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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112210, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479707

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Compound Danshen tablet, an herbal preparation consisting of salviae miltiorrhizae, notoginseng and borneolum, is extensively employed clinically to treat angina pectoris, coronary arteriosclerosis and significantly improve microcirculation. AIM OF THE STUDY: To reveal the potential underlying cardioprotective mechanism(s) in isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in high-fat-diet fed mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiac transcriptomics was analyzed by Illumina mRNA-Seq sequencing. The restored cardiovascular diseases (CVD)-related genes by Compound Danshen tablet were validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, Cardiac metabolomics were also performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: From the transcriptomics study, we found the levels of 24 up-regulated and 44 down-regulated genes in the control compared to model groups. Among them, seven gene levels were restored by treatment of Compound Danshen tablet. Four CVD-related genes at the mRNA level (Sprr1a, Ppp1r3c, Bmp10 and Hspa1b) were validated successfully by qRT-PCR. From the metabolomics study, 37 differentially expressed metabolites were identified between the control and model groups. Among them, 21 metabolites were restored by treatment of Compound Danshen tablet. These altered metabolites are involved in glucose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and amino acid metabolism. CONCLUSION: These genes and metabolites might provide clues for further molecular mechanistic study of Compound Danshen tablet.

2.
Nanotechnology ; 31(2): 025205, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553959

RESUMO

In this work, the first observation of the space charge limited conduction mechanism (SCLC) in GaAsSb nanowires (NWs) grown by Ga-assisted molecular beam epitaxial technique, and the effect of ultra-high vacuum in situ annealing have been investigated. The low onset voltage of the SCLC in the NW configuration has been advantageously exploited to extract trap density and trap distribution in the bandgap of this material system, using simple temperature dependent current-voltage measurements in both the ensemble and single nanowires. In situ annealing in ultra-high vacuum revealed significant reduction in the trap density from 1016 cm-3 in as-grown NWs to a low level of 7 × 1014 cm-3 and confining wider trap distribution to a single trap depth at 0.12 eV. A comparison of current conduction mechanism in the respective single nanowires using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) further confirms the SCLC mechanism identified in GaAsSb ensemble device to be intrinsic. Higher current observed in current mapping by C-AFM, increased 4 K photoluminescence (PL) intensity along with reduced full-width half maxima and more symmetric PL spectra, and reduced asymmetrical broadening with increased TO/LO mode in room temperature Raman spectra for in situ annealed NWs again attest to effective annihilation of traps leading to the improved optical quality of NWs compared to as-grown NWs. Hence, the I-V-T analysis of the SCLC mechanism has been demonstrated as a simple approach to obtain information on growth induced traps in the NWs.

3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 147: 111755, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630032

RESUMO

In cell signal transduction pathways, a series of biochemical reactions and interactions between proteins guarantee physiological responses indicating cell functionality. However, there are a variety of upstream and downstream signal molecules in these pathways with multiple levels of cross-regulation, making it difficult to sequential visualize their relationships in living organisms in complex environments. To investigate the interrelationships among intracellular signaling pathways, a Au-Se bonded nanoprobe with extraordinary stability and strong anti-interference ability was designed and prepared to monitor the evolution of two kinds of apoptosis biomarkers in real time. Two different peptide chains decorated with two dyes were functionalized on the surface of Au nanoparticles (NPs) via Au-Se bonds. These peptide chains can be respectively cleaved by upstream cathepsin B proteins and downstream caspase-3 proteins to trigger fluorescence recovery. Moreover, when the living cells were stimulated to induce the apoptotic pathway, cathepsin B and caspase-3 were activated in turn with signals sequentially recovered at 2 and 4 h, respectively. This fluorescent nanoprobe can be used in complicated biological systems to achieve real-time in situ monitoring of the sequential activation of signal molecules in intracellular pathways and provides a novel approach for the future investigation of protein interactions in vivo.

