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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123794, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113737

RESUMO

In this work, an ultrasensitive and selective electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor with Au-tetrahedral aptamer nanostructure (Au-TAN) for acetamiprid detection was developed, which employed luminescence property of luminol and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a co-reactant to apply the prepared Au-TAN to the luminescence systems. Au-TAN was prepared to modify an electrode surface via an Au-S bond to form a stable tetrahedral nanostructure. Fixed on the surface of the working electrode, Au-TAN could not only enhance the function of the aptamer but also boost the sensing performance. At the same time, Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) of the Au-TAN could also catalyze H2O2, thereby enhancing the luminescence performance of this aptasensor. The pH of the buffer solution, the concentration of H2O2 and the concentration of Au-TAN were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the aptasensor had a detection limit of 0.0576 pM (S/N = 3), which was lower than those of other aptasensors for acetamiprid detection. Moreover, the weak alkaline environment explored in the experiment could expand its application range. Above all, the proposed method presented a high accuracy and sensitivity.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161490

RESUMO

Broad-spectrum antibodies can effectively recognize substances with similar structures and have broad application prospects in field rapid detection. In this study, broad-spectrum antibodies (Abs) against organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) were used as sensitive recognition elements, which could effectively recognize most OPs. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have good biocompatibility. It combined with Abs to form a gold-labeled probe (AuNPs-Abs), which enhances the effective binding of antibodies to nanomaterials. Prussian blue (PB) was added to electrodeposition solution to enhance the conductivity, resulting in superior electrochemical performance. The AuNP-Abs-PB composite film was prepared by electrodeposition on the electrode surface to improve the anti-interference ability and stability of the immunosensor. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the immunosensor had a wide detection range (IC20-IC80: 1.82 × 10-3-3.29 × 104 ng/mL) and high sensitivity. Most importantly, it was simple to be prepared and could be used to detect multiple OPs.

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the time-varying transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in China, Wuhan City and Guangdong province, and compared them with that of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS: Data on COVID-19 cases by March 20, 2020 in China was collected from epidemiological investigations or official websites. Data on SARS cases in Guangdong Province, Beijing and Hong Kong during 2002-2003 were also obtained. We estimated the doubling time, basic reproduction number (R0) and time-varying reproduction number (Rt) of COVID-19 and SARS. RESULTS: As of March 20, 2020, 80,739 COVID-19 indigenous cases were identified in mainland China. Most cases were reported between January 20 and February 29. The R0 of COVID-19 nationwide and in Wuhan were 5.0 and 4.8 respectively, which were greater than R0 of SARS in Guangdong (R0=2.3), Hong Kong (R0 = 2.3), and Beijing (R0 = 2.6). During the epidemic of COVID-19, the Rt nationwide first increased to a peak of 8.4 and declined quickly to below 1 in one month. In terms of SARS, the Rt curve saw a fluctuation change with more than one peak though the peak was lower than COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has much higher transmissibility than SARS, and a series of major actions for suppressing the outbreak are effective. However, persistent efforts are needed to prevent the rebound of the epidemic in the context of the global pandemic.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101437

RESUMO

Objectives: Acupuncture has increasingly been used for insomnia relief after stroke. We aimed to evaluate the methodological quality and summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of acupuncture for poststroke insomnia (PSI) from systematic reviews/meta-analyses (SRs/MAs). Methods: Eight databases were searched from inception through August 23, 2020. SRs/MAs on acupuncture treatment for PSI were included. Methodological quality assessment was performed using Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR-2), and evidence quality assessment was performed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). Results: Six SRs/MAs on acupuncture treatment for PSI were included. The AMSTAR-2 showed that the methodological quality of all included SRs/MAs was rated as critically low. According to the evaluation results of GRADE, 38.9% (7/18) of outcomes were rated as very low-quality evidence, 22.2% (4/18) were low-quality evidence, and 8.9% (7/18) were moderate-quality evidence. Descriptive analysis results showed that acupuncture was an effective treatment modality for PSI. Conclusions: All included reviews indicated that acupuncture was more effective than the control group for the treatment of PSI, but the credibility of the results is limited owing to the generally low methodological and evidence quality of the included SRs/MAs. More high-quality evidence is needed to determine whether acupuncture is more effective than other treatments.

