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1.
Int Health ; 11(S1): S33-S44, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the popularization of smartphones in China, the conditions of smartphone use (SU) and problematic smartphone use (PSU) among migrant workers are unknown. This study explored the patterns and influencing factors of SU and PSU in migrant workers in Shanghai, China. Furthermore, the mediation effects of PSU in the link between SU and some psychological factors were also examined. METHODS: Questionnaires containing the Mobile Phone Addiction Index, Patient Health Questionnaire, World Health Organization Five-item Well-being Index and other items, including demographics, sleep quality, job stress and SU, were distributed to 2330 migrant workers by trained investigators in six districts of Shanghai from June to September 2018. RESULTS: Of the 2129 returned questionnaires, 2115 were valid. SU and PSU varied according to certain demographics. Many demographics, psychological factors, sleep quality and main smartphone applications were influencing factors for SU and PSU. PSU played a mediating role in the link between daily SU time and psychological factors, including depression, mental health and job stress. CONCLUSIONS: The health influences of SU and PSU on migrant workers in Shanghai merit significant attention. Additionally, it is necessary to develop and target intervention strategies according to the workers' various characteristics and SU patterns.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(94): 14214-14217, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709427

RESUMO

We report the first proof of concept for a nonaqueous, all-organic semisolid flow battery (SSFB) using suspensions of 10-methylphenothiazine@Ketjen black and thioxanthone@Ketjen black dispersed in tetraethylammonium hexafluorophosphate/acetonitrile as the cathode and anode, respectively. A proof of principle cell with an open circuit voltage of 2.35 V demonstrated an average coulombic efficiency of 83% within the voltage range 3.0-0 V. This study provides a potential path for developing new high energy density and cost-effective nonaqueous organic SSFBs.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717497

RESUMO

Deinococcus radiodurans is best known for its extraordinary resistance to diverse environmental stress factors, such as ionizing radiation, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, desiccation, oxidation, and high temperatures. The heat response of this bacterium is considered to be due to a classical, stress-induced regulatory system that is characterized by extensive transcriptional reprogramming. In this study, we investigated the key functional genes involved in heat stress that were expressed and accumulated in cells (R48) following heat treatment at 48 °C for 2 h. Considering that protein degradation is a time-consuming bioprocess, we predicted that to maintain cellular homeostasis, the expression of the key functional proteins would be significantly decreased in cells (RH) that had partly recovered from heat stress relative to their expression in cells (R30) grown under control conditions. Comparative transcriptomics identified 15 genes that were significantly downregulated in RH relative to R30, seven of which had previously been characterized to be heat shock proteins. Among these genes, three hypothetical genes (dr_0127, dr_1083, and dr_1325) are highly likely to be involved in response to heat stress. Survival analysis of mutant strains lacking DR_0127 (a DNA-binding protein), DR_1325 (an endopeptidase-like protein), and DR_1083 (a hypothetical protein) showed a reduction in heat tolerance compared to the wild-type strain. These results suggest that DR_0127, DR_1083, and DR_1325 might play roles in the heat stress response. Overall, the results of this study provide deeper insights into the transcriptional regulation of the heat response in D. radiodurans.