4.
Gene ; 722: 144127, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525397

RESUMO

Complement factor H (CFH) serves as a major down-regulator in the complement system, often utilized by bacterial pathogens to evade complement attack. Yet, little is currently known about the genetic correlation of CFH polymorphisms with sepsis due to various microbial infections. A case-control method (488 septic patients and 527 healthy individuals) was carried out in this study to investigate the genetic relationship between CFH polymorphisms (rs3753394 C/T, rs1065489 G/T and rs1061170 C/T) and susceptibility to sepsis caused by bacterial infections in Chinese Han populations. Our findings indicated that the frequency of rs3753394 CT/TT genotype in the septic patients with P. aeruginosa was significantly higher than that in the control individuals (P = 0.033, OR = 2.668, 95%CI = 1.072-6.334). The rs3753394 T allele frequency in the P. aeruginosa-infected patients was significantly increased, compared to that in the healthy controls (P = 0.014, OR = 1.68, 95%CI = 1.118-2.538). Moreover, these significant differences of rs3753394 genotype and allele frequencies remained after multiple testing corrections [P (corr.) = 0.033 for genotype; P (corr.) = 0.033 for allele]. The current study highlighted the significance of CFH polymorphism rs3753394 as a potential biomarker for targeting P. aeruginosa infection in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Infecções por Pseudomonas/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Sepse/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/etnologia , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/etnologia , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/etnologia , Sepse/microbiologia
5.
J Cell Biochem ; 121(1): 743-754, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478239

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a common malignancy originated from the digestive system worldwide, has a poor clinical outcome. SPOCK1 is a widely investigated member of the Ca2+ -binding proteoglycan family and functions as an essential driver in several cancers. However, the complex regulatory role of SPOCK1 in PDAC is unclear. Bioinformatics analysis predicted an interrelationship between increased SPOCK1 expression and the clinical characteristics of patients with PDAC. The SPOCK1 expression levels in fresh tissue samples were confirmed, and SPOCK1 expression was then knocked down by lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA. Cell proliferation, metastasis, and apoptosis were detected through Cell Counting Kit-8, colony formation assays, invasion and migration assays, flow cytometric analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot experiment. On the basis of the Cancer Genome Atlas database, we found a significantly higher level of SPOCK1 in PDAC than in adjacent nontumor tissues. Patients with PDAC with high SPOCK1 expression exhibited shorter overall survival time, as well as disease-free survival time. The knockdown of SPOCK1 significantly decreased the proliferation and metastasis of PCNA-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells. Moreover, the knockdown of SPOCK1 led to cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and increased the proportion of apoptotic PDAC cells by regulating members of the caspase and Bcl-2 families. Our data proved that SPOCK1 is a critical regulator of tumor proliferation and metastasis in PDAC cells. Therefore, SPOCK1 might be a potential prognostic and therapeutic target molecule in PDAC.

6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1179: 71-107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741334

RESUMO

More than 95% of adult infected with HBV show acute self-limited infection and eventually eliminate the virus. In contrast, about 90% of people exposed to HBV in early childhood develop chronic infection. The specificity of the virus and the host's antiviral immune responses together determine the outcome of HBV infection. It is generally believed that viral genome variation, viral titers, and inhibition of viral components against the host immune system are associated with persistent infection and liver damage. The dysfunction of innate immune cells (NK cells, monocyte/macrophages, NKT cells, etc.) and adaptive immune cells (antigen-presenting cells, T cells, B cells) is a key factor leading to virus clearance failure and liver inflammation. In this chapter, we summarize these viral factors and host factors in acute and chronic hepatitis B and update recent understanding of the immune-tolerant phase and pathological mechanisms associated with age and vertical transmission. This will help us to understand more fully the mechanisms of chronic HBV infection and liver injury and to develop combined treatment strategies of direct antiviral drugs for HBV life cycle and immunomodulators.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Carga Viral
7.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2521-2525, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492271

RESUMO

A novel blue-emitting Mg2La8(SiO4)6O2:Ce3+ phosphor with apatite-type nanostructure has been successfully synthesized via a conventional solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were used to characterize the as-prepared samples. The phosphor exhibited an absorption band ranging from 220 to 400 nm in the ultraviolet range and generated bright blue emission at 425 nm and 510 nm under different excitation wavelengths. The critical Ce3+ quenching concentration (QC) was determined to be about 7 mol%, and the corresponding QC mechanism was verified to be the dipole-dipole interactions.

