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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430412

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are common and conserved signal transduction pathways and play important roles in various biotic and abiotic stress responses and growth and developmental processes in plants. With the advancement of sequencing technology, more systematic genetic information is being explored. The work presented here focuses on two protein families in Brassica species: MAPK kinases (MKKs) and their phosphorylation substrates MAPKs. Forty-seven MKKs and ninety-two MAPKs were identified and extensively analyzed from two tetraploid (B. juncea and B. napus) and three diploid (B. nigra, B. oleracea, and B. rapa) Brassica species. Phylogenetic relationships clearly distinguished both MKK and MAPK families into four groups, labeled A-D, which were also supported by gene structure and conserved protein motif analysis. Furthermore, their spatial and temporal expression patterns and response to stresses (cold, drought, heat, and shading) were analyzed, indicating that BnaMKK and BnaMAPK transcript levels were generally modulated by growth, development, and stress signals. In addition, several protein interaction pairs between BnaMKKs and C group BnaMAPKs were detected by yeast two-hybrid assays, in which BnaMKK3 and BnaMKK9 showed strong interactions with BnaMAPK1/2/7, suggesting that interaction between BnaMKKs and C group BnaMAPKs play key roles in the crosstalk between growth and development processes and abiotic stresses. Taken together, our data provide a deeper foundation for the evolutionary and functional characterization of MKK and MAPK gene families in Brassica species, paving the way for unraveling the biological roles of these important signaling molecules in plants.

2.
Planta ; 253(1): 8, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387047

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The molecular mechanism underlying white petal color in Brassica napus was revealed by transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying flower color in this crop are known less. Here, we performed metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of the yellow-flowered rapeseed cultivar 'Zhongshuang 11' (ZS11) and the white-flowered inbred line 'White Petal' (WP). The total carotenoid contents were 1.778-fold and 1.969-fold higher in ZS11 vs. WP petals at stages S2 and S4, respectively. Our findings suggest that white petal color in WP flowers is primarily due to decreased lutein and zeaxanthin contents. Transcriptome analysis revealed 10,116 differentially expressed genes with a fourfold or greater change in expression (P-value less than 0.001) in WP vs. ZS11 petals, including 1,209 genes that were differentially expressed at four different stages and 20 genes in the carotenoid metabolism pathway. BnNCED4b, encoding a protein involved in carotenoid degradation, was expressed at abnormally high levels in WP petals, suggesting it might play a key role in white petal formation. The results of qRT-PCR were consistent with the transcriptome data. The results of this study provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in rapeseed petals, and the candidate genes identified in this study provide a resource for the creation of new B. napus germplasms with different petal colors.

3.
Environ Pollut ; 273: 116450, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477062

RESUMO

Microplastic pollution in marine environments and organisms has received a great deal of international attention. However, the long-term field studies of microplastics are rare. Here, we assessed annual variation in microplastic abundance in the Maowei Sea, a classic mariculture bay in southern China, and analyzed the long-term accumulation in oyster tissues. U-shaped time trends of microplastics in water were observed from January to December in 2018 in the estuarine region, inner bay, and mouth bay sites, representing an inverse relationship with the local rainfall patterns. The common microplastic particles in Maowei Sea are PET/PE fibers, and polystyrene foams, which are mainly related to textile pollution and fishery activities. After one year of continuous monitoring, we did not find accumulation of microplastics in the whole soft tissues of oyster after 10% KOH digestion. No significant correlation of microplastic abundances between water and oysters was observed. The microplastic abundance in oyster was correlated with some environmental variables (i.e. salinity, pH, nutrients and total organic carbon) of the surrounding water following Spearman correlation analysis. The microplastic levels in oysters could probably be influenced by the environmental variables.

