological features (gender, age, histological grade, tumor stage, immune cells, and inflammatory indicators) was analyzed. The prognostic values of the combinations of NK cell percentage and other clinicopathological features were also determined. RESULTS: Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that NK cell percentage in the peripheral blood was an independent prognostic indicator in CRC patients. A higher percentage of NK cells indicated a longer survival time than a lower percentage. NK cell percentage was positively correlated to the T and B lymphocyte counts and negatively correlated to the patients' age and albumin levels. With an area of 0.741 under a receiver operating characteristic curve, NK cells have a moderate predictive value for 3rd-year survival in CRC. This area increased to 0.851 by combining NK cell percentage with the B lymphocyte count. Elderly patients and those at an advanced clinical stage presented a lower percentage of NK cells than younger patients and those at an early clinical stage. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that NK cells in the blood were an independent predictor of survival in CRC patients, and the combined count of NK cells and B lymphocytes could increase the prognostic value.

3.
Genome ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027525

RESUMO

Plant LTPs are small, basic proteins that plays important roles in regulating various plant biological processes and responding to biotic and abiotic stress. However, less information is known about this family for how its regulation during nematode infection in cucumber. In the present study, a total of 39 CsLTP_2 genes were identified with searches for cucumber-specific LTP_2 HMM and manual curation. The family has a five-cysteine motif (5CM) with the basic form of CC-Xn-CXC-Xn-C, which is different with the typical nsLTPs. All the CsLTP_2 members were classified into six groups according to their gene structure and phylogenetic relationship. Expression data of CsLTP_2 genes in ten tissues of cucumber indicated that they were tissue-specific genes. There were two genes showing significantly expression changes in roots of R-line and S-line during nematode infection, indicating their connection to cucumber against M. incognita. This systematic analysis provides a fundamental knowledge for further studies on the biological roles of CsLTP_2 genes in cucumber responding to nematode infection and may help in the efforts to improve M. incognita-resistance breeding in cucumber.

4.
EMBO J ; : e101679, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009252

RESUMO

Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in specialized niches, which hold a balanced number of NSCs, their progeny, and other cells. How niche capacity is regulated to contain a specific number of NSCs remains unclear. Here, we show that ependyma-derived matricellular protein CCN1 (cellular communication network factor 1) negatively regulates niche capacity and NSC number in the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). Adult ependyma-specific deletion of Ccn1 transiently enhanced NSC proliferation and reduced neuronal differentiation in mice, increasing the numbers of NSCs and NSC units. Although proliferation of NSCs and neurogenesis seen in Ccn1 knockout mice eventually returned to normal, the expanded NSC pool was maintained in the V-SVZ until old age. Inhibition of EGFR signaling prevented expansion of the NSC population observed in CCN1 deficient mice. Thus, ependyma-derived CCN1 restricts NSC expansion in the adult brain to maintain the proper niche capacity of the V-SVZ.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the impact of level 4 (L4) lymph node dissection (LND) on overall survival (OS) in left-side resectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with the aim of guiding lymphadenectomy. METHODS: A total of 1929 patients with left-side NSCLC who underwent R0 resection between 2001 and 2014 were included in the study. The patients were divided into a group with L4 LND (L4 LND+) and a group without L4 LND (L4 LND-). Propensity score matching was applied to minimize selection bias. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the impact of L4 LND on OS. RESULTS: A total of 317 pairs were matched. Of the cohort of patients, 20.3% (391/1929) had L4 LND. Of these patients, 11.8% (46/391) presented with L4 lymph node metastasis. L4 lymph node metastasis was not associated with the primary tumour lobes (P = 0.61). Before propensity score matching, the 5-year OS was comparable between the L4 LND+ and L4 LND- groups (69.0% vs 65.2%, P = 0.091). However, after propensity score matching, the 5-year OS of the L4 LND+ group was much improved compared to that of the L4 LND- group (72.9% vs 62.3%, P = 0.002) and L4 LND was an independent factor favouring OS (hazard ratio 0.678, 95% confidence interval 0.513-0.897; P = 0.006). Subgroup analysis suggested that L4 LND was an independent factor favouring OS in left upper lobe tumours. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with left-side operable NSCLC, L4 lymph node metastasis was not rare and L4 LND should be routinely performed.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 710: 136306, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050365

