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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112210, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479707

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Compound Danshen tablet, an herbal preparation consisting of salviae miltiorrhizae, notoginseng and borneolum, is extensively employed clinically to treat angina pectoris, coronary arteriosclerosis and significantly improve microcirculation. AIM OF THE STUDY: To reveal the potential underlying cardioprotective mechanism(s) in isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in high-fat-diet fed mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiac transcriptomics was analyzed by Illumina mRNA-Seq sequencing. The restored cardiovascular diseases (CVD)-related genes by Compound Danshen tablet were validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, Cardiac metabolomics were also performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: From the transcriptomics study, we found the levels of 24 up-regulated and 44 down-regulated genes in the control compared to model groups. Among them, seven gene levels were restored by treatment of Compound Danshen tablet. Four CVD-related genes at the mRNA level (Sprr1a, Ppp1r3c, Bmp10 and Hspa1b) were validated successfully by qRT-PCR. From the metabolomics study, 37 differentially expressed metabolites were identified between the control and model groups. Among them, 21 metabolites were restored by treatment of Compound Danshen tablet. These altered metabolites are involved in glucose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and amino acid metabolism. CONCLUSION: These genes and metabolites might provide clues for further molecular mechanistic study of Compound Danshen tablet.

2.
Nanotechnology ; 31(2): 025205, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553959

RESUMO

In this work, the first observation of the space charge limited conduction mechanism (SCLC) in GaAsSb nanowires (NWs) grown by Ga-assisted molecular beam epitaxial technique, and the effect of ultra-high vacuum in situ annealing have been investigated. The low onset voltage of the SCLC in the NW configuration has been advantageously exploited to extract trap density and trap distribution in the bandgap of this material system, using simple temperature dependent current-voltage measurements in both the ensemble and single nanowires. In situ annealing in ultra-high vacuum revealed significant reduction in the trap density from 1016 cm-3 in as-grown NWs to a low level of 7 × 1014 cm-3 and confining wider trap distribution to a single trap depth at 0.12 eV. A comparison of current conduction mechanism in the respective single nanowires using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) further confirms the SCLC mechanism identified in GaAsSb ensemble device to be intrinsic. Higher current observed in current mapping by C-AFM, increased 4 K photoluminescence (PL) intensity along with reduced full-width half maxima and more symmetric PL spectra, and reduced asymmetrical broadening with increased TO/LO mode in room temperature Raman spectra for in situ annealed NWs again attest to effective annihilation of traps leading to the improved optical quality of NWs compared to as-grown NWs. Hence, the I-V-T analysis of the SCLC mechanism has been demonstrated as a simple approach to obtain information on growth induced traps in the NWs.

3.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2521-2525, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492271

RESUMO

A novel blue-emitting Mg2La8(SiO4)6O2:Ce3+ phosphor with apatite-type nanostructure has been successfully synthesized via a conventional solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were used to characterize the as-prepared samples. The phosphor exhibited an absorption band ranging from 220 to 400 nm in the ultraviolet range and generated bright blue emission at 425 nm and 510 nm under different excitation wavelengths. The critical Ce3+ quenching concentration (QC) was determined to be about 7 mol%, and the corresponding QC mechanism was verified to be the dipole-dipole interactions.

4.
Gene ; 722: 144127, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525397

RESUMO

Complement factor H (CFH) serves as a major down-regulator in the complement system, often utilized by bacterial pathogens to evade complement attack. Yet, little is currently known about the genetic correlation of CFH polymorphisms with sepsis due to various microbial infections. A case-control method (488 septic patients and 527 healthy individuals) was carried out in this study to investigate the genetic relationship between CFH polymorphisms (rs3753394 C/T, rs1065489 G/T and rs1061170 C/T) and susceptibility to sepsis caused by bacterial infections in Chinese Han populations. Our findings indicated that the frequency of rs3753394 CT/TT genotype in the septic patients with P. aeruginosa was significantly higher than that in the control individuals (P = 0.033, OR = 2.668, 95%CI = 1.072-6.334). The rs3753394 T allele frequency in the P. aeruginosa-infected patients was significantly increased, compared to that in the healthy controls (P = 0.014, OR = 1.68, 95%CI = 1.118-2.538). Moreover, these significant differences of rs3753394 genotype and allele frequencies remained after multiple testing corrections [P (corr.) = 0.033 for genotype; P (corr.) = 0.033 for allele]. The current study highlighted the significance of CFH polymorphism rs3753394 as a potential biomarker for targeting P. aeruginosa infection in critically ill patients.