4.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 871, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER (NRT1/PTR) family (NPF) members are essential transporters for many substrates in plants, including nitrate, hormones, peptides, and secondary metabolites. Here, we report the global characterization of NPF in the important oil crop Brassica napus, including that for phylogeny, gene/protein structures, duplications, and expression patterns. RESULTS: A total of 199 B. napus (BnaNPFs) NPF-coding genes were identified. Phylogenetic analyses categorized these genes into 11 subfamilies, including three new ones. Sequence feature analysis revealed that members of each subfamily contain conserved gene and protein structures. Many hormone-/abiotic stress-responsive cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding sites were identified in BnaNPF promoter regions. Chromosome distribution analysis indicated that BnaNPFs within a subfamily tend to cluster on one chromosome. Syntenic relationship analysis showed that allotetraploid creation by its ancestors (Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea) (57.89%) and small-scale duplication events (39.85%) contributed to rapid BnaNPF expansion in B. napus. A genome-wide spatiotemporal expression survey showed that NPF genes of each Arabidopsis and B. napus subfamily have preferential expression patterns across developmental stages, most of them are expressed in a few organs. RNA-seq analysis showed that many BnaNPFs (32.66%) have wide exogenous hormone-inductive profiles, suggesting important hormone-mediated patterns in diverse bioprocesses. Homologs in a clade or branch within a given subfamily have conserved organ/spatiotemporal and hormone-inductive profiles, indicating functional conservation during evolution. qRT-PCR-based comparative expression analysis of the 12 BnaNPFs in the NPF2-1 subfamily between high- and low-glucosinolate (GLS) content B. napus varieties revealed that homologs of AtNPF2.9 (BnaNPF2.12, BnaNPF2.13, and BnaNPF2.14), AtNPF2.10 (BnaNPF2.19 and BnaNPF2.20), and AtNPF2.11 (BnaNPF2.26 and BnaNPF2.28) might be involved in GLS transport. qRT-PCR further confirmed the hormone-responsive expression profiles of these putative GLS transporter genes. CONCLUSION: We identified 199 B. napus BnaNPFs; these were divided into 11 subfamilies. Allopolyploidy and small-scale duplication events contributed to the immense expansion of BnaNPFs in B. napus. The BnaNPFs had preferential expression patterns in different tissues/organs and wide hormone-induced expression profiles. Four BnaNPFs in the NPF2-1 subfamily may be involved in GLS transport. Our results provide an abundant gene resource for further functional analysis of BnaNPFs.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322211

RESUMO

The KT/HAK/KUP (HAK) family is the largest potassium (K+) transporter family in plants, which plays key roles in K+ uptake and homeostasis, stress resistance, and root and embryo development. However, the HAK family has not yet been characterized in Brassica napus. In this study, 40 putative B. napus HAK genes (BnaHAKs) are identified and divided into four groups (Groups I-III and V) on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. Gene structure analysis revealed 10 conserved intron insertion sites across different groups. Collinearity analysis demonstrated that both allopolyploidization and small-scale duplication events contributed to the large expansion of BnaHAKs. Transcription factor (TF)-binding network construction, cis-element analysis, and microRNA prediction revealed that the expression of BnaHAKs is regulated by multiple factors. Analysis of RNA-sequencing data further revealed extensive expression profiles of the BnaHAKs in groups II, III, and V, with limited expression in group I. Compared with group I, most of the BnaHAKs in groups II, III, and V were more upregulated by hormone induction based on RNA-sequencing data. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase reaction analysis revealed that the expression of eight BnaHAKs of groups I and V was markedly upregulated under K+-deficiency treatment. Collectively, our results provide valuable information and key candidate genes for further functional studies of BnaHAKs.

6.
Genomics ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171205

RESUMO

Polygalacturonase (PG) is a hydrolase that participates in pectin degradation, pod shattering and fruit softening. Here, we identified 2786 PG genes across 54 plants, which could be divided into three groups. Evolutionary analysis suggested that PG family originated from the charophyte green algae, and Subgroups A2-A4 evolved from the Subgroup A1 after the tracheophyte-angiosperm split. Whole-genome duplication was the major force leading to PG gene expansion. Interestingly, the PG genes continuously expanded in eudicots, whereas it contracted in monocots after the eudicot-monocot split. PG genes in Group A are expressed at high levels in floral organs, whereas genes in Groups B and C are expressed at high levels in various tissues. Moreover, three BnaPG15 members were found for their potential possibility in pod shattering in Brassica napus. Our results provide new insight into the evolutionary history of PG family, and their potentially functional role in plants.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211292