4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 858, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reform of county-level public hospitals is a breakthrough in the new era of healthcare reform in China and has attracted considerable attention since 2012. Continuous and efficient operations of hospital are primary concerns of this reform. To ensure the effectiveness of county-based intervention reform measures in Chongqing, it is significant to understand how hospital and county characteristics are associated with county-level public hospital efficiency due to significant development differences between counties. This study identifies the trajectory of hospital efficiency over time and determinants. It will also provide preliminary references for advancing reform. METHODS: This study employs data from the Chongqing Regional Health Information Platform, Chongqing Health and Family Planning Statistical Yearbook, and Chongqing Statistical Yearbook for 2012-2016. A three-level growth model is used to estimate the efficiency growth trajectories within the contexts of hospitals and counties. RESULTS: The intra-hospital level factors that affect the initial efficiency include government financial assistance, daily charge per bed, total assets turnover, number of hospital healthcare technicians, and medical costs per 100-yuan medical income. Inter-hospital variance is explained by hospital type. Inter-county level factors affecting the growth rate include the number of healthcare technicians per 1000 people and population density of the county. The interaction effect of the number of hospital healthcare technicians, hospital type, and number of healthcare technicians per 1000 people on hospital efficiency growth is significant. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies determinants that contribute to efficiency changes in public county-hospitals over time by using a three-level growth model. The differences in efficiency are associated with intra-hospital, inter-hospital, and inter-county characteristics in Chongqing, which provides useful insight into government decision-making and the progress of reform. The stability and reasonable increase in the number of healthcare technicians in a county are the key factors that improve the efficiency. Further reform should focus on maternal and child healthcare hospitals for increasing investment and implementing government compensation.

5.
Cell Commun Signal ; 17(1): 153, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) mainly results from overexpression and down-regulation of AR. Sumoylation of AR can influence its function. However, regulation of AR sumoylation by SUMO E3 ligases PIASs to modify AR distribution and stability are not well understood. METHODS: We assessed the potential effect of SUMO3 modification on AR intracellular localization by immunostaining in AR-negative prostate cancer DU145 cells, and detected the effect of PIAS1/SUMO3 overexpression on AR sumoylation related degradation. Then we characterized AR sumoylation sites involved modified by SUMO3, and the key residue of PIAS1 involved in itself sumoylation and further mediated AR sumoylation (sumo3-conjugated), translocation and degradation. Finally we detected the recognition of PIAS1 (sumoylation ligase) to MDM2, a ubiquin ligase mediated AR degradation. RESULTS: We demonstrate that SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1, along with SUMO3, mediates AR cytosolic translocation and subsequent degradation via a ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Although AR sumoylation occurs prior to ubiquitination, the SUMO-acceptor lysine 386 on AR, together with ubiquitin-acceptor lysine 845, contribute to PIAS1/SUMO3-induced AR nuclear export, ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Moreover, PIAS1 itself is modified by SUMO3 overexpression, and mutation of SUMO-acceptor lysine 117 on PIAS1 can impair AR cytoplasmic distribution, demonstrating the essential role of sumoylated PIAS1 in AR translocation. We further determine that sumoylated PIAS1 interacts with AR lysine 386 and 845 to form a binary complex. Consistent with the effect on AR distribution, SUMO3 modification of PIAS1 is also required for AR ubiquitination and degradation by recruiting ubiquitin E3 ligase MDM2. CONCLUSION: Taken together, SUMO3 modification of PIAS1 modulates AR cellular distribution and stability. Our study provided the evidence the crosstalk between AR sumoylation and ubquitination mediated by PIAS1 and SUMO3.

6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1209: 79-108, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728866

RESUMO

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are sensors of exogenous and endogenous "danger" signals from pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), while autophagy can respond to these signals to control homeostasis. Almost all PRRs can induce autophagy directly or indirectly. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Nod-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway can induce autophagy directly through Beclin-1 or LC3-dependent pathway, while the interactions with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)/high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), CD91/Calreticulin, and TLRs/HSPs are achieved by protein, Ca2+, and mitochondrial homeostasis. Autophagy presents antigens to PRRs and helps to clean the pathogens. In addition, the induced autophagy can form a negative feedback regulation of PRRs-mediated inflammation in cell/disease-specific manner to maintain homeostasis and prevent excessive inflammation. Understanding the interaction between PRRs and autophagy in a specific disease will promote drug development for immunotherapy. Here, we focus on the interactions between PRRs and autophagy and how they affect the inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Inflamação , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão , Autofagia/imunologia , Humanos , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14929, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624328

