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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 228: 112981, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781124

RESUMO

Thiram causes tibial dyschondroplasia in broilers, leading to a significant economic loss in the poultry industry. Our study explored the effects of taurine in thiram induced tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) through in vivo and in vitro approches. In in vivo study, thiram resulted in lameness disorder, low production parameters ALP, ACP, and a high level of NOS. While, the taurine exhibited promising effect by reducing lameness, increasing ALP, ACP levels, and significantly lowering NOS level with the restoration of the growth plate. In in vitro study, thiram caused distortion and disintegration of chondrocytes. The CCK-8 technique revealed the lower cell activity in TD as compared with the treatment group. Even, the treatment and taurine groups had higher cell activity than control group. Also, the chondrocyte morphology progressively reverted to normal after taurine treatment. It might effectively decreased the symptoms of TD in broilers and their production performance. Further research found that the taurine effectively improved chondrocytes' cell viability and recovered lameness disorder by regulation of HIF-1α, VEGFA, and Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathways. In summary, these results indicate that taurine has a protective effect on thiram-induced broilers and it can enhance the growth activity by directly affecting the development of chondrocytes and blood vessels.

2.
Microb Pathog ; : 105212, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597776

RESUMO

Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) YLF016 is a well-characterized probiotic with several favorable characteristics. This study aimed to analyze the probiotic characteristics of L. fermentum and uncover the genes implicated in its potential probiotic ability on the base of its genomics features. The complete genome of L. fermentum YLF016 was found to have a circular chromosome of 2,094,354 bp, and 51.46% G + C content without any plasmid. Its chromosome contained 2,130 predicted protein-encoding genes, 58 tRNA, and 15 rRNA-encoding genes. Also, it was found to have many other probiotic properties, such as a high survival rate in the gastrointestinal tract with strong adherence to intestinal cells, antibacterial activity against pathogens, and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the genome sequence analysis demonstrated specific genes coding for carbon metabolism pathway, genetic adaption, stress resistance, and adhesive ability. Further analysis revealed its non-hemolytic activity and its non-functional ability of virulence factors. In conclusion, L. fermentum YLF016 possesses many valuable probiotic properties that refer to its potential probiotic ability.

3.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 649207, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484132

RESUMO

Yaks (Bos grunniens) live primarily in high-altitude hypoxic conditions and have a unique intestinal micro-ecosystem, remarkable adaptability, and strong climatic resistance. Accumulating evidence revealed the importance of probiotics in host metabolism, gut microbiota, growth performance, and health. The goal of this study was to screen out probiotics with excellent probiotic potential for clinical application. In this study, four strains of Bacillus, i.e., Bacillus proteolyticus (named Z1 and Z2), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (named J), and Bacillus subtilis (named K), were isolated and identified. Afterward, their probiotic potential was evaluated. Antioxidant activity tests revealed that Z1 had the highest DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, whereas Z2 had higher reducing power and inhibited lipid peroxidation. Additionally, the antibacterial testing revealed that all strains were antagonistic to three indicator pathogens, Escherichia coli C83902, Staphylococcus aureus BNCC186335, and Salmonella enteritidis NTNC13349. These isolates also had a higher hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, and acid and bile tolerance, all of which helped to survive and keep dangerous bacteria out of the host intestine. Importantly, all strains could be considered safe in terms of antibiotic susceptibility and lack of hemolysis. In conclusion, this is the first study to show that B. proteolyticus and B. amyloliquefaciens isolated from yaks have probiotic potential, providing a better foundation for future clinical use.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347242