RESUMO

Contamination of aquatic systems mainly by urbanization and poor sanitation, deficient or lack of wastewater treatments, dumping of solid residues, and run off has led to the presence of particles, including manmade polymers, in tissues of many marine and freshwater species. In this study, the prevalence of microplastics (MPs) in freshwater fish from farmed and natural sources was investigated. Oreochromis niloticus from aquaculture farms in the Huila region in Colombia, and two local species (Prochilodus magdalenae and Pimelodus grosskopfii), naturally present in surface waters were sampled. Of the particles identified, fragments were the predominant type in the three tissue types (stomach, gill, and flesh) derived from farmed and natural fishes. MicroFT-IR spectroscopy was conducted on 208 randomly selected samples, with 22% of particles identified as MPs based on spectra with a match rate ≥ 70%. A total of 53% of identified particles corresponded to cellophane/cellulose, the most abundant particle found in all fish. Not all fish contained MPs: 44% of Oreochromis farmed fish contained MPs, while 75% of natural source fish contained MPs in any of its tissues. Overall, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyester (PES), and polyethylene (PE) were the prevalent MPs found in the freshwater fish. A broader variety of polymer types was observed in farmed fish. The edible flesh part of fish presented the lower prevalence of MPs compared to gill and stomach (gut), with gut displaying a higher frequency and diversity of MPs. This preliminary study suggests that the incidence and type of MPs varies in farmed verses natural fish sources as well as across different tissue types, with significantly less detected within the edible flesh tissues compared with stomach and gill tissues.

8.
J Exp Bot ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249500

RESUMO

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been discovered in crops, where some of causal quantitative trait genes (QTGs) may not be functionally characterized even in model plant Arabidopsis. We propose an approach to delineate QTGs by coordinating expression of genes located within QTL in crops and known orthologs related with trait from Arabidopsis. Using this method, we established an acyl-lipid metabolism co-expression network in developing siliques 15 days after pollination in 71 lines of rapeseed with 21 modules, which are composed of 270 known acyl-lipid genes and 3,503 new genes. The core module harbored 76 known genes involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol biosynthesis and 671 new genes involved in sucrose transport, carbon metabolism, amino acid metabolism, seed storage protein process, seed maturation and phytohormone metabolism. Moreover, the core module closely associates with the modules of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. From the co-expression network, we selected 12 hub genes to identify their putative Arabidopsis orthologs. These putative orthologs were functionally analyzed using Arabidopsis knockout and over-expression lines. Four knockout mutants exhibited lower seed oil content, while the seed oil content in 10 over-expression lines was significantly increased. Therefore, combining gene co-expression network analysis and QTL mapping provides new insights into the detection of QTGs.

9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 473, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are signaling enzymes that play pivotal roles in response to abiotic and biotic stresses by phosphorylating diacylglycerol (DAG) to form phosphatidic acid (PA). However, no comprehensive analysis of the DGK gene family had previously been reported in B. napus and its diploid progenitors (B. rapa and B. oleracea). RESULTS: In present study, we identified 21, 10, and 11 DGK genes from B. napus, B. rapa, and B. oleracea, respectively, which all contained conserved catalytic domain and were further divided into three clusters. Molecular evolutionary analysis showed that speciation and whole-genome triplication (WGT) was critical for the divergence of duplicated DGK genes. RNA-seq transcriptome data revealed that, with the exception of BnaDGK4 and BnaDGK6, BnaDGK genes have divergent expression patterns in most tissues. Furthermore, some DGK genes were upregulated or downregulated in response to hormone treatment and metal ion (arsenic and cadmium) stress. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that different BnaDGK genes contribute to seed oil content. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our results indicate that DGK genes have diverse roles in plant growth and development, hormone response, and metal ion stress, and in determining seed oil content, and lay a foundation for further elucidating the roles of DGKs in Brassica species.

10.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(10): e1008919, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002079

RESUMO

Necrotrophic plant pathogen induces host reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which leads to necrosis in the host, allowing the pathogen to absorb nutrients from the dead tissues. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a typical necrotrophic pathogen that causes Sclerotinia stem rot in more than 400 species, resulting in serious economic losses. Here, we found that three S. sclerotiorum genes involved in copper ion import/transport, SsCTR1, SsCCS and SsATX1, were significantly up-regulated during infection of Brassica oleracea. Function analysis revealed that these genes involved in fungal ROS detoxification and virulence. On the host side, four genes putatively involved in copper ion homeostasis, BolCCS, BolCCH, BolMT2A and BolDRT112, were significantly down-regulated in susceptible B. oleracea, but stably expressed in resistant B. oleracea during infection. Their homologs were found to promote resistance to S. sclerotiorum and increase antioxidant activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, copper concentration analysis indicated that copper flow from healthy area into the necrotic area during infection. A model was proposed that S. sclerotiorum utilizes host copper to detoxify ROS in its cells, whereas the resistant hosts may restrict the supply of essential copper nutrients to S. sclerotiorum by maintaining copper ion homeostasis during infection.