5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1546-1553, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608325

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the attack rates, and identify the risk factors of COVID-19 infection. Based on a retrospective cohort study, we investigated 11,580 contacts of COVID-19 cases in Guangdong Province from 10 January to 15 March 2020. All contacts were tested by RT-PCR to detect their infection of SARS-COV-2. Attack rates by characteristics were calculated. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk factors of infection for COVID-19. A total of 515 of 11,580 contacts were identified to be infected with SARS-COV-2. Compared to young adults aged 20-29 years, the infected risk was higher in children (RR: 2.59, 95%CI: 1.79-3.76), and old people aged 60-69 years (RR: 5.29, 95%CI: 3.76-7.46). Females also had higher infected risk (RR: 1.66, 95%CI: 1.39-2.00). People having close relationship with index cases encountered higher infected risk (RR for spouse: 20.68, 95%CI: 14.28-29.95; RR for non-spouse family members: 9.55, 95%CI: 6.73-13.55; RR for close relatives: 5.90, 95%CI: 4.06-8.59). Moreover, contacts exposed to index case in symptomatic period (RR: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.67-2.79), with critically severe symptoms (RR: 1.61, 95%CI: 1.00-2.57), with symptoms of dizzy (RR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.08-2.30), myalgia (RR: 1.49, 95%CI: 1.15-1.94), and chill (RR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) had higher infected risks. Children, old people, females, and family members are susceptible of COVID-19 infection, while index cases in the incubation period had lower contagiousness. Our findings will be helpful for developing targeted prevention and control strategies to combat the worldwide pandemic.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos de Coortes , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Quarentena , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215037

RESUMO

Background: Sepsis is a global major health problem with high mortality rates. More effective therapy is needed for treating sepsis. Acupuncture has been used for various diseases, including severe infection, in China for more than 2,000 years. Previous studies reported that acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) might be effective in treating sepsis, but the efficacy and the quality of evidence remain unclear since there is no systematic review on acupuncture at ST36 for sepsis. Methods: Seven databases were searched from the inception of each database up to May 2019. Ultimately, 54 studies using acupuncture at ST36 for the treatment of experimental sepsis were identified in both English and Chinese literature with systematic review procedures. Results: Acupuncture might be useful in reducing injuries induced by sepsis in cardiac, lung, kidney, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and immune system. Its potential mechanisms for antisepsis might include reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, improving microcirculatory disturbance, and maintaining the immune balance mediated by dopamine. However, the positive findings should be interpreted with caution due to poor methodological quality and publication bias. Conclusion: Acupuncture at ST36 might be a promising complementary strategy for controlling sepsis inflammation, yet further studies are needed.

8.
Med Phys ; 46(2): 517-527, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548875

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A novel method, named self-prior image-guided MRI reconstruction with dictionary learning (SPIDLE), is developed to improve the performance of MR imaging with high acceleration rates. "self-prior" means that the prior image is obtained from the target image itself and any extra MRI scans are not needed. METHODS: The proposed method integrates self-prior image constraint with compressed sensing (CS) and the dictionary learning (DL) technique. The self-prior image is a preliminary result reconstructed using the undersampled k-space measurements of the target image. Therefore, the self-prior image has similar structural features with the target image, and they match each other accurately. CS approach is applied to the residual error of the target image with the self-prior image, because the error image is much sparser than the target image. The split Bregman method is used to solve the proposed approach to promote fast convergence. For multicoil measurements, each coil image is reconstructed individually and the final result is produced as the square root of sum of squares (SOS) of all channel images. RESULTS: The performance of the proposed SPIDLE method was inspected using different undersampling schemes and acceleration rates with various types of in vivo MR datasets. Experiments showed that the SPIDLE method is superior to other typical state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, the SPIDLE method produces fewer reconstruction errors, and it is robust to initialization. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed SPIDLE method substantially widens the applications of prior image-guided MRI reconstruction, especially for applications that are not suitable to use existing MR scans as prior images. The SPIDLE method obviously improves the reconstruction quality for highly undersampled MRI. It is also promising for reconstruction of dynamic MRI and other imaging modalities, such as CT and CT-MRI multimodality imaging.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 146(15): 1955-1964, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132423

