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1.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 959, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The classification of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 4A (BI-RADS 4A) lesions is mostly based on the personal experience of doctors and lacks specific and clear classification standards. The development of artificial intelligence (AI) provides a new method for BI-RADS categorisation. We analysed the ultrasonic morphological and texture characteristics of BI-RADS 4A benign and malignant lesions using AI, and these ultrasonic characteristics of BI-RADS 4A benign and malignant lesions were compared to examine the value of AI in the differential diagnosis of BI-RADS 4A benign and malignant lesions. METHODS: A total of 206 lesions of BI-RADS 4A examined using ultrasonography were analysed retrospectively, including 174 benign lesions and 32 malignant lesions. All of the lesions were contoured manually, and the ultrasonic morphological and texture features of the lesions, such as circularity, height-to-width ratio, margin spicules, margin coarseness, margin indistinctness, margin lobulation, energy, entropy, grey mean, internal calcification and angle between the long axis of the lesion and skin, were calculated using grey level gradient co-occurrence matrix analysis. Differences between benign and malignant lesions of BI-RADS 4A were analysed. RESULTS: Significant differences in margin lobulation, entropy, internal calcification and ALS were noted between the benign group and malignant group (P = 0.013, 0.045, 0.045, and 0.002, respectively). The malignant group had more margin lobulations and lower entropy compared with the benign group, and the benign group had more internal calcifications and a greater angle between the long axis of the lesion and skin compared with the malignant group. No significant differences in circularity, height-to-width ratio, margin spicules, margin coarseness, margin indistinctness, energy, and grey mean were noted between benign and malignant lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the naked eye, AI can reveal more subtle differences between benign and malignant BI-RADS 4A lesions. These results remind us carefully observation of the margin and the internal echo is of great significance. With the help of morphological and texture information provided by AI, doctors can make a more accurate judgment on such atypical benign and malignant lesions.

2.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(11): 590, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025277

RESUMO

Based on the hydrogel-AuNP supramolecular sphere (H-Au), a label-free and real-time surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensor has been developed for highly sensitive and specific determination of prostate cancer cell-derived exosomes. After integrating the signal amplification effect of the mass cumulative hydrogel and the LSPR effect of AuNPs with high specific aptamer, the SPRi biosensor for exosome detection exhibited a wide linear range from 1.00 × 105 to 1.00 × 107 particles/mL with a limit of detection of 1.00 × 105 particles/mL. Most importantly, with a strong correlation between the SPRi signal and the t-PSA value measured by the clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay, this biosensor displayed excellent practicability for human serum analysis, which exhibits great potential applications in disease diagnosis and bioanalysis. Prostate cancer has been one of the most threatening diseases in human life and health nowadays. In particular, as cancer metastasizes, it is more likely to cause fracture, paraplegia, and even fatal consequences. However, the predominant t-PSA test needs further improvement for the deficiencies of limited specificity and sensitivity, which is prone to false positive. As one of the noninvasive markers of liquid biopsies, exosome has the potential to be a substitute for t-PSA, which can provide specific and predictive information in disease diagnosis and prognosis. Herein, based on the hydrogel-AuNP supramolecular sphere (H-Au), a label-free and real-time surface plasmon resonance biosensor has been developed for highly sensitive and specific detection of prostate cancer cell-derived exosomes. After integrating the signal amplification effect of mass cumulative hydrogel and LSPR effect of AuNPs with high specific aptamer, this developed SPRi biosensor for exosome detection exhibited a wide linear range from 1.00 × 105 to 1.00 × 107 particles/mL with a limit of detection down to 1.00 × 105 particles/mL. Most importantly, with a strong correlation between the SPRi signal and the t-PSA value measured by the clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay, this biosensor displayed excellent practicability in human serum, which exhibited great potential applications in disease diagnosis and bioanalysis.