11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 458, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, climate-change-induced environmental stresses negatively impact on its yield and quality. Cuticular waxes are known to protect plants from various abiotic/biotic stresses. Dissecting the genetic and biochemical basis underlying cuticular waxes is important to breed cultivars with improved stress tolerance. RESULTS: Here a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 192 B. napus cultivars and inbred lines was used to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with leaf waxes. A total of 202 SNPs was found to be significantly associated with 31 wax traits including total wax coverage and the amounts of wax classes and wax compounds. Next, epidermal peels from leaves of both high-wax load (HW) and low-wax load (LW) lines were isolated and used to analyze transcript profiles of all GWAS-identified genes. Consequently, 147 SNPs were revealed to have differential expressions between HW and LW lines, among which 344 SNP corresponding genes exhibited up-regulated while 448 exhibited down-regulated expressions in LW when compared to those in HW. According to the gene annotation information, some differentially expressed genes were classified into plant acyl lipid metabolism, including fatty acid-related pathways, wax and cutin biosynthesis pathway and wax secretion. Some genes involved in cell wall formation and stress responses have also been identified. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of GWAS with transcriptomic analysis revealed a number of directly or indirectly wax-related genes and their associated SNPs. These results could provide clues for further validation of SNPs for marker-assisted breeding and provide new insights into the genetic control of wax biosynthesis and improving stress tolerance of B. napus.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238179, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881902

RESUMO

Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), a key enzyme in carotenoid metabolism, cleaves carotenoids to form apo-carotenoids, which play a major role in plant growth and stress responses. CCD genes had not previously been systematically characterized in Brassica napus (rapeseed), an important oil crop worldwide. In this study, we identified 30 BnCCD genes and classified them into nine subgroups based on a phylogenetic analysis. We identified the chromosomal locations, gene structures, and cis-promoter elements of each of these genes and performed a selection pressure analysis to identify residues under selection. Furthermore, we determined the subcellular localization, physicochemical properties, and conserved protein motifs of the encoded proteins. All the CCD proteins contained a retinal pigment epithelial membrane protein (RPE65) domain. qRT-PCR analysis of expression of 20 representative BnCCD genes in 16 tissues of the B. napus cultivar Zhong Shuang 11 ('ZS11') revealed that members of the BnCCD gene family possess a broad range of expression patterns. This work lays the foundation for functional studies of the BnCCD gene family.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/enzimologia , Dioxigenases/genética , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Brassica napus/genética , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Dioxigenases/classificação , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
13.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 13: 134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774455

RESUMO

Background: Brassica napus is one of the most important oilseed crops, and also an important biofuel plant due to its low air pollution and renewability. Growth period are important traits that affect yield and are crucial for its adaptation to different environments in B. napus. Results: To elucidate the genetic basis of growth period traits, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) and linkage mapping were employed to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for days to initial flowering (DIF), days to final flowering (DFF), flowering period (FP), maturity time (MT), and whole growth period (GP). A total of 146 SNPs were identified by association mapping, and 83 QTLs were identified by linkage mapping using the RIL population. Among these QTLs, 19 were pleiotropic SNPs related to multiple traits, and six (q18DFF.A03-2, q18MT.A03-2, q17DFF.A05-1, q18FP.C04, q17DIF.C05 and q17GP.C09) were consistently detected using both mapping methods. Additionally, we performed RNA sequencing to analyze the differential expression of gene (DEG) transcripts between early- and late-flowering lines selected from the RIL population, and the DEGs were integrated with association mapping and linkage analysis to confirm their roles in the growth period. Consequently, 12 candidate genes associated with growth period traits were identified in B. napus. Among these genes, seven have polymorphic sites in the coding sequence and the upstream 2-kb sequence based on the resequencing data. The haplotype BnaSOC1.A05-Haplb and BnaLNK2.C06-Hapla showed more favorable phenotypic traits. Conclusions: The candidate genes identified in this study will contribute to our genetic understanding of growth period traits and can be used as targets for target mutations or marker-assisted breeding for rapeseed adapted to different environments.