RESUMO

Acetic acid and sodium acetate are generally supplied to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China to improve total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal, and the addition of carbon source also facilitates to increase sludge growth rate and further provides material basis for the extraction of proteins and amino acids from activated sludge. To recycle ammonia nitrogen resources, a system that combined adsorption and anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/AAO) process for treating low strength wastewater was established. Experimental results showed that by the addition of carbon substrate from a mixture of anaerobically fermented adsorption sludge, the average removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen, TN, and TP were 88%, 96.9%, 93.9%, and 92.1%, respectively, and the ratio of nitrogen assimilation to nitrogen dissimilation significantly increased by a factor of 2.5. Through energy analysis (based on adenosine triphosphate, ATP), sludge flocculation capacity and settling property, it was found that the AAO process sludge presented the logarithmic growth characteristics. The respective sludge protein and amino acids contents increased by over 11.4% and 40.3%, and the synthetic products of glutamic acid, alanine and aspartate increased through the assimilation of ammonia nitrogen, thereby indicating that replenishing the carbon substrate could markedly enhance protein and amino acids contents in AAO process sludge. Moreover, the diversity of the microbial community in adsorption process was relatively rich, the diversity in the adsorption process sludge was the highest, while the diversity of the AAO process sludge evidently decreased. The microbial community in each process was similarly based on 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, microflora was prominent in the AAO process, with Dechloromonas, Flavobacterium, Zoogloea, Unclassified_Rhodocyclaceae and Thauera as the dominant species. Promising carbon utilization facilitates contaminants removal in low strength wastewater treatment and is conducive to protein production through ammonia nitrogen assimilation.

8.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126134, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058136

RESUMO

Presence of heavy metals in the wastewater sludge has greatly hindered sludge land application. Bioleaching has been developed for heavy metal removal from sludge. The pH of the sludge is declined by microorganisms with S or FeS as energy source. Sludge considered to be used in land is mainly due to its fertilizer values as it contains nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Therefore, it is important to understand how the bioleaching would impact on sludge characterization. In addition, pathogens are great threat to human health. The ability of pathogen elimination of bioleaching is highly concerned. In this review, the major heavy metals in the sludge are summarized. The change of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium after bioleaching is stated. The pathogen elimination due to bioleaching has been discussed. The work has provided an insight of research need in sludge bioleaching with the aim of residual sludge land application.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18927, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000406

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastritis is a rare opportunistic infection with diverse clinical manifestations. Our study aimed to investigate the clinical features of Chinese patients with CMV gastritis.Six inpatients diagnosed with CMV gastritis were retrospectively enrolled, based on the finding of inclusion bodies in routine hematoxylin and eosin staining or positive anti-CMV monoclonal antibodies under immunohistochemistry in the gastric biopsy. Data, including demographics, diagnostic measurements, and medications, were collected.Abdominal pain was the most frequently reported symptom, occurring in 4 patients. Five patients were immunocompromised with associated underlying diseases, and 3 patients had decreased leukocyte differentiation antigen 4 positive (CD4) T lymphocyte counts. Only 3 patients had either positive cytomegalovirus (CMV)-immunoglobulin (Ig) M or increased copies of CMV-DNA peripherally. All patients had gastric lesions in the antrum of the stomach, including ulcers or erosions observed by gastroscopy. All patients received ganciclovir by intravenous injection (IV) as the first line anti-CMV therapy, and attained complete (4) or partial remission (2) during the follow-up.CMV gastritis should be taken into consideration in patients with immunocompromised status who have abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting. Gastroscopy and necessary biopsy are the major diagnostic methods for CMV gastritis. Early diagnosis leads to a better prognosis for these patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biópsia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/patologia , Feminino , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Gastrite/patologia , Gastroscopia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/diagnóstico , Náusea/tratamento farmacológico , Náusea/epidemiologia , Náusea/etiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estômago/diagnóstico por imagem , Estômago/patologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vômito/diagnóstico , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico , Vômito/epidemiologia , Vômito/etiologia
10.
J Proteomics ; : 103675, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004728

RESUMO

Inhibiting giant cells (GCs) development is an important characteristic of introgression line cucumber IL10-1 against Meloidogyne incognita proved by our previous study, but the systematic regulatory pathways were unknown. To reveal the regulation pathways more comprehensively, in the current study, we performed a joint analysis of RNA-Seq and lable-free quantitative proteomics between the IL10-1 (resistant) and the CC3 (susceptible cucumber) after inoculation with M. incognita. The results indicated that flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was specifically enriched in IL10-1. And protein species of Csa5P590220 and Csa5P589940 associated with flavonoid biosynthesis were highly translated in IL10-1 compared with these in CC3 at 3 days post inoculation (dpi), which would resulted in the excess of flavonoids in IL10-1 roots. In addition, phosphoproteomic analysis found that phosphorylated protein species involved in MAPK signaling cascade were enhanced in IL10-1, while they were inhibited in CC3 at 3 dpi. Accordingly, we speculate that the enhanced MAPK cascade signaling plays an important role in signal transduction for IL10-1 regulating the flavonoid biosynthesis. Knowledge from the study provide important regulatory pathways and protein species of introgression line cucumber against M. incognita, which will help in efforts to improve the recognition of the resistance mechanism of plants against nematode. SIGNIFICANCE: The current approach of joint analysis in transcription level, protein level and protein phosphorylation level more comprehensively revealed the different expression patterns at the molecular level of resistant and susceptible cucumber after inoculation with M. incognita. Based on the different expression patterns, we explore the pathway of resistance regulation of resistant cucumber IL10-1. Moreover, our results are helpful for the discovery of key genes and then apply them to M. incognita-resistance breeding.