3.
Behav Brain Res ; : 112949, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053385

RESUMO

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism may modulate the link between childhood trauma experience and psychopathology by altering trophic signaling on neuroplasticity. However, few multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) researches have investigated this gene-environment interaction on both structural and functional plasticity, thereby advancing knowledge about the etiology, prevention, and customized therapeutic directions of mental disease in individuals with childhood trauma experience. We recruited a large non-clinical sample of young adults that completed Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), behavioral scores, multimodal MRI scans, and genotyping. Morphometric similarity network (MSN) and independent component analysis were adopted to quantify brain structural and functional changes. Gene-environment-brain-behavior relationships were identified by multiple regression and mediation effect analysis. CTQ score was positively associated with depression and anxiety scores. We found interactions on MSN in sensorimotor, temporal, and orbitofrontal cortex. For intra-network connectivity, significant interaction was noted in clusters within sensorimotor network. For inter-network connectivity, connectivity between dorsal attention network and salience network showed an interactive effect. For mean connectivity strength of each network, we found a main effect of CTQ score on self-reference network that was an outstanding mediator supporting the relationship between CTQ score and anxiety. Our findings demonstrate that childhood trauma and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism are associated with brain plasticity involving emotion regulation, structurally and functionally, which may contribute to understanding psychotic mechanisms and predicting differential susceptibility. Imaging genetics may be useful as biomarkers to provide early assessment and guide cognitive interventions to avoid or decrease the risk of developing psychopathology.

4.
Sci Adv ; 6(42)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067228

RESUMO

Medulloblastoma (MB), the most common form of pediatric brain malignancy, has a low frequency of oncogenic mutations but pronouncedly abnormal DNA methylation changes. Epigenetic analysis of circulating cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) by liquid biopsy offers an approach for real-time monitoring of tumor status without tumor dissection. In this study, we identified 6598 differentially methylated CpGs in both MB tumors and the ctDNA isolated from matched cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared with normal cerebellum, which could be used to detect MB tumor occurrence and determine its subtype. Furthermore, DNA methylation changes in serial CSF samples could be used to monitor the treatment response and tumor recurrence. Integrating our data with large public datasets, we identified reliable MB DNA methylation signatures in ctDNA that have potential diagnostic and prognostic values. Our study sets the stage for exploiting epigenetic markers in CSF to improve the clinical management of patients with MB.

5.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e037888, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067283

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common injuries of the knee. ACL reconstruction (ACLR) has been widely performed as a safe and effective treatment for ACL injuries. As there is an increasing trend in the incidence of ACL injury, hospital readmission after ACLR has attracted renewed attention for the financial burden to both patients and the healthcare system. However, information about hospital readmission after ACLR remains fragmented. Therefore, we plan to systematically review the literature to investigate the rate of, causes and risk factors for hospital readmission after ACLR, and summarise interventions to reduce hospital readmission. This article is to provide the protocol for an upcoming systematic review and meta-analysis on this important issue. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Reporting of this protocol follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) checklist. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library, will be systematically searched from inception to June 2020. No language restrictions will be applied. Studies will be included if they reported hospital readmission or explored the associated potential causes and risk factors for hospital readmission after ACLR. The primary outcome will be the number and time frame of hospital readmission after ACLR. Secondary outcomes will be reasons for readmission, number and types of complications, risk factors for readmission and preventive measures for readmission after ACLR. Quality assessments will be performed by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). If possible, study results will be summarised in a forest plot, and heterogeneity will be tested by using the Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethical approval is required because our study is not related to patients or animals. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020058624.

6.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(10): 1047-51, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the immediate effect of acupuncture and moxibustion at Guanyuan (CV 4) and Zusanli (ST 36) on heart rate variability index in patients with qi deficiency syndrome. METHODS: Ninety patients with qi deficiency syndrome were randomly divided into an acupuncture group, a moxibustion group and a blank group, 30 patients in each group. The patients in the acupuncture group were treated with acupuncture at Guanyuan (CV 4) and Zusanli (ST 36) for 15 min; acupuncture was given once. The patients in the moxibustion group were treated with moxibustion with identical acupoints and treatment duration. The patients in the blank group received no intervention. The symptom scores of qi deficiency syndrome in each group before and after treatment were recorded. The average heart rate and index of heart rate variability including total power, low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and logarithm of LF/HF (log LF/HF) were tested 5 min before treatment, 5 min, 10 min, 15 min into treatment, and 5 min after treatment. RESULTS: The symptom scores of qi deficiency syndrome were reduced in the acupuncture group and moxibustion group after treatment (P<0.05). Compared before treatment, in the acupuncture group, the HF was increased 5 min into treatment (P<0.05), but was reduced 15 min into treatment and 5 min after treatment (P<0.05, P<0.01). The log LF/HF was increased 5 min and 10 min into treatment and 5 min after treatment (P<0.01). The difference of average heart rate between 5 min before treatment and 5 min after treatment in the acupuncture group was higher than that in the moxibustion group and blank group (P<0.05), and the difference of log LF/HF was higher than that in the moxibustion group and blank group (P<0.05, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture and moxibustion has immediate effects on heart rate variability in patients with qi deficiency syndrome, and the effect of acupuncture is superior to moxibustion, which may be related to the benign regulation of acupuncture on autonomic nervous system.