RESUMO

Tanshinones are important bioactive components in Salvia miltiorrhiza and mainly accumulate in the periderms of mature roots. Tanshinone biosynthesis is a complicated process, and little is known about the third stage of the pathway. To investigate potential genes that are responsible for tanshinone biosynthesis, we conducted transcriptome profiling analysis of two S. miltiorrhiza cultivars. Differential expression analysis provided 2,149 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for further analysis. GO and KEGG analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly associated with the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) was further performed to identify a "cyan" module associated with tanshinone biosynthesis. In this module, 25 cytochromes P450 (CYPs), three 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2OGDs), one short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases (SDRs) and eight transcription factors were found to be likely involved in tanshinone biosynthesis. Among these CYPs, 14 CYPs have been reported previously, and 11 CYPs were identified in this study. Expression analysis showed that four newly identified CYPs were upregulated upon application of MeJA, suggesting their possible roles in tanshinone biosynthesis. Overall, this study not only identified candidate genes involved in tanshinone biosynthesis but also provided a basis for characterization of genes involved in important active ingredients of other traditional Chinese medicinal plants.

8.
Infect Genet Evol ; 77: 104070, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614213

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is still a leading cause of death worldwide. M. tuberculosis has evolved multipronged strategies to subvert host immune defenses and establish an immunologically privileged niche in macrophages. Rv0426c has been predicted to be an effector involved in the Mtb-host interactions. To investigate the potential role played by Rv0426c, we constructed recombinant M. smegmatis strains with heterologous expression of Rv0426c. We observed that Rv0426c recombinants became more susceptible to various stresses by increasing cell wall permeability, however with elevated early survival rate within macrophages. This was accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and host cell apoptosis. The data suggested that Rv0426c was a new player involved in the interactions between Mtb and macrophages.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(44): 17861-17866, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603326

RESUMO

DNA has evolved to be a type of unparalleled material for storing and transmitting genetic information. Much recent attention has been drawn to translate the natural specificity of DNA hybridization reactions for information storage in vitro. In this work, we developed a new type of tubular nucleic acid (TNA) by condensing DNA chains on the surface of one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We find that DNA interacts with CNTs in a sequence-specific manner, resulting in different conformations including helix, i-motif, and G-quadruplex. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) imaging revealed that TNAs exhibit distinct patterns with characteristic height and distance that can be exploited for two-dimensional encoding on CNTs. We further demonstrate the use of TNA-CNT for information storage with visual output. This noncanonical, DNA hybridization-free strategy provides a new route to DNA-based data storage.

10.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636356

RESUMO

Stimulation of the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor (HTR1A) has been shown to contribute to the mechanism of action of some atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs), including clozapine and lurasidone. A meta-analysis of rs6295, a functional polymorphism located at the promoter region of HTR1A, showed association with clinical response in schizophrenic patients treated with atypical APD. We have now tested whether other SNPs related to rs6295 predict response to lurasidone. We first evaluated whether rs358532 and rs6449693, tag SNPs for rs6295, predicted response to lurasidone, using data from two clinical trials of acutely psychotic schizophrenia patients with European (EUR, n = 171) or African (AFR, n = 131) ancestry; we then determined if those findings could be replicated in a third trial of lurasidone of similar design. Weekly changes (up to 6 weeks) in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Total score and its five subscales were used to assess response. In EUR, a significant association, or trends for association, were observed for PANSS Total (p = 0.035), positive (p = 0.039), negative (p = 0.004), and disorganization (p = 0.0087) subscales, at week 1-6. There was a trend for replication with PANNS Total (p = 0.036) in the third trial. No significant association was observed in AFR or the placebo group. Meta-analysis of five studies, including the three with lurasidone, showed that rs6295 was associated with improvement in positive (p = 0.023) and negative (p ≤ 0.0001) symptoms in EUR patients with schizophrenia. This is the first study to show a significant association between functional HTR1A polymorphisms and treatment response to lurasidone. The meta-analysis provides additional evidence that rs6295 could be a race-dependent biomarker for predicting treatment response to APDs in schizophrenic patients with European Ancestry.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Linezolid (LZD) has been listed as the group A medications for the treatment of multi-drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensive drug resistance tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in longer regimen (18-20 month) by WHO recently. However, little is known about the safety of LZD in longer TB treatment regimen in children. METHODS: Here, we reported 31children who received LZD treatment for drug resistance tuberculosis (DR-TB) and extensive tuberculosis from September, 2016 to March 2019. The average course of LZD treatment was 8.56 months (range from 1 m to 24 m). RESULTS: 3/31patients (41.94%) had suspected or confirmed adverse events (AEs) related to LZD including digestive symptom, hematologic toxicity, neuropathy and lactic acidosis. Hematologic toxicity were the most frequent AEs presented as leukopenia (9/13) and anemia (5/13). No hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic were observed in all 31 patients. Two patients suffered from life-threaten lactic acidosis when LZD dose increased to 1.2 g daily, and they finally recovered through LZD retrieving. CONCLUSION: There was high rate of AEs of Linezolid treatment in children who received long time regimen, and the AEs might relate to treat course and dose. Hematologic toxicity was the most frequent AE in children. It is necessary to monitor the blood test and lactic concentration regularly during Linezolid treatment.