RESUMO

NaCl is the main component of freshwater salinization. High NaCl concentration in drinking water can cause pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) and kidney damage in broilers. To explore the effect of NaCl in drinking water on broilers' kidneys, this study divided 80 chickens into four groups. With the control group fed with pure water, broiler chickens were fed with fresh water (FW, NaCl 1 g/L), low salt-contaminated water (L-SCW, NaCl 2.5 g/L), and high salt-contaminated water (H-SCW, NaCl 5 g/L). The results show that ascites heart index (AHI) and hematocrit (HCT) of broilers increase in L-SCW and H-SCW, the serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine of broilers increase significantly, the kidney index increases, the kidney sections show vacuolar degeneration and fibrotic degeneration, and the TUNEL results show that the kidneys possess obvious apoptosis. In addition, the detection of RAAS-related genes (AGT gene in the liver, REN in the kidney, ACE in the lung) demonstrates that after using salt-contaminated water, the transcription levels of AGT, REN, and ACE rise significantly, and the concentration of angiotensin II (Ang II) also increases significantly. In order to verify the effect of Ang II on broiler kidneys, this research used exogenous Ang II to treat chicken embryonic kidney (CEK) cells. The results show that the cell activity of CEK decreased with the increase of the concentration of exogenous Ang II. Meanwhile, the flow cytometry assay shows that Ang II could promote the apoptosis of CEK cells. These results indicate that the salt-contaminated water can aggravate PHS and cause kidney damage. The mechanism may be related to the increase of Ang II.

5.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 204, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is an important ailment limiting the production of the Tibetan pig industry. Dynamic balance of the intestinal microbiota is important for the physiology of the animal. The objective of this work was to study fungal diversity in the feces of early weaning Tibetan piglets in different health conditions. RESULTS: In the present study, we performed high-throughput sequencing to characterize the fungal microbial diversity in healthy, diarrheal and treated Tibetan piglets at the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. The four alpha diversity indices (Chao1, ACE, Shannon and Simpson) revealed no significant differences in the richness across the different groups (P > 0.05). In all samples, the predominant fungal phyla were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Rozellomycota. Moreover, the healthy piglets showed a higher abundance of Ascomycota than the treated ones with a decreased level of Basidiomycota. One phylum (Rozellomycota) showed higher abundance in the diarrheal piglets than in the treated. At genus level, compared with that to the healthy group, the proportion of Derxomyces and Lecanicillium decreased, whereas that of Cortinarius and Kazachstania increased in the diarrheal group. The relative abundances of Derxomyces, Phyllozyma and Hydnum were higher in treated piglets than in the diarrheal ones. CONCLUSIONS: A decreased relative abundance of beneficial fungi (e.g. Derxomyces and Lecanicillium) may cause diarrhea in the early-weaned Tibetan piglets. Addition of probiotics into the feed may prevent diarrhea at this stage. This study presented the fungal diversity in healthy, diarrheal and treated early-weaned Tibetan piglets.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268698

RESUMO

Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a common skeletal disease occurred in growth plate of fast-growing broilers. Thiram is a sort of chemical used for pesticide and fungicide. The excessive use of thiram increased the threat to animal and human health. In this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic mechanism of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on thiram-induced tibial dyschondroplasia. Broiler chickens were divided into three different groups, e.g., control, TD, and CGA. CGA was administrated after the induction of TD from 4th day to 7th day. Biochemical analysis was performed to detect the content of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Histological changes and degradation of extracellular matrix were observed through hematoxylin-eosin (H & E) and Masson staining. To further determine the mechanism, TUNEL staining and western blot were also performed to detect the apoptosis changes in growth plate of all groups. The results showed the disproportionation of Ca and P content and upregulation of apoptosis during the development of TD. But, after the administration of CGA, the ratio of Ca:P was upregulated, and the apoptosis was also downregulated. The current study shows the toxic effect of thiram on chickens and suggests that CGA is associated with a mechanism that plays a significant role in apoptosis induced by thiram in poultry industry.

7.
J Basic Microbiol ; 61(8): 757-768, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101885

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to isolate lignin-degrading bacteria from buffalo rumen and to explore their interactions further. Using lignin as the carbon source, three bacteria, B-04 (Ochrobactrum pseudintermedium), B-11 (Klebsiella pneumoniae), and B-45 (Bacillus sonorensis), which have shown lignin degradation potential, were successfully isolated and identified from the rumen fluid of buffalo by colony morphology, 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, and biochemical and physiological analyses. The degradation rates of lignin were determined, and the maximum values were 4.86%, 11.1%, and 7.68% for B-04, B-11, and B-45, respectively. The maximum laccase activities were 0.65, 0.93, and 1.15 U/ml, while the maximum lignin peroxidase activities were 5.72, 8.29, and 18.69 U/ml, respectively. Pairwise interaction studies showed inhibitory interaction between B-04 and B-45, inhibitory interaction between B-04 and B-11, and symbiotic interaction between B-11 and B-45. This is the first report on the lignin degradation ability of bacteria isolated from the buffalo's rumen, which provides a new understanding for revealing the mechanism of roughage tolerance of buffalo.