7.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 719, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flammulina filiformis (previously known as Asian F. velutipes) is a popular commercial edible mushroom. Many bioactive compounds with medicinal effects, such as polysaccharides and sesquiterpenoids, have been isolated and identified from F. filiformis, but their biosynthesis and regulation at the molecular level remains unclear. In this study, we sequenced the genome of the wild strain F. filiformis Liu355, predicted its biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) and profiled the expression of these genes in wild and cultivar strains and in different developmental stages of the wild F. filiformis strain by a comparative transcriptomic analysis. RESULTS: We found that the genome of the F. filiformis was 35.01 Mb in length and harbored 10,396 gene models. Thirteen putative terpenoid gene clusters were predicted and 12 sesquiterpene synthase genes belonging to four different groups and two type I polyketide synthase gene clusters were identified in the F. filiformis genome. The number of genes related to terpenoid biosynthesis was higher in the wild strain (119 genes) than in the cultivar strain (81 genes). Most terpenoid biosynthesis genes were upregulated in the primordium and fruiting body of the wild strain, while the polyketide synthase genes were generally upregulated in the mycelium of the wild strain. Moreover, genes encoding UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, which are involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis, had relatively high transcript levels both in the mycelium and fruiting body of the wild F. filiformis strain. CONCLUSIONS: F. filiformis is enriched in a number of gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides and terpenoid bioactive compounds and these genes usually display differential expression between wild and cultivar strains, even in different developmental stages. This study expands our knowledge of the biology of F. filiformis and provides valuable data for elucidating the regulation of secondary metabolites in this unique F. filiformis strain.

8.
J Comp Eff Res ; 9(14): 1003-1015, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028076

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of polatuzumab vedotin (pola) + bendamustine + rituximab (BR) in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma based on the GO29365 trial from a US payer's perspective. Materials & methods: A partitioned survival model used progression-free survival and overall survival data from the GO29365 trial. The base case analysis assumed overall survival was informed by progression-free survival; a mixture cure model estimated proportion of long-term survivors. Results: In the base case, pola + BR was cost-effective versus BR at US$35,864 per quality-adjusted life year gained. Probabilistic and one-way sensitivity analyses showed that the findings were robust. Conclusion: Pola + BR is cost-effective versus BR for the treatment of transplant-ineligible relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the US.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is associated with matrix changes, biochemical changes, and inflammatory markers like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß). However, the exact mechanism remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of IL-1ß, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, and elastic fibre fracture in the development of TAD in a rat model. METHODS: The TAD rat model was induced by ß-aminopropionitrile (BAPN). TAD was investigated in 112 male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were equally divided into four groups of 28 rats (Control, BAPN, BAPN + IL-1ß, and BAPN + IL-1ß antibody). Systolic blood pressure, survival, and the development of TAD were measured after six weeks. Expression of IL-1ß, MMP-2, and MMP-9 was measured by Western blot. Apoptosis, aortic elastin concentration, and biomechanical characteristics were measured by the TdT mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay, Victoria blue staining, and in vitro testing. RESULTS: During six weeks, the mortality was 0% (0/28) in the control group, 53.6% (15/28) in the BAPN group (p < .001 compared with the control group), 75.0% (21/28) in the BAPN + IL-1ß group (p = .007 compared with the BAPN group), and 35.7% (10/28) in the BAPN + IL-1ß antibody group (p = .023 compared with BAPN group and p < .001 compared with the BAPN + IL-1ß group). IL-1ß treatment deteriorates BAPN induced mortality and aneurysm expansion, which were attenuated by anti-IL-1ß treatment. In BAPN + IL-1ß group, stress and strain parameters were decreased by 13.5%-53.5% and elastin content was decreased by 14%, and IL-1ß, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were expressed higher by 117%, 108%, and 75% when compared with the rats in the BAPN group. Contrarily, in the BAPN + IL-1ß antibody group, the above changes could be completely (strain, elastin content, and expression of MMP-2) or partly (elasticity modulus, stress, and expression of MMP-9) blocked by anti-IL-1ß treatment. CONCLUSION: IL-1ß plays a critical role in TAD formation by altering the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, degrading the aortic wall matrix, causing elastic fibre rupture, and changing the stress or strain of the aortic wall. Anti-IL-1ß reduces the later effects and could be one of the molecular targets for prognosis and drug treatment of TAD in the future.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16431, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009429