12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598677

RESUMO

DNA target enrichment via hybridization capture is a commonly adopted approach which remains expensive due in-part to using biotinylated-probe panels. Here we provide a novel isothermal amplification reaction to amplify rapidly existing probe panels without knowledge of the sequences involved, thereby decreasing a major portion of the overall sample preparation cost. The reaction employs two thermostable enzymes, BST-polymerase and duplex-specific nuclease DSN. DSN initiates random 'nicks' on double-stranded-DNA which enable BST to polymerize DNA by displacing the nicked-strand. Displaced strands re-hybridize and the process leads to an exponential chain-reaction generating biotinylated DNA fragments within minutes. When starting from single-stranded-DNA, DNA is first converted to double-stranded-DNA via terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase (TdT) prior to initiation of BST-DSN reaction. Biotinylated probes generated by TdT-BST-DSN (TBD) reactions using panels of 33, 190 or 7186 DNA targets are used for hybrid-capture-based target enrichment from amplified circulating-DNA, followed by targeted re-sequencing. Polymerase-nuclease isothermal-chain-reactions generate random amplified probes with no apparent sequence dependence. One round of target-capture using TBD probes generates a modest on-target sequencing ratio, while two successive rounds of capture generate >80% on-target reads with good sequencing uniformity. TBD-reactions generate enough capture-probes to increase by approximately two to three orders-of-magnitude the target-enrichment experiments possible from an initial set of probes.

13.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570967

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Thirty environmentally stable QTL controlling grain size and/or plant height were identified, among which QTgw.cau-7D was delimited into the physical interval of approximately 4.4 Mb. Grain size and plant height (PHT) are important agronomic traits in wheat breeding. To dissect the genetic basis of these traits, we conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using recombinant inbred lines (RILs). In total, 30 environmentally stable QTL for thousand grain weight (TGW), grain length (GL), grain width (GW) and PHT were detected. Notably, one major pleiotropic QTL on chromosome arm 3DS explained the highest phenotypic variance for TGW, GL and PHT, and two stable QTL (QGw.cau-4B and QGw.cau-7D) on chromosome arms 4BS and 7DS contributed greater effects for GW. Furthermore, the stable QTL controlling grain size (QTgw.cau-7D and QGw.cau-7D) were delimited into the physical interval of approximately 4.4 Mb harboring 56 annotated genes. The elite NILs of QTgw.cau-7D increased TGW by 12.79-21.75% and GW by 4.10-8.47% across all three environments. Collectively, these results provide further insight into the genetic basis of TGW, GL, GW and PHT, and the fine-mapped QTgw.cau-7D will be an attractive target for positional cloning and marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs.