8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6646664, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046499

RESUMO

Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is one of the most important pneumonia pathogens in yaks. It may result in more economic losses due to the cold and anoxia condition at Qinghai Tibetan plateau. However, to date, limited information on M. bovis infection in yaks is available in China. For this purpose, the seroprevalence of M. bovis was investigated in yaks living in the mentioned area through commercial ELISA kits. A total of 959 yaks were incorporated into this study. The prevalence of the disease in yaks was 48.70%. The serological results revealed a relatively high prevalence of M. bovis infection in yaks. The present study may greatly contribute to the prevention of this disease. More importance should be given to the potential threat caused by M. bovis in the special plateau.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma bovis , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tibet/epidemiologia
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112059, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647747

RESUMO

Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a metabolic disease of young poultry that affects bone andcartilage's growth. It mostly occurs in broilers due to thiram toxicity in the feed. In this disease, tibial cartilage is not yet ripe for ossification, but it also results in lameness, death, and moral convictions of commercial poultry due to numerous apoptotic changes on cell level. These changes serve a cardinal role in this situation. Many potential problems indicate that chlorogenic acid (CGA) performs an extensive role in controlling apoptosis's perception. However, the actual role of CGA in TD affected chondrocytes in-vitro is still unidentified. The current study investigates the imperceptible insight of CGA on chondrocyte's apoptosis via B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated x-protein (Bax), and Caspase-3 with CD147 signalling. The expression of these markers was investigated by Immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain (RT-qPCR). Chondrocytes from the growth plate of tibia were isolated, cultured, and processed. A sub-lethal thiram (2.5 µg/mL) was used to induce cytotoxicity and then treated with an optimum dose (40 µg/ mL) of CGA. According to the results, thiram distorted chondrocyte cells with enhanced apoptotic rate. But, in case of CGA, high expression of CD147 enhanced cell viability of chondrocytes, accompanied by downregulation of Bax/Caspase-3 signalling with the upregulation of Bcl-2. The first possibility has ruled out in the present study by the observation that the cells apoptosis marker, Caspase-3 showed a significant change in CD147 overexpressing cells. Conversely, immunodepletion of CD147 with enhanced cleavage of Caspase-3, indicating the activation of apoptosis in chondrocytes cells. Therefore, these findings suggest a novel insight about CD147 in thiram induced TD about the regulation of Bcl-2/Bax/Caspase-3 apoptosis-signalling axis.


Assuntos
Basigina/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Tiram/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Caspase 2 , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ácido Clorogênico , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases , Lâmina de Crescimento/patologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Tíbia/patologia , Regulação para Cima , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
10.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153277, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773257

RESUMO

The world is witnessing a difficult time. The race of developing a new coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine is becoming more urgent. Many preliminary studies on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 patients have provided some clues to treat this pandemic. However, no suitable treatment has found yet. Various symptoms of patients infected with COVID-19 indicated the importance of immune regulation in the human body. Severe cases admitted to the intensive care unit showed high level of pro-inflammatory cytokines which enhanced the disease severity. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients is another critical factor of disease severity and mortality. So, Immune modulation is the only way of regulating immune system. Nigella sativa has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. The components of this plant are known for its intense immune-regulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant benefits in obstructive respiratory disorders. A molecular docking study also gave evidences that N. sativa decelerates COVID-19 and might give the same or better results than the FDA approved drugs. The aim of this review was to investigate the possible immune-regulatory effects of N. sativa on COVID-19 pandemic. Our review found N. sativa's Thymoquinone, Nigellidine, and α-hederin can be a potential influencer in reinforcing the immune response on molecular grounds.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Nigella sativa/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(3): 1216-1228, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767733