RESUMO

Mandibular tumors and radical oral cancer surgery often cause bone dysmorphia and defects. Most patients present with noticeable mandibular deformations, and doctors often have difficulty determining their exact mandibular morphology. In this study, a deep convolutional generative adversarial network (DCGAN) called CTGAN is proposed to complete 3D mandibular cone beam computed tomography data from CT data. After extensive training, CTGAN was tested on 6 mandibular tumor cases, resulting in 3D virtual mandibular completion. We found that CTGAN can generate mandibles with different levels and rich morphology, including positional and angular changes and local patterns. The completion results are shown as tomographic images combining generated and natural areas. The 3D generated mandibles have the anatomical morphology of the real mandibles and transition smoothly to the portions without disease, showing that CTGAN constructs mandibles with the expected patient characteristics and is suitable for mandibular morphological completion. The presented modeling principles can be applied to other areas for 3D morphological completion from medical images.Clinical trial registration: This study is not a clinical trial. Patient data were only used for testing in a virtual environment. The use of the digital data used in this study was ethically approved.

11.
Sci Adv ; 6(41)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036977

RESUMO

Toxic aggregated amyloid-ß accumulation is a key pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which derives from amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavage by BACE1 (ß-site APP cleavage enzyme 1) and γ-secretase. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) show great promise for AD therapy by specific silencing of BACE1. However, lack of effective siRNA brain delivery approaches limits this strategy. Here, we developed a glycosylated "triple-interaction" stabilized polymeric siRNA nanomedicine (Gal-NP@siRNA) to target BACE1 in APP/PS1 transgenic AD mouse model. Gal-NP@siRNA exhibits superior blood stability and can efficiently penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via glycemia-controlled glucose transporter-1 (Glut1)-mediated transport, thereby ensuring that siRNAs decrease BACE1 expression and modify relative pathways. Noticeably, Gal-NP@siBACE1 administration restored the deterioration of cognitive capacity in AD mice without notable side effects. This "Trojan horse" strategy supports the utility of RNA interference therapy in neurodegenerative diseases.

12.
Arch Microbiol ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040180

RESUMO

Bacterial pathogens are a major threat to both humans and animals worldwide. It is crucial to understand the mechanisms of various disease processes at the molecular level. Shewanella species are widespread in the environment and some are considered as emerging opportunistic human and marine mammal pathogens. In this study, putative virulence factors on the genome of Shewanella indica BW, a bacterium isolated from the Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni), were determined. Additionally, for comparative purposes, putative virulence factors from two other S. indica and ten S. algae strains were also determined using the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC) pipeline. We confirmed the presence of previously reported virulence factors and we are proposing several new candidate virulence factors. Interestingly, the putative virulence factors were very similar between the two species with the exception of microbial collagenase which was present in all S. algae genomes, but absent in all S. indica genomes.