14.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825473

RESUMO

The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) protein family is important in the export of toxins and other substrates, but detailed information on this family in the Brassicaceae has not yet been reported compared to Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we identified 57, 124, 81, 85, 130, and 79 MATE genes in A. thaliana, Brassica napus, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea, and Brassica nigra, respectively, which were unevenly distributed on chromosomes owing to both tandem and segmental duplication events. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these genes could be classified into four subgroups, shared high similarity and conservation within each group, and have evolved mainly through purifying selection. Furthermore, numerous B. napusMATE genes showed differential expression between tissues and developmental stages and between plants treated with heavy metals or hormones and untreated control plants. This differential expression was especially pronounced for the Group 2 and 3 BnaMATE genes, indicating that they may play important roles in stress tolerance and hormone induction. Our results provide a valuable foundation for the functional dissection of the different BnaMATE homologs in B. napus and its parental lines, as well as for the breeding of more stress-tolerant B. napus genotypes.

15.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(8)2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752101

RESUMO

Yellow seed coat color is a desirable characteristic in rapeseed (Brassica napus), as it is associated with higher oil content and higher quality of meal. Alternative splicing (AS) is a vital post-transcriptional regulatory process contributing to plant cell differentiation and organ development. To identify novel transcripts and differences at the isoform level that are associated with seed color in B. napus, we compared 31 RNA-seq libraries of yellow- and black-seeded B. napus at five different developmental stages. AS events in the different samples were highly similar, and intron retention accounted for a large proportion of the observed AS pattern. AS mainly occurred in the early and middle stage of seed development. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) identified 23 co-expression modules composed of differentially spliced genes, and we picked out two of the modules whose functions were highly associated with seed color. In the two modules, we found candidate DAS (differentially alternative splicing) genes related to the flavonoid pathway, such as TT8 (BnaC09g24870D), TT5 (BnaA09g34840D and BnaC08g26020D), TT12 (BnaC06g17050D and BnaA07g18120D), AHA10 (BnaA08g23220D and BnaC08g17280D), CHI (BnaC09g50050D), BAN (BnaA03g60670D) and DFR (BnaC09g17150D). Gene BnaC03g23650D, encoding RNA-binding family protein, was also identified. The splicing of the candidate genes identified in this study might be used to develop stable, yellow-seeded B. napus. This study provides insight into the formation of seed coat color in B. napus.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823802

RESUMO

The genus Brassica contains several economically important crops, including rapeseed (Brassica napus, 2n = 38, AACC), the second largest source of seed oil and protein meal worldwide. However, research in rapeseed is hampered because it is complicated and time-consuming for researchers to access different types of expression data. We therefore developed the Brassica Expression Database (BrassicaEDB) for the research community. In the current BrassicaEDB, we only focused on the transcriptome level in rapeseed. We conducted RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of 103 tissues from rapeseed cultivar ZhongShuang11 (ZS11) at seven developmental stages (seed germination, seedling, bolting, initial flowering, full-bloom, podding, and maturation). We determined the expression patterns of 101,040 genes via FPKM analysis and displayed the results using the eFP browser. We also analyzed transcriptome data for rapeseed from 70 BioProjects in the SRA database and obtained three types of expression level data (FPKM, TPM, and read counts). We used this information to develop the BrassicaEDB, including "eFP", "Treatment", "Coexpression", and "SRA Project" modules based on gene expression profiles and "Gene Feature", "qPCR Primer", and "BLAST" modules based on gene sequences. The BrassicaEDB provides comprehensive gene expression profile information and a user-friendly visualization interface for rapeseed researchers. Using this database, researchers can quickly retrieve the expression level data for target genes in different tissues and in response to different treatments to elucidate gene functions and explore the biology of rapeseed at the transcriptome level.

17.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(7)2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668742

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS) is a post-transcriptional level of gene expression regulation that increases transcriptome and proteome diversity. How the AS landscape of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) changes in response to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is unknown. Here, we analyzed 18 RNA-seq libraries of mock-inoculated and S. sclerotiorum-inoculated susceptible and tolerant B. napus plants. We found that infection increased AS, with intron retention being the main AS event. To determine the key genes functioning in the AS response, we performed a differential AS (DAS) analysis. We identified 79 DAS genes, including those encoding splicing factors, defense response proteins, crucial transcription factors and enzymes. We generated coexpression networks based on the splicing isoforms, rather than the genes, to explore the genes' diverse functions. Using this weighted gene coexpression network analysis alongside a gene ontology enrichment analysis, we identified 11 modules putatively involved in the pathogen defense response. Within these regulatory modules, six DAS genes (ascorbate peroxidase 1, ser/arg-rich protein 34a, unknown function 1138, nitrilase 2, v-atpase f, and amino acid transporter 1) were considered to encode key isoforms involved in the defense response. This study provides insight into the post-transcriptional response of B. napus to S. sclerotiorum infection.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234411, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511257