5.
Neurosci Lett ; : 134544, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exploring the impact of glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) polymorphisms and mutations on the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effects of GBA polymorphisms and mutations on the risk of PDD and to identify the relationship between GBA genotype and PDD. METHODS: A computer-based search was performed to retrieve publications from PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases using the search terms "glucocerebrosidase", "Parkinson's disease", and "dementia". After rigorous screening, cohort studies were included for meta-analysis. RESULTS: The risk of PDD in GBA variant carriers was 1.94 times that in non-carriers (hazard ratio [HR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.46). The risk of PDD in GBA polymorphism carriers was 1.87 times that in non-carriers (HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.18-2.98). The risk of PDD in GBA mutation carriers was 3.64 times that in non-carriers (HR, 3.64; 95% CI, 2.74-4.83). The risk of PDD in p.L444 P variant carriers (HR, 4.81; 95% CI, 3.37-6.86) was significantly higher than that in p.N370S variant carriers (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.29-1.94). CONCLUSION: GBA polymorphisms and mutations are potential risk factors for PDD.

6.
Biomolecules ; 9(10)2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569818

RESUMO

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a flavor enhancer and its effects on human health are still debated. We aimed to investigate whether MSG can act as alkalinizing agent in murine models and if its metabolites are biomarkers of MSG consumption. For this purpose, adult male Wistar rats were given water added with 1 g% MSG or three types of control water, including sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). At 14 days, urinary pH, electrolytes, urinary metabolites and ion-exchanger gene expression were determined. The results revealed that MSG-treated rats had significantly more alkaline urine and higher levels of urinary sodium and bicarbonate similar to NaHCO3 controls. These changes correlated with a lower expression of ion-exchanger genes, namely, CAII, NBC1, and AE1, which are involved in bicarbonate kidney reabsorption. The urinary metabolic profiles also revealed similar patterns for the MSG and NaHCO3 groups. In conclusion, MSG exhibits similar properties to NaHCO3, an alkalinizing agent, with regard to inducing alkaline urine, reducing bicarbonate kidney reabsorption, and generating a specific urinary metabolic pattern. We believe that these observations will be useful to further study the MSG effects in humans.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Biventricular repair of double-outlet right ventricle with noncommitted ventricular septal defect is preferred, but previously developed surgical procedures are complicated and associated with high mortality and morbidity. We developed a technique using an intraventricular conduit to connect the ventricular septal defect and the aorta in this anomaly in patients aged more than 2 years. METHODS: Thirty-one patients (age 2-23 years; median, 5.4) with double-outlet right ventricle with noncommitted ventricular septal defect underwent biventricular repair with intraventricular conduit. A 16-mm or 19-mm polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex; WL Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz) vascular prosthesis was used to construct the intraventricular conduit rerouting the ventricular septal defect to the aorta, with enlargement of the ventricular septal defect and resecting the hypertrophic muscular bands in the bilateral conus when necessary. Follow-up was made in all patients with a median duration of 93 months (range, 8-140 months). RESULTS: One patient died during hospitalization and 1 patient died at 8 months after operation, making the mortality 6.5%. The peak pressure gradient across the left ventricular outflow tract was less than 30 mm Hg in all patients but 1 (3.3%). In the last patient, it increased from 16 mm Hg early after operation to 50 mm Hg at 7 years follow-up. The peak pressure gradient across the right ventricular outflow tract ranged from 6 to 30 mm Hg in all patients. One patient had moderate mitral regurgitation with New York Heart Association class II. One patient had preoperative severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (mean pressure, 50 mm Hg) and was treated with bosentan. Other patients were in New York Heart Association class I. CONCLUSIONS: Biventricular repair with intraventricular conduit is a relatively simple and safe procedure for patients aged more than 2 years with double-outlet right ventricle with noncommitted ventricular septal defect, with excellent early and midterm outcomes.