8.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104414, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705950

RESUMO

Six new triterpenoids, pseudolarins A-F (1-6), were isolated from the twigs of Pseudolarix amabilis, together with four known triterpenoids (7-10) and five known diterpenoids (11-15). Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 is a 3,4:9,10-diseco-cycloartane triterpenoid possessing an unprecedented 5/5/7/6/5/6/5 ring system. Compounds 1, 5, 7, 9-11, and 13 showed inhibition against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in vitro.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696999

RESUMO

To assess the spectrum of pediatric clinical phenotypes in TJP2 disease, we reviewed records of our seven patients in whom intrahepatic cholestasis was associated with biallelic TJP2 variants (13; 12 novel) and correlated clinical manifestations with mutation type. The effect of a splicing variant was analyzed with a minigene assay. The effects of three missense variants were analyzed with protein expression in vitro. Our patients had both remitting and persistent cholestasis. Three exhibited growth retardation. Six responded to treatment with cholestyramine, ursodeoxycholic acid, or both. Two had cholecystolithiasis. None required liver transplantation or developed hepatocellular or cholangiocellular malignancy. None manifested extrahepatic disease not attributable to effects of cholestasis. The variant c.2180-5T>G resulted in exon 15 skipping with in-frame deletion of 32 amino acid residues in TJP2. The three missense variants decreased but did not abolish TJP2 expression. Patients with truncating or canonical splice-site variants had clinically more severe disease. TJP2 disease in children includes a full clinical spectrum of severity, with mild or intermittent forms as well as the severe and minimal forms hitherto described. Biallelic TJP2 variants must be considered in children with clinically intermittent or resolved intrahepatic cholestasis.

10.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 142: 105153, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740393

RESUMO

Both entecavir and crizotinib are substrates of organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2). The aim of present study was to investigate the mechanisms of drug interactions between these two drugs. Kinetic analysis of entecavir on crizotinib uptake was conduct. Plasma concentration of crizotinib in rats and lung cancer patients, uptake of crizotinib in kidney slices and OCT2 transfected cells, were determined by LC-MS/MS. The clinical pharmacokinetic interactions and impact on adverse reaction of crizotinib in lung cancer patients were investigated. Steady-state through concentration of crizotinib was measured. The crizotinib-related adverse reactions were recorded in lung cancer patients with and without entecavir. Entecavir and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide significantly inhibited the uptake of crizotinib in kidney slices. Kinetic constants for crizotinib uptake by OCT2 were Km 1.16 ± 0.26 µM, Vmax 12.05 ± 0.53 µmol/min mg-1 protein and Ki 9.711 nM. Entecavir can inhibit crizotinib transport by OCT2 in kidney. Co-administration of entecavir significantly reduced the elimination of crizotinib in rats. In lung cancer patients, the steady-state AUCss of crizotinib increased approximately 1.2 fold (p < 0.05) but clearance was decreased by approximately 15% in the presence of entecavir. Steady-state through concentration of crizotinib significantly increased 1.3-fold when co-administrated with entecavir (p>0.001). Co-medication of entecavir significantly (p < 0.05) increased the risks of vision disorders, diarrhea and vomiting 1.6-, 2.3- and 1.8-fold. Entecavir could increase the exposure and reduce the elimination of crizotinib in lung cancer patients. Moreover, the presence of entecavir could significantly increase the incidences of adverse reaction of crizotinib.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774667