13.
Zool Res ; : 1-29, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045777

RESUMO

The emerging virus SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic, and understanding its pathogenesis and host antiviral immunity is critical for the development of vaccines and antivirals. Mice are frequently used to generate animal models of infectious diseases due to their convenience and ability to undergo genetic manipulation. However, normal adult mice are not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we developed a viral receptor (human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, hACE2) pulmonary transfection mouse model to rapidly establish SARS-CoV-2 infection in the mouse lung. Based on the model, the virus successfully infected the mouse lung after 2 days of transfection. Viral RNA/protein, innate immune cell infiltration, inflammatory cytokine expression, and pathological changes in the infected lung were observed after infection. Further studies indicated that neutrophils were the first and most abundant leukocytes that infiltrated the infected lung soon after viral infection. In addition, using infected CXCL5-knockout mice, the chemokine CXCL5 was found to be responsible for neutrophil recruitment. CXCL5 knockout decreased lung inflammation without diminishing viral clearance, suggesting a potential target for controlling pneumonia.

14.
Circ Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012170

RESUMO

Background: Beta-blockers (BB) are mainstay therapy for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, individual patient responses to BB vary, which may be partially due to genetic variation. The goal of this study was to derive and validate the first polygenic response predictor (PRP) for BB survival benefit in HFrEF patients. Methods: Derivation and validation analyses were performed in n=1,436 total HF patients of European descent and with EF <50%. The PRP was derived in a random subset of the Henry Ford Pharmacogenomic Registry (HFPGR; n=248), and then validated in a meta-analysis of the remaining patients from HFPGR (n=247), the TIME-CHF (n=431), and HF-ACTION trial (n=510). The PRP was constructed from a genome-wide analysis of BB*genotype interaction predicting time to all-cause mortality, adjusted for MAGGIC score, genotype, level of BB exposure, and BB propensity score. Results: Five-fold cross-validation summaries out to 1000 SNPs identified optimal prediction with a 44 SNP score and cutoff at the 30th percentile. In validation testing (n=1188) greater BB exposure was associated with reduced all-cause mortality in patients with low-PRP score (n=251; HR=0.19 [95% CI=0.04-0.51], p=0.0075), but not high-PRP score (n=937; HR=0.84 [95% CI=0.53-1.3], p=0.448), a difference that was statistically significant (p interaction =0.0235). Results were consistent regardless of atrial fibrillation, EF (≤40% vs. 41-50%), or when examining cardiovascular death. Conclusions: Among patients of European ancestry with HFrEF, a PRP distinguished patients who derived substantial survival benefit from BB exposure from a larger group that did not. Additional work is needed prospectively test clinical utility and to develop PRPs for other population groups and other medications.

15.
Euro Surveill ; 25(40)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034281

RESUMO

BackgroundThe natural history of disease in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remained obscure during the early pandemic.AimOur objective was to estimate epidemiological parameters of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and assess the relative infectivity of the incubation period.MethodsWe estimated the distributions of four epidemiological parameters of SARS-CoV-2 transmission using a large database of COVID-19 cases and potential transmission pairs of cases, and assessed their heterogeneity by demographics, epidemic phase and geographical region. We further calculated the time of peak infectivity and quantified the proportion of secondary infections during the incubation period.ResultsThe median incubation period was 7.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.9‒7.5) days. The median serial and generation intervals were similar, 4.7 (95% CI: 4.2‒5.3) and 4.6 (95% CI: 4.2‒5.1) days, respectively. Paediatric cases < 18 years had a longer incubation period than adult age groups (p = 0.007). The median incubation period increased from 4.4 days before 25 January to 11.5 days after 31 January (p < 0.001), whereas the median serial (generation) interval contracted from 5.9 (4.8) days before 25 January to 3.4 (3.7) days after. The median time from symptom onset to discharge was also shortened from 18.3 before 22 January to 14.1 days after. Peak infectivity occurred 1 day before symptom onset on average, and the incubation period accounted for 70% of transmission.ConclusionThe high infectivity during the incubation period led to short generation and serial intervals, necessitating aggressive control measures such as early case finding and quarantine of close contacts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038180

RESUMO

This study summarized the literature regarding the application of pre-bent titanium miniplates in orthognathic surgery and evaluated the extra deformation of the manually pre-bent titanium miniplates via finite element analysis for acquiring higher surgical accuracy. The literature was reviewed with a chart. Three models of titanium miniplates with different thicknesses (1.0 mm, 0.8 mm, 0.6 mm) were created using COMSOL Multiphysics software for biomechanical behavior analysis. The 3 models were virtually bent into 5 angles (15 degree, 30 degree, 45 degree, 60 degree, 80 degree). respectively to simulate the preoperative virtual bending, then to simulate the practical manual bending via finite element analysis. The stresses and displacements of these models were recorded. The models from virtual bending simulation and manual bending simulation were registered to analyze the deviations. The results showed that the maximum stress and the displacement deviations between the virtual bending models and the manual bending models increased with the thickness and bending angle of the pre-bent miniplate models. To improve the surgical accuracy, measures should be applied to the manually pre-bent titanium miniplates to reduce the extra deformation when the plate being thicker and the bending angle being larger.