RESUMO

Eliminating rabies is challenging in many developing countries, especially in rural areas. In contrast to the annual decline of human cases in China in last decade, the incidence of rabies in livestock has been increasingly reported. This paper reports the rabies outbreaks in beef cattle (Angus) in Shaanxi Province, China, which caused 31 and 5 deaths at an attack rate of 19.4% (95% CI: 13.6%-26.4%) and 0.25% (95% CI: 0.1%-0.6%) in a satellite cow farm (farm A) and a core intensive farm (farm B), respectively. The rabies infection was confirmed by several laboratory tests, and rabies virus (RABV) strains SXBJ15 and SXYL15 were isolated and characterized from farm A and B, respectively. The two strains were found to have a high genomic sequence similarity to the dog-associated China clade I strains previously identified in the neighbouring area. SXBJ15 was shown to have a higher mouse pathogenicity (1.07) than SXYL15 (0.45). RABV was also detected in the saliva and salivary glands from the affected cattle. The potential causes were investigated on the farm, and the biosecurity scores were 20 and 64 (a full score of 82) for farms A and B, respectively. The rabies infection is likely to result from rabid free-roaming dogs (FRDs). On farm A with more cow deaths, the rabies transmission between animals can be attributed to the improper disposal of aborted foetuses and placental materials as a food source for rabid FRDs, high stocking density and drinking water sharing. Additionally, vaccinating cattle with a canine vaccine was shown to help stop the spread of rabies in herds. These results indicate that the occurrence of RABV on cattle farms can be prevented by improving biosecurity measures to control the entry of rural FRDs on the farm and immunizing farm cattle against rabies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Fazendas , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Gado , Camundongos , Placenta , Gravidez , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/virologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(12)2020 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371298

RESUMO

Probiotic bacteria are receiving increased attention due to the potential benefits to their hosts. Plateau yaks have resistance against diseases and stress, which is potentially related to their inner probiotics. To uncover the potential functional genes of yak probiotics, we sequenced the whole genome of Lactobacillus sakei (L. sakei). The results showed that the genome length of L. sakei was 1.99 Mbp, with 1943 protein coding genes (21 rRNA, 65 tRNA, and 1 tmRNA). There were three plasmids found in this bacteria, with 88 protein coding genes. EggNOG annotation uncovered that the L. sakei genes were found to belong to J (translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis), L (replication, recombination, and repair), G (carbohydrate transport and metabolism), and K (transcription). GO annotation showed that most of the L. sakei genes were related to cellular processes, metabolic processes, biological regulation, localization, response to stimulus, and organization or biogenesis of cellular components. CAZy annotation found that there were 123 CAZys in the L. sakei genome, with glycosyl transferases and glycoside hydrolases. Our results revealed the genome characteristics of L. sakei, which may give insight into the future employment of this probiotic bacterium for its functional benefits.


Assuntos
Bovinos/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Lactobacillus sakei/genética , Probióticos , Aclimatação , Altitude , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Lactobacillus sakei/isolamento & purificação , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/genética , Tibet
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111194, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866894

RESUMO

Tibial Dyschondroplasia (TD) is a prevailing skeletal disorder that mainly affects rapidly growing avian species. It results in reduced bone strength, lameness and an increase risk of fragility fractures. Total flavonoids of Rhizoma drynariae (TFRD) have been used as an effective treatment of different bone diseases in humans. The current in vitro study was conducted to explore the therapeutic effect of TFRD on thiram-induced cytotoxicity in avian growth plate cells via bone morphogenetic protein-2/runt related transcription factor-2 (BMP-2/Runx2) and Indian hedgehog/Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (IHH/PTHrP) expressions. Chondrocytes were isolated, cultured and refined from chicken's tibial growth plates in a special medium. Then chondrocytes were treated with sublethal thiram having less concentration (2.5 µg/mL) to induce cytotoxicity of chondrocyte, and then treated with providential doses (100 µg/mL) of TFRD. Thiram caused distorted morphology of chondrocytes, nuclei appeared disintegration or lysed along with decreased expressions of BMP-2/Runx2 and IHH/PTHrP. TFRD administration not only enhanced the viability of chondrocytes by itself, but also well restored the damage caused by thiram on growth plate chondrocytes by significantly up-regulating the expressions of BMP-2/Runx2 and IHH/PTHrP. Therefore, this study provides a novel insight into the further treatment of TD and other skeletal ailments and lays the foundation for prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Polypodiaceae/química , Tiram/toxicidade , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Condrócitos/patologia , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Lâmina de Crescimento/citologia , Lâmina de Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteína Relacionada ao Hormônio Paratireóideo/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Rizoma , Regulação para Cima
14.
Acta Trop ; 212: 105671, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822671