RESUMO

n-Doped conjugated polymers usually show low electrical conductivities and low thermoelectric power factors, limiting their applications in n-type organic thermoelectrics. Here, we report the synthesis of a new diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) derivative, pyrazine-flanked DPP (PzDPP), with the deepest LUMO level in all the reported DPP derivatives. Based on PzDPP, a donor-acceptor copolymer P(PzDPP-CT2) is synthesized. The polymer displays a deep LUMO energy level and strong interchain interaction with a short π-π stacking distance of 3.38 Å. When doped with n-dopant N-DMBI, P(PzDPP-CT2) exhibits high n-type electrical conductivities of up to 8.4 S cm-1 and power factors of up to 57.3 µW m-1 K-2. These values are much higher than previously reported n-doped DPP polymers, and the power factor also ranks the highest in solution-processable n-doped conjugated polymers. These results suggest that PzDPP is a promising high-performance building block for n-type organic thermoelectrics, and also highlight that without sacrificing polymer interchain interactions, efficient n-doping can be realized in conjugated polymers with careful molecular engineering.

12.
Fertil Steril ; 2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of FGFR1, FGF8, and FGF17 mutations in a Chinese cohort with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and to characterize the clinical presentations and therapeutic outcomes of IHH patients with FGFR1, FGF8, and FGF17 mutations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): A total of 145 IHH probands (125 men and 20 women) were recruited for this study. INTERVENTIONS(S): Hormone assays. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Whole-exome sequencing, polymerase chain reaction-Sanger sequencing, in silico functional prediction. RESULT(S): Six novel mutations (p.154_158del, p.E496Rfs*12, p.W190X, p.S134D, p.W10X, and c.1552 + 3insT) in FGFR1, two novel mutations (p.E176K and p.R184C) in FGF8, three novel mutations (p.48_52del, p.P120L, and p.K191R) in FGF17, and five reported mutations (p.W289X, p.G237S, p.V102I, p.R250Q, and p.T340M) in FGFR1 were identified in 18 IHH patients. The functional consequences of all mutations were analyzed in silico. In addition to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, 44.4% (8/18) patients exhibited other clinical deformities, including dental agenesis (3/18, 16.7%), hearing loss (3/18, 16.7%), and hand malformation (2/18, 11.1%). hCG/hMG therapy was effective in promoting sexual development in IHH patients with FGFR1, FGF8, and FGF17 mutations. CONCLUSION(S): We extended the mutational spectrum of FGFR1, FGF8, and FGF17 in IHH patients. The prevalence of FGFR1, FGF8, and FGF17 mutations in IHH was 12.4%. hCG/hMG therapy was effective to acquire fertility for patients with FGFR1, FGF8, and FGF17 mutations but has a risk of transmitting the mutations and IHH to the next generation.

13.
Ann Hematol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748925

RESUMO

Difficulty in regularly analyzing marrow myeloma cells (MMCs) and low frequency of circulating myeloma cells (CMCs) in blood presents challenges for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD) in multiple myeloma (MM). We have developed a set of method for enrichment of CMCs by immunomagetic beads (IMB) combined with flow cytometry (IMB-FCM) based on CD38-APC/CD138-APC antibodies in U266-spiked samples and in 122 patient samples. U266 cell capture efficiency of CD38/CD138-IMB-FCM (6.960, 2.574) was 6- and 2-fold higher than that of FCM (1.032), and the sensitivity of FCM and IMB-FCM was 0.01% and 0.001%, respectively. In MM cohort, the positive rate of CMCs by IMB-FCM increased from 60.5~70.0 to 85~87.2% in newly diagnosed/relapsed and partial remission (PR) patients compared with by FCM (P < 0.05). Two complete remission (CR) patients contain certain amounts of CMCs by IMB-FCM while no CMCs and MMCs were detectable by FCM. Patients exhibiting PR and CR upon therapy had much lower CMC and MMC counts than newly diagnosed/relapsed patients (P < 0.005). Based on MRD measurement in BM and PB samples, all FCM-negative BM samples were also paired with FCM/IMB-FCM-negative PB samples among newly diagnosed, relapsed, and PR patients, and FCM-positive BM samples were accompanied by IMB-FCM-positive results in 88% of corresponding PB samples. CMCs strongly associated with other clinical biomarkers of disease burden, including elevated MMCs, ß2-MG, sCrea, and DS and ISS stages, and more serious anemia, bone destruction, and renal impairment (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that elevated ß2-MG and moderate-to-more anemia were significant risk factors for the presence of CMCs (P < 0.05). As a noninvasive "liquid biopsy" of monitoring MRD, the potential of IMB-FCM for CMC detection may complement or minimize bone marrow aspiration in future treatment of MM patients.