RESUMO

The following paper investigates the prevalence and characteristics of asymptomatic norovirus infection in the population living around oyster farm sites. Two consecutive surveys were conducted from January 2014 to December 2014 and 4549 stool samples were screened during the same time period. The total asymptomatic infection rate was 4.04% (184/4549). Norovirus infection rate was 5.20% in oyster farming population which was significantly higher compared with non-farming population where the infection rate was 3.65% (χ2 = 5.49, P < 0.05). A total of 184 NoV positive samples were identified by real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and semi-nested RT-PCR and 136 sequences were obtained. The sequences were clustered into 14 genotypes. GI strains were clustered into six genotypes, including GI.2, GI.3, GI.5, GI.6, GI.8 and GI.9; while GII strains were clustered into GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.5, GII.6, GII.8 and GII.13. GI.9 and GII.17 were the predominant and most prevalent genotypes, respectively. The GII.17 genotype replaced GII.4 becoming the dominant genotype in the oyster farming area in 2014. To sum up, long-term monitoring of asymptomatic infection is crucial for the detection of new variant strains and for identifying outbreaks during the early stage.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Ostreidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Aquicultura , Infecções por Caliciviridae/patologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , China , Genótipo , Humanos , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/genética , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 21: 56-61, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29183824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus spreading rapidly in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. No indigenous ZIKV infection had been seen in China. We monitored ZIKV infection among travelers returning to Enping county from ZIKV transmitting countries from 1 March to 10 April 2016. METHODS: We analyzed data including interviews; conducted laboratory test on blood, urine, saliva, conjunctival swab or semen specimens for evidence of ZIKV infection; evaluated household for presence of Aedes mosquitoes or larvae. RESULTS: A total of 925 individuals were screened, 507 (54.8%) were interviewed, 400 (43.2%) provided samples, of which 13 (3.3%) tested positive for ZIKV including 3 asymptomatic. Rash, conjunctivitis, sore throat, fever were the common symptoms; rash was more pronounced in adults than in children. ZIKV RNA was detected for 1-4 days in blood, but longer in urine and saliva (3-32 days and 2-10 days). Among interviewed, 57.0% had good knowledge about ZIKV, 45.8% were worried about ZIKV, 99.2% would go to hospital if they had infection. Aedes mosquitoes or larvae were detected in townships of infected returners. CONCLUSIONS: ZIKV was imported to China. Screening by symptoms alone is inadequate for detecting ZIKV infection. ZIKV surveillance, health-education, and vector control are necessary to decrease risk of ZIKV transmission.


Assuntos
Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Aedes/fisiologia , América , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Mosquitos , Vigilância da População , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Zika virus/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
11.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 55(5): 807-822, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27538399

RESUMO

Dual-dictionary learning (Dual-DL) method utilizes both a low-resolution dictionary and a high-resolution dictionary, which are co-trained for sparse coding and image updating, respectively. It can effectively exploit a priori knowledge regarding the typical structures, specific features, and local details of training sets images. The prior knowledge helps to improve the reconstruction quality greatly. This method has been successfully applied in magnetic resonance (MR) image reconstruction. However, it relies heavily on the training sets, and dictionaries are fixed and nonadaptive. In this research, we improve Dual-DL by using self-adaptive dictionaries. The low- and high-resolution dictionaries are updated correspondingly along with the image updating stage to ensure their self-adaptivity. The updated dictionaries incorporate both the prior information of the training sets and the test image directly. Both dictionaries feature improved adaptability. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can efficiently and significantly improve the quality and robustness of MR image reconstruction.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Aprendizagem
12.
Oncol Rep ; 37(1): 458-464, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28004113

RESUMO

Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), usually derived from well-differentiated thyroid cancers is one of the most lethal human endocrine malignancies. In the present study, we report that in human ATC tumor tissue samples exist undetectable Notch1 and the active Notch1 intracellular domain could not be detected in ATC-CAL-62 cells. Interesting, suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA) administration could induce Notch1 intracellular domain levels in a dose-dependent manner, coupled with the increase of p53 and p21. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Notch1 or deletion of p53 with small-interfering RNA was able to abolish the effects of SBHA to elevation of Notch1 and p53 in ATC cells. As a result, SBHA treatment efficiently induced ATC cell apoptosis. These results indicate that SBHA may play antitumor functions via regulating Notch1/p53 signals, and highlight that SBHA could have clinical potential to benefit the therapy of ATC patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Receptor Notch1/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/metabolismo , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
13.
Oncol Lett ; 14(6): 7153-7160, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344146

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are small non-coding RNAs identified in plants, animals and certain viruses; they function in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. miRNAs also serve an important role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of tumors. However, few studies have investigated the role of miRNAs in thyroid tumors. In the present study, the expression of miRNA and mRNA was compared between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FA) samples, and then miRNA-mRNA regulatory network analysis was performed. Microarray datasets (GSE29315 and GSE62054) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and profiling data were processed with R software. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were determined, and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis was subsequently performed for DEGs using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. The target genes of the DEMs were identified with miRWalk, miRecords and TarMir databases. Network analysis of the DEMs and DEMs-targeted DEGs was performed using Cytoscape software. In GSE62054, 23 downregulated and 9 upregulated miRNAs were identified. In GSE29315, 42 downregulated and 44 upregulated mRNAs were identified. A total of 36 miRNA-gene pairs were also identified. Network analysis indicated a co-regulatory association between miR-296-5p, miR-10a, miR-139-5p, miR-452, miR-493, miR-7, miR-137, miR-144, miR-145 and corresponding targeted mRNAs, including TNF receptor superfamily member 11b, benzodiazepine receptor (peripheral) -associated protein 1, and transforming growth factor ß receptor 2. These results suggest that miRNA-mRNAs networks serve an important role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of FTC and FA.