11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 253: 112656, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035217

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shegan-Mahuang Decoction (SMD), also named Yakammaoto or Shegan-Mahuang Tang, is a classic formula of traditional Chinese medicine with nine herbs, including Asarum sieboldii Miq., Aster tataricus L.f., Ephedra sinica Stapf, Belamcanda chinensis (L.) Redouté, Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit., Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., Tussilago farfara L., Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and Ziziphus jujuba Mill. SMD was originally discovered by Zhang Zhongjing in Eastern Han dynasty. It has been widely used as traditional medicine to treat flu-like symptoms in China and Japan for around twenty centuries. It was also utilized for the treatment of the early stage of acute asthma. However, the immune mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects remain unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was set to investigate the effects of SMD on asthmatic airway hyperresponsiveness and its impacts on adaptive immunity in a mouse model of asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The HPLC fingerprint profile of the water extract of SMD recorded 22 peaks, including those equivalent to guanosine, chlorogenic acid, tectoridin, 6-gingerol and wuweizisu B, as described previously (Yen et al., 2014). Airway hyperresponsiveness was assessed by measuring the airway resistance. Cellular infiltration was measured via H&E staining and immunochemistry while gene expression was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR. Treg frequency was determined through flow analysis whereas cytokine production in the supernatant was evaluated using ELISA. Finally, mTOR and NF-kB signalings were analyzed via Western blotting. RESULTS: We found that SMD largely corrected the imbalance of Th cell subsets in asthmatic mice with a significant inhibition of Th2 and Th17 cytokine production, thereby reducing asthmatic airway hyperresponsiveness. Moreover, lung function tests showed that SMD reduced airway hyperresponsiveness while immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that SMD attenuated pulmonary infiltration of CD3+ and CD4+ T cells. Further, we observed a significant increase in the proportion of CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs in SMD-treated asthmatic mice. We also found that SMD downregulated gene expression of GATA3 and ROR-γt in murine lung tissue. In addition, both mTOR- and NF-kB-related protein expressions were reduced in the lung tissue of SMD-treated mice. SMD inhibited Th2/Th17 cytokine production by CD4+ T cells and also their mTOR activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that SMD attenuates asthmatic airway hyperresponsiveness by hindering Th2/Th17 differentiation, promoting CD4+FoxP3+ Treg generation and suppressing mTOR and NF-kB activities.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050524

RESUMO

Aristolochic acid (AA) is a generic term that describes a group of structurally related compounds found in the Aristolochiaceae plants family. These plants have been used for decades to treat various diseases. However, the consumption of products derived from plants containing AA has been associated with the development of nephropathy and carcinoma, mainly the upper urothelial carcinoma (UUC). AA has been identified as the causative agent of these pathologies. Several studies on mechanisms of action of AA nephrotoxicity have been conducted, but the comprehensive mechanisms of AA-induced nephrotoxicity and carcinogenesis have not yet fully been elucidated, and therapeutic measures are therefore limited. This review aimed to summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying AA-induced nephrotoxicity with an emphasis on its enzymatic bioactivation, and to discuss some agents and their modes of action to reduce AA nephrotoxicity. By addressing these two aspects, including mechanisms of action of AA nephrotoxicity and protective approaches against the latter, and especially by covering the whole range of these protective agents, this review provides an overview on AA nephrotoxicity. It also reports new knowledge on mechanisms of AA-mediated nephrotoxicity recently published in the literature and provides suggestions for future studies.