RESUMO

To assess the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in natural grazing local breed cattle, 513 fecal samples from Tibetan yellow cattle and cattle-yaks were tested for these pathogens. Cryptosporidium, G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi in Tibetan yellow cattle prevalence were 0.7% (3/442), 3.8% (17/442) and 2.5% (11/442), respectively. Cryptosporidium bovis (n = 3), G. duodenalis assemblages A (n = 2) and E (n = 15) were identified based on sequence analysis. Among three E. bieneusi genotypes, I (n = 7), EbpC (n = 2) and CHC8 (n = 2) detected, EbpC was classified into Group 1, which has a significant zoonotic importance, whereas genotypes I and CHC8 belonged to Group 2. None of these pathogens was identified in cattle-yaks. The presence of zoonotic C. bovis, assemblage A and EbpC indicates Tibetan yellow cattle may be a potential spread source of intestinal pathogens with a zoonotic transmission risk. The relationships between natural free-range mode and the prevalence or genetic diversity of these pathogens need be confirmed in further studies.


Assuntos
Bovinos/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cryptosporidium/genética , Enterocytozoon/genética , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Tibet/epidemiologia
15.
Inflamm Res ; 69(8): 765-777, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444883

RESUMO

Inflammation plays a negative role in the growth and development of bone. However, the underlining mechanisms of inflammation caused abnormal bone development and even bone disease are still poorly understood, especially in chickens. In this study, we explored the influence of inflammation on bone formation in broilers for the first time by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to establish systemic inflammatory models in chickens with tibia as the research object. The measurements of production and tibial parameters showed an inefficient production performance and lower growth rate in LPS group. We also found a large amount of platelets, inflammatory cells in chickens' blood and higher levels of inflammatory factors in serum after LPS injection, meanwhile, increase in thrombus, chondrocyte nucleolysis, and osteoclasts and a reduction in blood vessels were observed in growth plate through histological observation. The qPCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression levels of NF-κB, TLR4, TF, TPO, and its receptor C-MPL enhanced, while VEGFA was inhibited in LPS group. In addition, in OPG/RANKL system, OPG was decreased while RANKL enhanced. It was also observed that the mRNA levels of MMP-9 and its inducing factor CD147 enhanced in LPS group. The western blot results were basically in consistent with mRNA test. Thus, we infer that inflammation can inhibit bone modeling and remodeling by affecting angiogenesis and osteogenesis, and result in negative effect on bone formation furtherly.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/complicações , Interleucina-6/sangue , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/análise , Ligante RANK/sangue
16.
Microb Pathog ; 144: 104190, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272216

RESUMO

The intestinal protozoan specie, Cryptosporidium causes serious diarrheal syndrome in humans and animals worldwide. However, limited knowledge is known about the infection caused by this specie in yaks in Naqu. About 950 serum and 150 fecal samples were collected and assayed by using commercial ELISA kits and nPCR detection methods to find the prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in yaks. Results found that 103 out of 950 (10.8%) serums were uncovered against C. parvum antibodies. In different regions, the prevalence of C. parvum in yaks were in a range from 9.1% to 16.7%, with obvious difference among the three areas (P < 0.001). In male and female yaks, the prevalence of C. parvum was found to be 7.2% and 13.3% respectively (P < 0.001); and a significant difference (P < 0.001) with a range of 9.8%-18.2% was observed among different age groups. Out of 150 fecal samples, only 2 (1.3%) positive samples were detected via nPCR. The positive samples were sequenced and identified to be C. bovis. The two isolates were clustered to cattle and yak clade separately. Our results highlight the prevalence and epidemiological status of Cryptosporidium spp. in yaks which may contribute towards the prevention and control of this zoonotic disease in Naqu, China.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
17.
Microb Pathog ; 145: 104213, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333954