RESUMO

The AINTEGUMENTA-like (AIL) proteins, which belong to the AP2 family, play important roles in regulating the growth and development of plant organs. The AIL family has not yet been comprehensively studied in rapeseed (Brassica napus), an allotetraploid and model organism for the study of polyploid evolution. In the present study, 99 AIL family genes were identified and characterized from B. rapa, B. oleracea, B. napus, B. juncea, and B. nigra using a comprehensive genome-wide study, including analyses of phylogeny, gene structure, chromosomal localization, and expression pattern. Using a phylogenetic analysis, the AIL genes were divided into eight groups, which were closely related to the eight AtAIL genes, and which shared highly conserved structural features within the same subfamily. The non-synonymous/synonymous substitution ratios of the paralogs and orthologs were less than 1, suggesting that the AIL genes mainly experienced purifying selection during evolution. In addition, the RNA sequencing data and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the B. napus AIL genes exhibited organ- and developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Certain genes were highly expressed in the developing seeds (BnaAIL1, BnaAIL2, BnaAIL5, and BnaAIL6), the roots (BnaANT, BnaAIL5, and BnaAIL6), and the stem (BnaAIL7B). Our results provide valuable information for further functional analysis of the AIL family in B. napus and related Brassica species.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Brassica/genética , Genes de Plantas , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Sequência Conservada , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sintenia
19.
Biomolecules ; 10(6)2020 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517318

RESUMO

MYB proteins are involved in diverse important biological processes in plants. Herein, we obtained the MYB superfamily from the allotetraploid Brassica napus, which contains 227 MYB-related (BnMYBR/Bn1R-MYB), 429 R2R3-MYB (Bn2R-MYB), 22 R1R2R3-MYB (Bn3R-MYB), and two R1R2R2R1/2-MYB (Bn4R-MYB) genes. Phylogenetic analysis classified the Bn2R-MYBs into 43 subfamilies, and the BnMYBRs into five subfamilies. Sequence characteristics and exon/intron structures within each subfamily of the Bn2R-MYBs and BnMYBRs were highly conserved. The whole superfamily was unevenly distributed on 19 chromosomes and underwent unbalanced expansion in B. napus. Allopolyploidy between B. oleracea and B. rapa mainly contributed to the expansion in their descendent B. napus, in which B. rapa-derived genes were more retained. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of 2R-MYB proteins from nine Brassicaceae and seven non-Brassicaceae species identified five Brassicaceae-specific subfamilies and five subfamilies that are lacking from the examined Brassicaceae species, which provided an example for the adaptive evolution of the 2R-MYB gene family alongside angiosperm diversification. Ectopic expression of four Bn2R-MYBs under the control of the viral CaMV35S and/or native promoters could rescue the lesser root hair phenotype of the Arabidopsis thaliana wer mutant plants, proving the conserved negative roles of the 2R-MYBs of the S15 subfamily in root hair development. RNA-sequencing data revealed that the Bn2R-MYBs and BnMYBRs had diverse transcript profiles in roots in response to the treatments with various hormones. Our findings provide valuable information for further functional characterizations of B. napus MYB genes.

20.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(6)2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549312

RESUMO

Sugars are important throughout a plant's lifecycle. Monosaccharide transporters (MST) are essential sugar transporters that have been identified in many plants, but little is known about the evolution or functions of MST genes in rapeseed (Brassica napus). In this study, we identified 175 MST genes in B. napus, 87 in Brassica oleracea, and 83 in Brassica rapa. These genes were separated into the sugar transport protein (STP), polyol transporter (PLT), vacuolar glucose transporter (VGT), tonoplast monosaccharide transporter (TMT), inositol transporter (INT), plastidic glucose transporter (pGlcT), and ERD6-like subfamilies, respectively. Phylogenetic and syntenic analysis indicated that gene redundancy and gene elimination have commonly occurred in Brassica species during polyploidization. Changes in exon-intron structures during evolution likely resulted in the differences in coding regions, expression patterns, and functions seen among BnMST genes. In total, 31 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified through RNA-seq among materials with high and low harvest index (HI) values, which were divided into two categories based on the qRT-PCR results, expressed more highly in source or sink organs. We finally identified four genes, including BnSTP5, BnSTP13, BnPLT5, and BnERD6-like14, which might be involved in monosaccharide uptake or unloading and further affect the HI of rapeseed. These findings provide fundamental information about MST genes in Brassica and reveal the importance of BnMST genes to high HI in B. napus.

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