8.
RNA Biol ; : 1-16, 2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607220

RESUMO

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are key regulators of posttranscriptional processes such as RNA maturation, localization, turnover and translation. Despite their dysregulation in various diseases including cancer, the landscape of RBP expression in human cancer has not been well elucidated. Here, we built a comprehensive expression landscape of 1504 RBPs across 16 human cancer types, which revealed that RBPs are predominantly upregulated in tumours and this phenomenon is affected by the tumour immune subtypes and microenvironment. Across different cancer types, 109 RBPs are consistently upregulated while 41 RBPs are consistently downregulated. These up-regulated and down-regulated RBPs show distinct molecular characteristics and prognostic effects, whereas their dysregulation is mediated by distinct cis/trans-regulatory mechanisms. Finally, we validated one candidate PABPC1L that might promote colon tumorigenesis by regulating mRNA splicing. In summary, we built a comprehensive expression landscape of RBPs across different cancer types and identified consistently dysregulated RBPs which could be novel targets for developing broad-spectrum anticancer agents.

9.
Curr Biol ; 29(19): 3256-3265.e5, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564495

RESUMO

In angiosperms, two sperm cells are transported and delivered by the pollen tube to the ovule to achieve double fertilization. Extensive communication takes place between the pollen tube and the female tissues until the sperm cell cargo is ultimately released. During this process, a pollen tube surface-located receptor complex composed of ANXUR1/2 (ANX1/2) and Buddha's Paper Seal 1/2 (BUPS1/2) was reported to control the maintenance of pollen tube integrity by perceiving the autocrine peptide ligands rapid alkalinization factor 4 and 19 (RALF4/19). It was further hypothesized that pollen-tube rupture to release sperm is caused by the paracrine RALF34 peptide from the ovule interfering with this signaling pathway. In this study, we identified two Arabidopsis pollen-tube-expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), LORELEI-like-GPI-anchored protein 2 (LLG2) and LLG3, as co-receptors in the BUPS-ANX receptor complex. llg2 llg3 double mutants exhibit severe fertility defects. Mutant pollen tubes rupture early during the pollination process. Furthermore, LLG2 and LLG3 interact with ectodomains of both BUPSs and ANXURs, and this interaction is remarkably enhanced by the presence of RALF4/19 peptides. We further demonstrate that the N terminus (including a YISY motif) of the RALF4 peptide ligand interacts strongly with BUPS-ANX receptors but weakly with LLGs and is essential for its biological function, and its C-terminal region is sufficient for LLG binding. In conclusion, we propose that LLG2/3 serve as co-receptors during BUPS/ANX-RALF signaling and thereby further establish the importance of GPI-APs as key regulators in plant reproduction processes.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595339