15.
Oncol Rep ; 36(2): 1143-9, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27350307

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that aberrant expression of miR-24 is linked to various human cancers, including tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). F-box and WD-40 domain protein 7 (FBXW7), a tumor-suppressor gene, is responsible for the degradation of several proto-oncogenes. However, the function and mechanism of miR-24 and FBXW7 in TSCC remains unclear. In the present study, we found that miR-24 was increased in TSCC tissues and cell lines, and that upregulation of miR-24 was associated with advanced clinical stage and a shorter overall survival of TSCC patients. Inhibition of miR-24 significantly suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of TSCC cells in vitro. Furthermore, miR-24 repressed FBXW7 expression by directly binding to the 3-untranslated region of FBXW7. Moreover, the suppression of FBXW7 increased the proliferation, migration and invasion of TSCC cells, and the restoration of FBXW7 substantially attenuated the oncogenic effects of miR-24. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that upregulation of miR-24 was associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in TSCC patients, and that overexpression of miR-24 was correlated with the proliferation, migration and invasion of TSCC cells in vitro, at least partially through regulation of its functional target FBXW7. Thus, miR-24 may serve as a novel potential biomarker for the prognosis of TSCC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proteínas F-Box/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias da Língua/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteína 7 com Repetições F-Box-WD , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Língua/patologia , Regulação para Cima/genética
16.
Oral Oncol ; 51(11): 998-1003, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26365986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: miR-24 is one of the most significantly up-regulated miRNAs in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). PTEN plays an important role in the cell survival and cisplatin resistance of multiple cancers. However, it remains unclear what role does function and mechanism of miR-24 and PTEN play in TSCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, miR-24 expression was detected in 79 cases of paired TSCC and normal tissues and 8 TSCC cell lines by real-time PCR and the relevance between miR-24 expression and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. Further, we demonstrated that deregulation of miR-24 was found to associate with high grade and late stage tumor. In addition, miR-24 induces cell survival and cisplatin resistance through targeting 3'-UTR region of the PTEN, which leads to downregulation of PTEN protein and activation of Akt pro-survival pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, our results demonstrated that deregulation of miR-24 is a recurrent event in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma and associate with tumor progression and that miR-24 induces cell survival and cisplatin resistance primarily through targeting PTEN/Akt pathway. Thus, miR-24 could be important targets for intervention of this malignancy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Língua/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Neoplasias da Língua/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 64(1): 13-8, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21266750