14.
J Food Sci ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750940

RESUMO

Aroma assessment remains difficult and uncertain in the present sensory assessment system. It is highly desirable to develop a new assessment method to discriminate the quality of various teas in the tea market. In the present work, based on linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis, the aroma of dry and wet samples of different Xi-hu Longjing and Pu-erh teas were tested and differentiated by electronic noses (e-nose). The results confirm that e-nose can discriminate different priced Xi-hu Longjing tea samples in the range of 80-800 RMB/500 g and varying storage years of Pu-erh tea samples. Furthermore, for the detection of both dry and wet samples of Longjing and Pu-erh teas, the results reveal that all samples have specific aroma characteristics that e-nose can recognize. More importantly, contribution analysis in sensors indicates that nitrogen oxides, methane and alcohols are the characteristic components that contribute to the fragrances of different priced Xi-hu Longjing teas, while nitrogen oxides, aromatic benzene and amines make the fragrances of Pu-erh teas with different storage years disparate. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This work demonstrates that e-nose can rapidly distinguish tea products with different price levels and varying storage years. With the advantages of ease of use, high portability and flexibility, e-nose will be widely expanded and applied in refined processing and the development of flavored foods.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751267

RESUMO

Semantic object part segmentation is a fundamental task in object understanding and geometric analysis. The clear understanding of part relationships can be of great use to the segmentation process. In this work, we propose a novel Ordinal Multi-task Part Segmentation (OMPS) approach which explicitly models the part ordinal relationship to guide the segmentation process in a recurrent manner. Quantitative and qualitative experiments are conducted first to explore the mutual impacts among object parts and then an ordinal part inference algorithm is formulated via experimental observations. Specifically, our framework is mainly composed of two modules, the forward module to segment multiple parts as individual subtasks with prior knowledge, and the recurrent module to generate appropriate part priors with the ordinal inference algorithm. These two modules work iteratively to optimize the segmentation performance and the network parameters. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art models on human and vehicle part parsing benchmarks. Comprehensive evaluations are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in object part segmentation.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17290, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754224

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is one of the most common metabolic bone disease among pre- and postmenopausal women. As the precursors of osteoclast cells, circulating monocytes play important role in bone destruction and remodeling. The aim of study is to identify potential key genes and pathways correlated with the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Then we construct novel estimation model closely linked to the bone mineral density (BMD) with key genes. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) were conducted by collecting gene data set with 80 samples from gene expression omnibus (GEO) database. Besides, hub genes were identified by series of bioinformatics and machine learning algorithms containing protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, receiver operating characteristic curve and Pearson correlation. The direction of correlation coefficient were performed to screen for gene signatures with high BMD and low BMD. A novel BMD score system was put forward based on gene set variation analysis and logistic regression, which was validated by independent data sets. We identified six modules correlated with BMD. Finally 100 genes were identified as the high bone mineral density signatures while 130 genes were identified as low BMD signatures. Besides, we identified the significant pathway in monocytes: ribonucleoprotein complex biogenesis. What's more, our score validated it successfully.

17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1584-1592, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682199

RESUMO

The genetic and/or antigenic differences between street rabies virus (RABV) and vaccine strains could potentially affect effectiveness of rabies vaccines. As such, it is important to continue monitoring the glycoprotein (G) of the street isolates. All RABVG sequences in public database were retrieved and analysed. Using a pseudovirus system, we investigated 99 naturally occurring mutants for their reactivities to well-characterized neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and vaccine-induced antisera. A divergence in G sequences was found between vaccine strains and recent street isolates, with mutants demonstrating resistance to neutralizing mAbs and vaccine-induced antibodies. Moreover, antigenic variants were observed in a wide range of animal hosts and geographic locations, with most of them emerging since 2010. As the number of antigenic variants has increased in recent years, close monitoring on street isolates should be strengthened.