RESUMO

PURPOSE: (1) To investigate whether an increased lateral meniscal slope measured on magnetic resonance image (MRI) would be associated with greater risk of bone contusions in noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury, and (2) to measure the relationship between the occurrence of bone contusions and associated findings observed in ACL deficient knees such as cartilage damage, anterolateral complex injury and concomitant meniscal tears. METHOD: Patients who underwent ACL reconstruction surgery between 2013 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-three patients were included in the study group (ACL + bone contusions group), 56 participants were in the control group (isolated ACL group). The presence and severity of bone contusions were determined from preoperative MRIs. The lateral meniscal slope and lateral posterior tibial slope were measured on the MRIs in a blinded fashion. The predictors of lateral bone contusions including age, sex, body mass index, lateral meniscal slope and lateral posterior tibial slope were examined by multivariable logistic regression. Associated findings including concomitant meniscal lesions, intra-articular cartilage damage and anterolateral complex injury, which were also calculated by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The mean lateral meniscal slope in the study group was 6.5° ± 3.5°, which was significantly larger than that in the control group (3.8° ± 2.7°; P < 0.01). In addition, increased lateral meniscal slope was significantly associated with lateral bone contusions in noncontact ACL injury (Lateral femoral condyle (LFC): AOR 16.5; 95% CI 5.40-50.20; P < 0.01; Lateral tibial plateau (LTP): AOR 31.8; 95% CI 8.68-116.7; P < 0.01). However, lateral posterior tibial slope was not significantly associated with bone contusions. Moreover, the presence of lateral bone contusions was associated with concomitant lateral meniscal tears (OR 12.4; 95% CI 3.30-46.30) and cartilage damage (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.04-8.18). CONCLUSION: An increased lateral meniscal slope was associated with increased risk of lateral bone contusions in noncontact ACL injury. In addition, the presence of lateral bone contusions was associated with intra-articular cartilage damage, anterolateral complex injury and concomitant meniscal tears. Hence, additional information was provided for counseling patients who have increased LMS on the greater risk of knee rotational instability and identify patients undergoing ACL reconstruction who may benefit from extra-articular tenodesis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

11.
Cell Res ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601978

RESUMO

The phenomenon of plant root tips sensing moisture gradient in soil and growing towards higher water potential is designated as root hydrotropism, which is critical for plants to survive when water is a limited factor. Molecular mechanisms regulating such a fundamental process, however, are largely unknown. Here we report our identification that cytokinins are key signaling molecules directing root growth orientation in a hydrostimulation (moisture gradient) condition. Lower water potential side of the root tip shows more cytokinin response relative to the higher water potential side. Consequently, two cytokinin downstream type-A response regulators, ARR16 and ARR17, were found to be up-regulated at the lower water potential side, causing increased cell division in the meristem zone, which allows the root to bend towards higher water potential side. Genetic analyses indicated that various cytokinin biosynthesis and signaling mutants, including the arr16 arr17 double mutant, are significantly less responsive to hydrostimulation. Consistently, treatments with chemical inhibitors interfering with either cytokinin biosynthesis or cell division completely abolished root hydrotropic response. Asymmetrically induced expression of ARR16 or ARR17 effectively led to root bending in both wild-type and miz1, a previously known hydrotropism-defective mutant. These data demonstrate that asymmetric cytokinin distribution is a primary determinant governing root hydrotropism.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591686

RESUMO

Purification effects of constructed rapid infiltration system with two main fillers (coarse sand or medium coarse sand) and different addition proportion (5%, 10%, or 15%) modifiers (sponge iron, blast furnace slag, or zeolite) on rainwater runoff were studied through filter column tests. A set of constructed rapid infiltration system test device was designed, which included 9 rainwater filter columns. The test results showed that the permeability of artificial fillers blended with modifiers could have the promotion with varying degrees. There were differences in the characteristics of the modifiers, so the artificial fillers blended with different modifiers had a significant difference for the purification effects on each pollutant. In view of the overall situations, the pollutant removal effects of artificial fillers with two or more modifiers had a smaller gap, and the reduction effects were good, ranging from 38.95 to 46.25% when the main filler is coarse sand and from 46.29 to 49.46% while main filler is medium coarse sand. It was worth noting that the artificial fillers blended with sponge iron showed a slight harden after prolonged used; however, it had little influence on the permeability and water purification effects.

13.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8019-8024, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Osteoarthritis (OA) affects about 40% of people older than 40 years of age, and the mechanism is not well understood. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) CAIF is a recently identified critical player in myocardial infarction, while its role in other human diseases is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the role of CAIF in OA. MATERIAL AND METHODS Levels of CAIF in synovial fluid of OA patients (n=60) and healthy controls (n=60) were measuring by performing quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). MiR-1246 and interleukin (IL)-6 levels in synovial fluid were measured by performing qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Cell apoptosis analysis was performed after CHON-001 cells were treated with 500 mg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 hours. RESULTS We found that CAIF in synovial fluid was downregulated in OA patients and inversely correlated with miR-1246 and IL-6. Downregulated CAIF distinguished OA patients from healthy controls. In cells of chondrogenic cell line CHON-001, CAIF overexpression mediated the inhibited expression of miR-1246 and secretion of IL-6, while miR-1246 overexpression reduced the effects of CAIF overexpression on IL-6 secretion. In addition, CAIF overexpression inhibited the apoptosis of CHON-001 cells under LPS treatment, while miR-1246 overexpression attenuated the effects of CAIF overexpression. CONCLUSIONS Therefore, CAIF may downregulate miR-1246 to improve OA.