14.
Viruses ; 11(10)2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601038

RESUMO

Artaxa digramma is a lepidopteran pest distributed throughout southern China, Myanmar, Indonesia, and India. Artaxa digramma nucleopolyhedrovirus (ArdiNPV) is a specific viral pathogen of A. digramma and deemed as a promising biocontrol agent against the pest. In this study, the complete genome sequence of ArdiNPV was determined by deep sequencing. The genome of ArdiNPV contains a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) of 161,734 bp in length and 39.1% G+C content. Further, 149 hypothetical open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted to encode proteins >50 amino acids in length, covering 83% of the whole genome. Among these ORFs, 38 were baculovirus core genes, 22 were lepidopteran baculovirus conserved genes, and seven were unique to ArdiNPV, respectively. No typical baculoviral homologous regions (hrs) were identified in the genome. ArdiNPV had five multi-copy genes including baculovirus repeated ORFs (bros), calcium/sodium antiporter B (chaB), DNA binding protein (dbp), inhibitor of apoptosis protein (iap), and p26. Interestingly, phylogenetic analyses showed that ArdiNPV belonged to Clade II.b of Group II Alphabaculoviruses, which all contain a second copy of dbp. The genome of ArdiNPV was the closest to Euproctis pseudoconspersa nucleopolyhedrovirus, with 57.4% whole-genome similarity. Therefore, these results suggest that ArdiNPV is a novel baculovirus belonging to a newly identified cluster of Clade II.b Alphabaculoviruses.

15.
Int J Biol Sci ; 15(10): 2256-2264, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592132

RESUMO

Nature has generously offered life-saving therapies to mankind by providing evolutionarily optimized drug-like entities in the form of natural products. These splendid gifts of nature have served as most suitable candidates for anti-cancer drug discovery due to their pleiotropic activity on target molecules. This review aims to provide an update on the natural sources and bioactivities of such gifts from nature, salvianolic acid A & B, which are major bioactive constituents of a traditional Chinses medicinal herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza. Salvianolic acid A & B have been reported to owe anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective activities. Currently salvianolic acids have been emerged as potent anti-cancer molecules. Salvianolic acid A & B fight cancer progression by prompting apoptosis, halting cell cycle and adjourning metastasis by targeting multiple deregulated signaling networks of cancer. Moreover, salvianolic acid A & B display potency towards sensitizing cancer cells to chemo-drugs. The review purposes that salvianolic acid A & B supply a novel opportunity for drug discovery but further experimentation is mandatory to embellish the knowledge of their pharmacological usage and to access their toxicological limits in order to establish these compounds as potential multitarget future drugs.

17.
Complement Ther Med ; 46: 180-188, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: N-of-1 trial is a desired and appropriate approach to assessing the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interventions. There have been an increasing number of N-of-1 trials for TCM published. However, a lack of preferred reporting guidance led in the general poor reporting quality of these trials. Due to the unique characteristics of TCM, the working group developed this CONSORT Extension for reporting N-of-1 Trials for Traditional Chinese Medicine (CENT for TCM) to assist TCM researchers in reporting N-of-1 trials for TCM. METHODS: We registered CENT for TCM at the EQUATOR (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research) Network (available at equator-network.org). The development was a comprehensive process through collection of the initial reporting items, two-round scientific Delphi consensus survey with 17 panelists, revision and formation of the final reporting checklist. RESULTS: The checklist includes 25 items within six domains, eight items in which were extended and elaborated on the items of the CENT 2015 checklist. Explanation of the items were listed adequately considering the nature of TCM, introducing the concept of TCM syndrome differentiation and TCM interventions. CONCLUSIONS: CENT for TCM can be used to assess the completeness of the reporting of N-of-1 trials for TCM. The working group expect that CENT for TCM could be a practical tool to enhance the comprehensiveness and transparency of the design, implementation and reporting of N-of-1 trials for TCM.