17.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 280, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing public interest in the use of TM internationally, yet there is a paucity of research on the use of TM by the public in the dental setting. This study aimed to explore the views, use of and access to TM in dentistry among different ethnic groups residing in New Zealand. METHODS: Qualitative study and in-depth interviews were used. An individual semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using an inductive approach to identify the main themes. RESULTS: Three main themes were extracted from interviews with 14 participants from diverse cultural backgrounds: [1] the perspectives of TM varied among different ethnic groups and included the involvement of spirituality, the environment, knowledge and usage of TM. [2] The TM that was used by different ethnic groups included plants, herbs, massage, and other forms of healing. Reasons for choosing traditional or western medicines generally included family tradition, access to TM, and finding a competent traditional healer. [3] The barriers in accessing TM included the paucity of traditional healers, difficulty accessing plants and cost, therefore most would look for a substitution or alternative treatment. CONCLUSION: Even though the access to these TM in New Zealand was a challenge for the majority of the participants, they are still considered the first-line treatment for the majority. This study provided dental practitioners an insight into the different sort of TM used by the population. By understanding and acknowledging the use of TM, dental practitioners could create a supportive environment for patients to disclose their use of TM and allow them to educate patients on the use of TM.

18.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 7(1)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The range of normal serum alkaline phosphatase is not well defined. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2009 to 2016 to generate normal ranges for a racially diverse sample of healthy adults. METHODS: Respondents 18 years or older were included. Conditions known to elevate alkaline phosphatase were cause for exclusion. Alkaline phosphatase was measured using a colorimetric method based on standardised National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey protocols. Because alkaline phosphatase values were not normally distributed, log transformation was used. We calculated upper limits of normal (97.5 percentile), stratified by sex and race/ethnicity, and 90% CIs for the upper limits of normal. RESULTS: 1199 respondents (673 female, 526 male) had body mass index from 18.5 to less than 25. Upper limits of normal were highest among Hispanics (123.2 IU/L (90% CI 110.2 to 136.7) for females; 123.8 IU/L (90% CI 112.0 to 135.1) for males), followed by African Americans (109.9 IU/L (90% CI 97.3 to 122.4) for females; 116.3 IU/L (90% CI 105.0 to 126.1) for males) and whites (97.1 IU/L (90% CI 91.0 to 103.4) for females; 109.6 IU/L (90% CI 102.1 to 116.3) for males). Asian American/Pacific Islander respondents had the lowest results: 93.8 IU/L (90% CI 88.2 to 99.5) for females and 95.3 IU/L (90% CI 88.1 to 102.1) for males. CONCLUSIONS: The upper limit of normal alkaline phosphatase varies by race/ethnicity in a large US sample with body mass index of 18.5<25.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055218

RESUMO

Plants utilize a two-tiered immune system consisting of pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) to defend themselves against pathogenic microbes. The receptor protein kinase BAK1 plays a central role in multiple PTI signaling pathways in Arabidopsis However, double mutants made by BAK1 and its closest paralog BKK1 exhibit autoimmune phenotypes, including cell death resembling a typical nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein (NLR)-mediated ETI response. The molecular mechanisms of the cell death caused by the depletion of BAK1 and BKK1 are poorly understood. Here, we show that the cell-death phenotype of bak1 bkk1 is suppressed when a group of NLRs, ADR1s, are mutated, indicating the cell-death of bak1 bkk1 is the consequence of NLR activation. Furthermore, introduction of a Pseudomonas syringae effector HopB1, which proteolytically cleaves activated BAK1 and its paralogs via either gene transformation or bacterium-delivery, results in a cell-death phenotype in an ADR1s-dependent manner. Our study thus pinpoints that BAK1 and its paralogs are likely guarded by NLRs.

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