14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(84): 12639-12642, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580339

RESUMO

Polyubiquitination with diverse linkages on histones provides another layer of accuracy and complexity for epigenetic regulation, which is rarely studied. Herein, K27 or K48-diubiquitin modified H2A analogues were chemically synthesized using thiirane linkers. These permitted in vitro binding studies suggested the plasticity of ubiquitin chains in 53BP1 recognition.

15.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(40): 8958-8962, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580376

RESUMO

We reported a new method that visible light along with cercosporin, one of the naturally occurring perylenequinonoid pigments with excellent properties of photosensitization, photocatalyzed sp3 (C-H) activation for the synthesis of pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinolones through the annulation of anilines and maleimides under mild conditions.

16.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584799

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool in the investigation of the human fecal metabolome. However, current approaches require time-consuming sample preparation, chromatographic separations, and consequently long analytical run times. Rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) is a method of ambient ionization mass spectrometry and has been utilized in the metabolic profiling of a diverse range of biological materials, including human tissue, cell culture lines, and microorganisms. Here, we describe the use of an automated, high-throughput REIMS robotic platform for direct analysis of human feces. Through the analysis of fecal samples from five healthy male participants, REIMS analytical parameters were optimized and used to assess the chemical information obtainable using REIMS. Within the fecal samples analyzed, bile acids, including primary, secondary, and conjugate species, were identified, and phospholipids of possible bacterial origin were detected. In addition, the effect of storage conditions and consecutive freeze/thaw cycles was determined. Within the REIMS mass spectra, the lower molecular weight metabolites, such as fatty acids, were shown to be significantly affected by storage conditions for prolonged periods at temperatures above -80 °C and consecutive freeze/thaw cycles. However, the complex lipid region was shown to be unaffected by these conditions. A further cohort of 50 fecal samples, collected from patients undergoing bariatric surgery, were analyzed using the optimized REIMS parameters and the complex lipid region mass spectra used for multivariate modeling. This analysis showed a predicted separation between pre- and post-surgery specimens, suggesting that REIMS analysis can detect biological differences, such as microbiome-level differences, which have traditionally been reliant upon methods utilizing extensive sample preparations and chromatographic separations and/or DNA sequencing.

17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 3116-3122, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602861

RESUMO

The quality marker( Q-maker) of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) has been the core concept of TCM quality evaluation and control in recent years. Based on the knowledge and long-term practice of the researches on TCM quality,we put forward that " Taking the effectiveness as the core,the measurability and peculiarity as necessary conditions,and considering compatibility for TCM formulae,TCM Q-makers are selected and confirmed,and then the transmission and traceability should be investigated as its functional attributes". Selecting the commonly used representative TCM as the research object,based on the score of TCM effectiveness,measurability and peculiarity,a layered three-dimensional integrated technology was adopted for the quantitative evaluation and grading identification of the Q-markers for TCM. And after Q-markers for TCM are selected and confirmed,the transmission variation of the Q-markers is studied in the whole process from the formation of TCM to its function representation. Based on TCM chemical and biological characteristics as well as effectiveness,and integrating multidisciplinary techniques and methods,researches on innovative methods for system identification and confirmation of the TCM Q-makers are developed emphatically to form representative and exemplary extensive application,which will provide significant theoretical and methodological support for effectively improving the quality control level of TCM.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/normas , Biomarcadores , Controle de Qualidade
18.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621803