RESUMO

Current problem of antibiotic resistance and the high incidence of bacterial diseases has brought huge losses to the yak breeding industry in Tibet. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to isolate Lactobacillus with safety and beneficial probiotic potential for the prophylaxis of intestinal diseases in yaks. After 16S rDNA sequence, four strains i.e. Lactobacillus sakei (named L4), Enterococcus hirae (named E5), Pediococcus acidilactici (named P7), Weissella confusa (named W8) were isolated from feces of yaks. The results of tolerance to acid, bile salt, enzyme and temperature showed that P7 was highly tolerant to acid, bile salt and digestive enzyme, while E5 was more resistant to temperature. The antibacterial assay showed L4 had a strong inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus (BNCC186335), and E5, P7, W8 had effective antibacterial ability against Escherichia coli (C83902). In addition, L4, E5, P7 and W8 mainly produced organic acids and bacteriocin production to inhibit common intestinal pathogens. The results of antibiotic susceptibility assay indicated that L4, E5, P7 and W8 were highly sensitive to most clinically used antibiotics and didn't contain the VanA and VanB genes on the basis of PCR amplification, and L4, E5, P7 and W8 didn't exhibit hemolytic activity. The animal toxicity experiment results showed that no obvious pathological change was found in intestinal tissue sections, and L4, E5 and W8 strains also promoted the growth performance of mice, consequently, the L4, E5, P7 and W8 had no toxic effect on mice. In conclusion, lactobacillus isolated from feces of yaks not only have potential probiotics and strong antibacterial ability in vitro, but also are safe. Therefore, they have the potential to reduce the occurrence of bacterial diseases as new feed additives.


Assuntos
Probióticos , Weissella , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Lactobacillus/genética , Camundongos , Tibet
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110126, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918251

RESUMO

Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is a dithiocarbamate pesticide used for crop protection and storage. But, it's widespread utilization is associated with deleterious growth plate cartilage disorder in broilers termed as avian tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). TD results in non-mineralized and less vascularized proximal tibial growth plate cartilage causing lameness and poor growth performance. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of puerarin against thiram toxicity in TD affected chickens. One-day-old broiler chickens (n = 240) were alienated into three equal groups i.e. control, TD and puerarin (n = 80) and were offered standard feed. Additionally, TD and puerarin groups were offered thiram at 50 mg/kg of feed from 4 to 7 days for TD induction followed by puerarin therapy at 120 mg/kg to puerarin group only from 8 to 18 days for TD treatment. Thiram feeding to TD and puerarin group chickens caused lameness, mortality, and increased the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and growth plate (GP) size and upregulated HIF-1α expression. Besides, the production parameters, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels and the expressions of TIMP-3 and BCL-2 were decreased (p < 0.05). Puerarin alleviated lameness, enhanced angiogenesis and growth performance and serum and antioxidant enzymes, decreased apoptosis and recuperated GP width by significantly downregulating HIF-1α and upregulating the TIMP-3 and BCL-2 mRNA and protein expressions in puerarin group chickens (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the toxic effects associated with thiram can be mitigated using puerarin.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Tiram/toxicidade , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Lâmina de Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/metabolismo
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(10): 11337-11348, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960246

RESUMO

Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is widely used in agricultural production as an insecticide and fungicide, which can also lead to tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) in poultry. TD is characterized by leg disorders and growth performance retardation, and no targeted drugs have been found to treat TD until now. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the ameliorative effect of traditional Chinese medicine naringin on thiram-induced TD chickens. A total of 180 one-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broiler chickens were randomly divided into three equal groups (n = 60): control group (standard diet), thiram-induced group (thiram 50 mg/kg from day 3 to day 7), and naringin-treated group (naringin 30 mg/kg from day 8 to day 18). During the 18-day experiment, the growth performance, tibial bone parameters, antioxidant property of liver, serum biochemical changes and clinical symptoms were recorded to evaluate the protective effect of naringin in thiram-induced TD broiler chickens. Additionally, mRNA expressions and protein levels of Ihh and PTHrP genes were determined via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Administration of naringin showed significant results by alleviating lameness, increased growth performance, recuperated growth plate (GP) width, and improved functions and antioxidant enzyme level of liver in broilers affected by TD. Moreover, naringin treatment restored the development of damaged tibia bone via downregulating Ihh and upregulating PTHrP mRNA and protein expressions. In conclusion, our study determines naringin could be used as an effective medicine to treat TD.


Assuntos
Osteocondrodisplasias , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Flavanonas , Tiram , Tíbia
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