18.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 34(11): 1827-1838, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515615

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the long-term oncological results of self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) as a surgical transition compared with those of simple emergency surgery. METHODS: A systematic review of studies involving long-term tumour outcomes comparing SEMS with emergency surgery was conducted. All studies included information on 3-year and 5-year survival rates, 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates, and local and overall recurrence rates; the results were expressed as odds ratios. RESULTS: Overall, 24 articles and 2508 patients were included, including 5 randomised controlled trials, 3 prospective studies, and 16 retrospective studies. The 3-year survival rate (odds ratio (OR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69-1.12, P = 0.05), 5-year survival rate (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.70-1.17, P = 0.67), 3-year DFS rate (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 0.91-1.42, P = 0.65), 5-year DFS rate (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.91-2.02, P = 0.17), overall recurrence rate (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.77-1.41, P = 0.14), and local recurrence rate (OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.84-2.23, P = 0.92) were determined. There was no significant difference between the randomised and observational studies in the subgroup analysis, and the 5-year survival rate was higher in studies with a stent placement success rate of ≥ 95%. CONCLUSION: SEMS implantation was a viable alternative in malignant left colon obstruction as a transition to surgery; its long-term survival results, including 5-year DFS and overall survival, were equivalent to those of emergent surgery.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484371

RESUMO

A novel graphite-phase carbon nitride (g-C3N4)/bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) ternary magnetic composite (CNBT) was prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis. Using this material, Cr(VI) and methylene blue (MB) were removed from wastewater through synergistic adsorption and photocatalysis. The effects of pH, time, and pollutant concentration on the photocatalytic performance of CNBT, as well as possible interactions between Cr(VI) and MB species were analyzed. The obtained results showed that CNTs could effectively reduce the recombination rate of electron-hole pairs during the photocatalytic reaction of the g-C3N4/BiFeO3 composite, thereby improving its photocatalytic performance, while the presence of MB increased the reduction rate of Cr(VI). After 5 h of the simultaneous adsorption and photocatalysis by CNBT, the removal rates of Cr(VI) and MB were 93% and 98%, respectively. This study provides a new theoretical basis and technical guidance for the combined application of photocatalysis and adsorption in the treatment of wastewaters containing mixed pollutants.

20.
J Immunol ; 203(9): 2425-2442, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562209

RESUMO

The BTLA-HVEM checkpoint axis plays extensive roles in immunomodulation and diseases, including cancer and autoimmune disorders. However, the functions of this checkpoint axis in hepatitis remain limited. In this study, we explored the regulatory role of the Btla-Hvem axis in a ConA-induced hepatitis model in zebrafish. Results showed that Btla and Hvem were differentially expressed on intrahepatic Cd8+ T cells and hepatocytes. Knockdown of Btla or Hvem significantly promoted hepatic inflammation. Btla was highly expressed in Cd8+ T cells in healthy liver but was downregulated in inflamed liver, as evidenced by a disparate proportion of Cd8+Btla+ and Cd8+Btla- T cells in individuals without or with ConA stimulation. Cd8+Btla+ T cells showed minimal cytotoxicity to hepatocytes, whereas Cd8+Btla- T cells were strongly reactive. The depletion of Cd8+Btla- T cells reduced hepatitis, whereas their transfer enhanced hepatic inflammation. These observations indicate that Btla endowed Cd8+Btla+ T cells with self-tolerance, thereby preventing them from attacking hepatocytes. Btla downregulation deprived this tolerization. Mechanistically, Btla-Hvem interaction contributed to Cd8+Btla+ T cell tolerization, which was impaired by Hvem knockdown but rescued by soluble Hvem protein administration. Notably, Light was markedly upregulated on Cd8+Btla- T cells, accompanied by the transition of Cd8+Btla+Light- to Cd8+Btla-Light+ T cells during hepatitis, which could be modulated by Cd4+ T cells. Light blockade attenuated hepatitis, thereby suggesting the positive role of Light in hepatic inflammation. These findings provide insights into a previously unrecognized Btla-Hvem-Light regulatory network in hepatic homeostasis and inflammation, thus adding a new potential therapeutic intervention for hepatitis.

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