RESUMO

Importance: Secondhand smoking is a risk to adult ocular health, but its effect on children's ocular development is not known. Objective: To assess the association between choroidal thickness and secondhand smoking exposure in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: Children aged 6 to 8 years were consecutively recruited from January 2016 to July 2017 from the population-based Hong Kong Children Eye Study at the Chinese University of Hong Kong Eye Centre. All participants underwent detailed ophthalmic investigations. Choroidal thickness was measured by swept-source optical coherence tomography, with built-in software that automatically segmented the choroid layer to analyze its terrain imagery. History of secondhand smoking was obtained from a questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the correlation between choroidal thickness and secondhand exposure when controlling for confounding factors. Analysis began July 2018 and ended in April 2019. Main Outcomes and Measurements: The association between children's choroidal thickness and their exposure to secondhand smoking. Results: Of 1400 children, 941 (67.2%) had no exposure to secondhand smoking, and 459 (32.8%) had exposure to secondhand smoking. The mean (SD) age was 7.65 (1.09) years for children in the nonexposure group and 7.54 (1.11) years for children in the exposure group. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, axial length, and birth weight, exposure to secondhand smoking was associated with a thinner choroid by 8.3 µm in the central subfield, 7.2 µm in the inner inferior, 6.4 µm in the outer inferior, 6.4 µm in the inner temporal, and 7.3 µm in the outer temporal. Choroidal thinning with also associated with increased number of family smokers and increased quantity of secondhand smoking. An increase of 1 family smoker was associated with choroidal thinning by 7.86 µm in the central subfield, 4.51 µm in the outer superior, 6.23 µm in the inner inferior, 5.59 µm in the outer inferior, 6.06 µm in the inner nasal, and 6.55 µm in the outer nasal. An increase of exposure to 1 secondhand cigarette smoke per day was associated with choroidal thinning by 0.54 µm in the central subfield, 0.42 µm in the inner temporal, and 0.47 µm in the outer temporal. Conclusions and Relevance: This investigation showed that exposure to secondhand smoking in children was associated with choroidal thinning along with a dose-dependent effect. These results support evidence regarding the potential hazards of secondhand smoking to children.

19.
eNeuro ; 6(5)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585927

RESUMO

Extensive evidence showed that mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) levels displayed a circadian pattern. Circadian disruption, for example, sleep deprivation (SD), induced functional and behavioral deficits. However, compared with that of mature form, the biological role of the pro-peptide, proBDNF, was poorly understood. Here, we found that proBDNF was expressed under circadian rhythm in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC). SD rats exhibited deficits in acquisition of conditioned extinction and damped rhythmicity in vHPC proBDNF activity that were accompanied by SD between zeitgeber time (ZT)0 and ZT4, but not the late stage of sleep period. Furthermore, SD affected fear extinction through vHPC-IL proBDNF signaling, which was associated with NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors. More importantly, infusion of proBDNF could mitigate SD-induced abnormal neural activity, by suppressing the enhanced basal firing rate of IL-RS and elevating the depressed neural response that evoked by acquisition of conditioned extinction. Therefore, this finding provided the first evidence that circadian oscillation of vHPC proBDNF activity contributed to the effects of SD on acquisition of conditioned fear extinction, and suggested a new therapeutic target to reverse the cognitive deficits in sleep-related mental disorder, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

20.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 6551-6557, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597421

RESUMO

Cobalt-nitrogen-functionalized materials have been recognized as promising catalysts for the CO2 reduction reaction because of their superior activity. In order to further improve their activity, we proposed an optimization method through coordination engineering in cobalt-nitrogen-functionalized porphyrin and graphene. By considering a series of derived structures with coordinating nitrogen atoms substituted by carbon or oxygen atoms, a clear activity trend is obtained by constructing a volcano-type plot for activity against adsorption energies of *CO. Detailed electronic structure analysis shows that the enhanced catalytic activity is due to the lacking of π bonding in Co-O bonds compared to Co-C or Co-N bonds in cobalt-centered motifs. This difference allows us to predict the catalytic activity by using the vacancy formation energy of the cobalt atom. Our work provides a general guideline for a rational design of efficient catalysts, which may stimulate further study of coordination engineering for other key energy conversion processes.

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