RESUMO

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is shown to be a major causative agent in outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) reported in Guangdong (GD) Province of China in 2008. A total of 48,876 HFMD cases (131 severe and 21 fatal) were reported to the GD HFMD web-based surveillance system, which covers 871 clinics. The main causes of death included central nervous system damage, heart failure, and pulmonary edema. The incidence rate was 52 per 100,000, and the epidemic peak appeared in May and June. EV71 was found in 59% and coxsackievirus A16 in 26% of 936 laboratory-confirmed cases. Other viruses are likely to be responsible for the remaining 15% of cases. Of the 185 EV71 cases collected, 62% were mild, 27% were severe, and the remaining 11% were fatal. A total of 17 EV71 isolates were subjected to nucleotide sequencing of the entire VP1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the GD EV71 strains belonged to the C4 subgenotype and that EV71 circulates at a national rather than a regional level. A Comparison with the VP1 gene from a different clinical case showed that there was no obvious virulence determinant in this locus. Furthermore, this study found that most deaths occurred in rural areas, thereby indicating that delayed diagnosis and incorrect treatment may play an important role.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Epidemias , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/fisiopatologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Enterovirus Humano A/classificação , Enterovirus Humano A/patogenicidade , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 43(7): 628-31, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19954078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the etiology and source of an infectious diarrhea outbreak and control the epidemic. METHODS: Through the retrospective cohort study, we had surveyed all the residents who complained symptoms of diarrhea or vomiting since Nov. 20th,2007 from the five villages in the north of town Y, and collected hygiene information on the water supply system of the five villages, the environment information of three villages and hygiene information of some case-indexed families, and tested the etiological biomarker, including nucleoside acid of norovirus through Real-time PCR and nested PCR technologies. RESULTS: From Nov. 24th to Dec. 3th in 2007, 435 diarrhea or vomiting cases were found in the north of Y town, where tap water A was supplied for daily use. The attack rate was 12.93%. The diarrhea cases were distributed among all country groups who has used tap water A and the attack rate was ranged from 5.21% (20/384) to 21.23% (100/471). Drinking the tap water A was significantly associated with an increased risk of infection (RR = 9.246, 95% CI: 6.25 -13.68). About 85.9% (262/ 305) of the cases were from Nov. 25th to 27th. An investigation of a country of S2 group showed that the incidence of different age groups was distributed as the following: 0 - year-old 20.0% (3/15); 10 - year-old 17.3% (9/52); 20 - year-old 15.2% (16/105); older than 60 year-old 23.3% (7/30). No statistical significance was identified between age and infection(chi2 = 1.15, P >0.05). Most of the patients were not serious and well prognostic, and no hospitalized or dead cases were reported. On site investigation and daily water quality monitoring showed that disinfection procedures were not strictly followed. The monitoring data also indicated the bacteriology index of tap water A was disqualified. The test of Salmonella, Shigella and Staphylococcus aureus were negative in two vomit and one stool samples from patients. Three specimens by Real-time PCR, and six by nested PCR were positive for norovirus among the three feces and three anal swabs samples. With the drinking water sterilization and health education, the epidemic had been controlled rapidly and effectively. CONCLUSION: The epidemic was a diarrhea outbreak that might be caused by norovirus through drinking the contaminated tap water A.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Poluição da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Diarreia/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 29(4): 325-8, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18843986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the incidence and characteristics of nonfatal drowning among primary and middle school students in rural area and to provide basic information for intervention. METHODS: A rural town was selected and all students from 3th-8th grades, 10th grade and 11th grade were studied. All data were collected, using a self-administrated questionnaires which was guided by investigator. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of nonfatal drowning was 5.65% (549/9732) and were 7.69%, 5.80%, 2.39% for primary, secondary and high school students, respectively. Male students had a higher rate (7.14%) than that of females (4.03%). The incidence rates of non-treated, treated in emergency and under hospitalization were 4.52%, 0.77% and 0.35%. The major reasons of drowning were swimming (46.88%), falling into waters (15.67%), diving (13.79%) and rescuing others (6.24%). The proportion of drowning occurred in the afternoon, evening, at noon or in the morning were 59.94%, 15.64%, 14.77% and 9.65% respectively. The common sites of drowning were river/lake (42.48%), swimming pool (19.56%), reservoir (11.39%) and pond (4.38%). 66.76% of the drowning cases were witnessed by other person, and 17.86% were conscious when being removed from waters. CONCLUSION: The incidence of nonfatal drowning among students in rural areas was high, and the natural body of waters was the most common site causing drowning while swimming was the major reason of drowning. Intervention targeting on primary and middle school students in rural should be carried out to reduce the incidence.


Assuntos
Afogamento/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 28(6): 576-9, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17939388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of child pedestrian traffic injuries among aged 0-14 years old in Guangzhou city and to provide information on road, vehicle and human injuries in pedestrian. METHODS: A database of all motor vehicle crashes involving child pedestrian traffic injury cases over a five-year period (2000-2004), was from the police department. RESULTS: The annual pedestrian traffic injury rates on incidence, mortality and case fatality were 17.63/ 1,100,000, 1.78/ 100,000 and 10.07% respectively. Both incidence rate and mortality peaked in the 5-9 age group were 26.80/ 100,000 and 2.57/ 100,000, with case fatality peaked in the 0-4 age group (13.29%). For males, the incidence (20.98/ 100,000) and mortality (2.00/ 100,000) were higher than that in females (13.83/ 100,000, and 1.52/ 100,000). The main injured parts of body would include multi-areas (40.34%), head (26.75%) and lower limbs (21.53%). 10.07% of the cases died and 66.18% and 23.75% of them having had severe and slight injures. The major causes were due to drivers (57.50%) and pedestrians (33.47%) faults with top three responsible vehicles were cars (40.14%), two-wheeled motorcycles (34.38%) and vans (22.15%). CONCLUSION: Data from pediatric pedestrian injury poses a threat to children and adolescents, data suggesting that it is important to change behaviors of both drivers and pedestrians.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
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