18.
Dalton Trans ; 48(45): 17022-17028, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693037

RESUMO

Mixed transition metal oxides with favorable electrochemical properties are promising electrode materials in energy storage and conversion systems. In this work, uniform porous yolk-shell MnCo2O4 (denoted as YSM-MCO) microrugby balls have been synthesized by simple annealing treatment of metal carbonates with a microrugby ball shape in air. Benefiting from the desired porous structure and composition, the as-synthesized YSM-MCO exhibits enhanced electrochemical performance when investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries and electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction. The YSM-MCO demonstrates remarkable lithium storage properties with a good cycling stability (94% capacity retention over 200 cycles at 0.5 A g-1) and superior rate capability (414 mA h g-1 at 5 A g-1). In addition, the YSM-MCO also exhibits better OER activity than most of the reported MnCo2O4-based electrocatalysts.

19.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 102: 103451, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the majority of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest occur at patients' homes, implementing high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation by family members is critical in improving patient outcomes. However, the survival rate remains low due to low bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rate and rapid skill deterioration in individuals who complete the training. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of audio-visual review model and audio-visual-practice review model on cardiopulmonary resuscitation skill retention 12 months after training. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, and three-arm parallel study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 641 family members of patients at high risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest enrolled in the study and 448 participants completed the follow-up. METHODS: Family members from Beijing, China were recruited. All families underwent initial cardiopulmonary resuscitation training. Their cardiopulmonary resuscitation skill and knowledge were assessed immediately after training. Trainees who were rated "adequate skill and knowledge" were assigned randomly into one of three groups. The control group was given a cardiopulmonary resuscitation instruction booklet and a placebo-DVD without any reminders. Both audio-visual and audio-visual-practice groups were reinforced by a telephone reminder every 3 months. The audio-visual-practice group was also asked to simultaneously practice the skills while watching the instructional-DVD. The trainees' cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills and knowledge were re-assessed 12 months after training. RESULTS: The retention rates of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills in both audio-visual-practice (N = 177) and audio-visual (N = 157) groups were higher than that in control group (N = 114) 12 months after training (all P-values  < 0.001). The cardiopulmonary resuscitation skill retention rate in audio-visual-practice group was higher than that in audio-visual group (49.7% vs 36.9%, P = 0.019), but no difference was found in intention-to-treat analysis (32.1% vs 27.1%, P = 0.230). Both audio-visual-practice and audio-visual groups had higher correct rates on all skill elements than that in control group (all P-values < 0.05). The cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge scores in both audio-visual-practice and audio-visual groups were higher than that in control group (all P-values < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found between audio-visual-practice and audio-visual groups (P = 0.243). CONCLUSIONS: Both audio-visual-practice and audio-visual review models demonstrated better long-term retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills for families of people at higher risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. (Registration number: chiCTR-TRC-12002149).

20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743712

RESUMO

In this study, a novel matrix protein (teosin) was isolated from Hyriopsis cumingii. Gene expression analysis showed that teosin is mainly expressed in the mantle and blood, and a hybridization signal was found in dorsal epithelial cells of the mantle pallial by in situ hybridization. Moreover, teosin expression during pearl formation indicated its participation in initial nacreous layer biomineralization, and suppressing teosin expression resulted in irregular crystal morphology and disordered arrangement in RNAi assay. In vitro crystallization assays indicated teosin could increase the size of calcite. By turning the sample stage about 15°, we got the high-resolution TEM images of the crystals' edges. This is a novel method to observe the crystal which is over 200nm under TEM. In the control experiment group, the calcite show the character of long range order. The calcite induced by teosin were composed of nano-grains, and the polycrystal character were confirmed by EDS. These results suggested that teosin is involved in regulating crystal morphology regulation and inducing polycrystal formation during nacreous-layer formation.

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