13.
Cancer Lett ; 475: 136-142, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032679

RESUMO

Bone metastasis is a common complication of cancer, and bone is the third most common metastatic site following the lung and liver. Among the various bones, spine is the most common site of metastatic tumors. The treatment goals of patients with spinal metastases are mostly palliative, with the aim of reducing pain and improving quality of life. The treatment of spinal metastases has made significant progress over the past few decades. Each new technology has tried to solve the shortcomings of its predecessors. Currently, there are no mature algorithms or specific techniques that have proven to be the best for spinal metastases, and the treatment method often relies on operator and institutional preferences or biases in some cases. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation has unique value in the management of spinal metastases, understanding its indications, surgical techniques, uses, advantages and complications is critical to providing optimal patient care. We believe that the application of percutaneous vertebral augmentation alone or combined with other techniques can achieve optimal pain relief and functional improvement in the patients with spinal metastases.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 514, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980597

RESUMO

Sulfur belongs among H2O, CO2, and Cl as one of the key volatiles in Earth's chemical cycles. High oxygen fugacity, sulfur concentration, and δ34S values in volcanic arc rocks have been attributed to significant sulfate addition by slab fluids. However, sulfur speciation, flux, and isotope composition in slab-dehydrated fluids remain unclear. Here, we use high-pressure rocks and enclosed veins to provide direct constraints on subduction zone sulfur recycling for a typical oceanic lithosphere. Textural and thermodynamic evidence indicates the predominance of reduced sulfur species in slab fluids; those derived from metasediments, altered oceanic crust, and serpentinite have δ34S values of approximately -8‰, -1‰, and +8‰, respectively. Mass-balance calculations demonstrate that 6.4% (up to 20% maximum) of total subducted sulfur is released between 30-230 km depth, and the predominant sulfur loss takes place at 70-100 km with a net δ34S composition of -2.5 ± 3‰. We conclude that modest slab-to-wedge sulfur transport occurs, but that slab-derived fluids provide negligible sulfate to oxidize the sub-arc mantle and cannot deliver 34S-enriched sulfur to produce the positive δ34S signature in arc settings. Most sulfur has negative δ34S and is subducted into the deep mantle, which could cause a long-term increase in the δ34S of Earth surface reservoirs.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919824

RESUMO

The influence of ultrasonication on membrane performance was investigated by two ultrasonication modes, direct and indirect ultrasonication as pretreatment, and simply improved PVDF-TiO2 membranes' performance was systematically compared. Ultrasound intensity of 100% and ultrasonication time ranged from 1 to 2 h positively affect membrane permeability. Characterization results manifested that membrane structure was eventually optimized with an even nano-TiO2 dispersion by direct ultrasonication. Analysis of surface roughness reflected that PVDF-TiO2 (MS-U2) surface morphological pattern was peak-valley structure that resisted fouling greatly. A good fitting of experimental result and Tansel's simulation illustrated that anti-fouling ability was realized direct ultrasonication modified membrane. PVDF-TiO2 (MS-U2) membrane showing the lowest |τ| reflecting the time required to reach a certain level of the fouling degree was the lowest. Relying upon modified Hermia's model analysis, protein blockage within the membrane pore was one major fouling mechanism; surface blockage degree of PVDF-TiO2 (MS-U2) was relative slight. Fouling mechanism analyzed by two models reflected that PVDF-TiO2 (MS-U2) membrane exhibited a higher anti-protein fouling ability during cross-flow filtration process.

16.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922655

RESUMO

Yin-deficiency-heat (YDH) syndrome is a very common subhealth status in Traditional Chinese Medicine. However, currently, there is no unified standard for diagnosing YDH syndrome. We applied the iTRAQ-2D LC-MS/MS method to explore the potential of serum protein profiles as biomarker for YDH syndrome. A total of 120 differentially expressed proteins (79 downregulated and 41 upregulated) were identified by the proteomic profiling. The results of KEGG pathway analysis showed that the functions of the differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in complement and coagulation cascades. The clinical data showed that YDH syndrome was closely related to inflammation and coagulation, compared with the healthy controls. The ELISA validation results indicated that the expression levels of ALB, CFI, and KLKB1 were downregulated in the YDH syndrome group (p < .05). Moreover, we established a decision tree model based on the combination of these three proteins and achieved a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 84.4%, and AUC of 0.891. The results indicated that the combination of ALB, CFI, and KLKB1 may serve as potential biomarkers for diagnosing YDH syndrome. Our study can provide a new method for YDH syndrome diagnosis, and may also provide an experimental basis to understand the molecular mechanism of YDH syndrome.

17.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 79: 106178, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918061

RESUMO

Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease in face. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an anti-malaria drug, was reported to have anti-inflammation activities. However, the role of HCQ on rosacea remains unclear. In this study, we revealed the potential molecular mechanism by which HCQ improved rosacea in rosacea-like mice and mast cells (MCs). Moreover, the effects of HCQ treatment for rosacea patients were investigated. In this study, we found HCQ ameliorated the rosacea-like phenotype and MCs infiltration. The elevated pro-inflammatory factors and mast cell protease were significantly inhibited by HCQ treatment in rosacea-like mice. In vitro, HCQ suppresses LL37-induced MCs activation in vitro, including the release of inflammatory factors, chemotaxis, degranulation and calcium influx. Moreover, HCQ attenuated LL37-mediated MCs activation partly via inhibiting KCa3.1-mediated calcium signaling. Thus, these evidences suggest HCQ ameliorated rosacea-like dermatitis may be by regulating immune response of MCs. Finally, the 8-week HCQ treatment exerted satisfactory therapeutic effects on erythema and inflammatory lesions of rosacea patients, indicating that it is a promising drug for rosacea in clinical treatment.

18.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122825, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986335

RESUMO

The removal of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and cell-free antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) and the microbial community of ARB were investigated in detail to understand their fate and provide valuable information on the feasibility of full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR). The potential risks of cell-free ARGs to the receiving environment were discovered. High influent antibiotic concentration could inhibit the microbial activity of MBR sludge, whereas good antibiotic removal could be maintained because of relatively long solid retention time and high biomass retention. Approximately 61.8%-77.5% of the total antibiotics were degraded, and 22.5%-38.2% of the total antibiotics were adsorbed by MBR sludge on average. The individual antibiotic removal presented intense discrepancy because of the chemical construction and distribution coefficient of antibiotics. Aeromonas exhibited specific antibiotic resistance to ampicillin and erythromycin, Escherichia became the predominant genera in kanamycin-ARB and tetracycline-ARB, and Klebsiella and Bacteroides were the particular genera that exhibited distinct antibiotic resistance to ciprofloxacin. A significant correlation was found between cell-free ARG abundance and ARB content, and relatively high effluent cell-free ARG abundance facilitated the proliferation and transmission of ARB. The impacts of the receiving environment to eliminate the ecological risks and severe threats to human health should be investigated because of the low decay ratio and long-term persistence of cell-free ARGs.

19.
Oral Oncol ; 102: 104563, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918174

RESUMO

Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity (OSCC) is predominantly managed with surgery. Post-operative radiotherapy (PORT) and chemoradiotherapy (POCRT) enhance disease control in OSCC patients with adverse anatomic and pathologic primary and nodal features. Knowledge about disease behavior, surgery and radiotherapy advances, and the emergence of new systemic agents prompt refinement of PORT volumes and POCRT regimens. Traditional and emerging prognostic models that include adverse histopathological features underpin such approaches. This review summarizes research over recent decades with emphasis on the 2015 to Feb 2019 period describing: (1) Indications for PORT and/or POCRT, addressing surgical "margin status" including the definition of a "clear" margin to permit withholding PORT/POCRT; these concepts include characterizing the specimen yielding these measurements, the optimal time point to assess these findings, and the putative value of a "revised margin" performed during the same operative procedure, (2) Emerging prognostic factors including nodal burden (total number of involved lymph nodes) and perineural invasion, (3) PORT volume design, dose/fractionation and optimal surgery-to-PORT interval, (4) Chemotherapy dose, schedule, and agents, and (5) On-going clinical trials involving systemic agents and combinations of chemotherapy with immunotherapy.

20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 92: 141-150, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) treatment takes a long time, and a gold standard test to define TB cure is lacking. This may lead to early discharge of TB patients, resulting in an increased risk of disease transmission and drug resistance. Plasma lncRNAs might act as potential biomarkers to evaluate TB cure in an efficient and precise manner. METHODS: A lncRNA microarray assay was used to screen differentially expressed plasma lncRNAs in untreated TB and cured TB subjects. The expression levels of lncRNAs were verified by qPCR. Target genes of lncRNAs were predicted using a coding-non-coding gene co-expression network and mRNA-lncRNA-miRNA interaction network analysis. RESULTS: The expression levels of lncRNAs uc.48+ (p < 0.001) and NR_105053 (p = 0.03) were found to differ significantly between the untreated TB group and the cured TB group. The predicted target genes of uc.48+ were EP300, BAI1 and NR_105053 were TLR9, MYD88, BAI1, respectively. A predictive model for cured TB was established by the combination of uc.48+ and NR_105053 expression, with a sensitivity of 90.00% and specificity of 86.36%, and an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.945. CONCLUSIONS: lncRNAs uc.48+ and NR_105053 may serve as potential biomarkers to distinguish between untreated TB patients and cured TB subjects. This study provides an experimental basis to evaluate the effect of TB treatment and may also provide new clues to the pathological mechanisms of TB.

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