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1.
Food Chem ; 369: 130872, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455324

RESUMO

Tender Coconut water is popular for its deliciousness and nutrition. Mature coconut water, usually discarded as waste in the coconut kernel-based food industry due to its unpleasant flavor, was used as a raw material to make vinegar by liquid-state fermentation. The compounds in fresh coconut water with high odor activity values (OAVs) were isovaleric acid and acetic acid, with pungent sour tastes. The compounds with high OAVs in aged coconut water vinegar were phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and benzaldehyde, with almond, banana or pear-like aromas. Coconut water vinegar was rich in essential amino acids, especially phenylalanine. Through pathway analysis, seventeen key metabolic pathways and three key metabolic substrates (aspartate, glutamate and pyruvate) were found. According to sensory evaluation, the aged vinegar tastes better. Coconut water vinegar is delicious and nutritious, so reprocessing mature coconut water into vinegar is an appropriate way to reuse waste coconut water.

2.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 1769-1776, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629868

RESUMO

Introduction: Lipid accumulation product (LAP), calculated from waist circumference (WC) and triglycerides (TG), is a novel index that correlates cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the relationship between LAP and target organ damage (TOD) in elderly Chinese community-dwelling individuals. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 3363 participants whose age was ≥65 years old. TOD, including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), arterial stiffness (AS), lower extremity atherosclerotic (LEA), micro-albuminuria (MAU) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), was measured using standard methods. LAP was calculated as (WC-65) × TG in men and (WC-58) × TG in women. Both quartiles and continuation of LAP were analyzed. Results: Age-sex adjusted partial correlation analysis showed that LAP was significantly associated with CVD risk factors. With the first quartile (Q1) as a reference, in univariate logistic regression, the fourth quartile (Q4) of LAP was associated with all TOD. In multivariate model, Q4 of LAP was only associated with an increased risk of AS (odds ratio (OR) = 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37-2.58, P for trend < 0.001), MAU (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.01-1.75, P for trend = 0.02) and CKD (OR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.39-4.12, P for trend < 0.001). But, Q4 of LAP was not associated with an increased risk of LVH (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.85-1.65, P for trend = 0.25) or LEA (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.58-1.29, P for trend = 0.96). Similar associations were found when analyzed continuously. Conclusion: The novel metabolic parameter LAP is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of arterial stiffness, chronic kidney disease and micro-albuminuria in Chinese community-dwelling elderly individuals.

3.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636537

RESUMO

Photothermal therapy (PTT) using nanoparticles is one of the research hotspots in the field of cancer therapy. However, the thermal resistance of tumor cells and the elimination of nanoparticles by the body's immune system reduce their therapeutic effect. Therefore, it is essential to reduce heat resistance, improve their biocompatibility, and reduce the clearance of the immune system. In this work, we constructed a biomimetic platform for cancer therapy based on heat shock protein (HSP) inhibitors, 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG))-loaded and platelet membrane (PM)-coated mesoporous platinum nanoparticles (MPNPs). First, MPNPs with the properties of chemotherapy and PTT were synthesized to load 17-DMAG (17-DMAG/MPNPs). Then, they were coated with PM for tumor targeting and improved biocompatibility to obtain the final bionic nanotherapy platform 17-DMAG/MPNPs@PM. The results in vivo and in vitro showed that 17-DMAG/MPNPs@PM could accumulate in the tumor and effectively inhibit the growth of tumor cells. Therefore, the biomimetic nanotherapy system is expected to provide new ideas for cancer treatment.

4.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 108, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686199

RESUMO

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a common ischaemic heart disease whose pathological mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Single target drugs, such as antiplatelet aggregation, coronary artery dilation and lipid-lowering medicines, can relieve some symptoms clinically but cannot effectively prevent and treat CHD. Accumulating evidence has revealed that alterations in GM composition, diversity, and richness are associated with the risk of CHD. The metabolites of the gut microbiota (GM), including trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bile acids (BAs), affect human physiology by activating numerous signalling pathways. Due to the advantage of multiple components and multiple targets, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) can intervene in CHD by regulating the composition of the GM, reducing TMAO, increasing SCFAs and other CHD interventions. We have searched PubMed, Web of science, Google Scholar Science Direct, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), with the use of the keywords "gut microbiota, gut flora, traditional Chinese medicine, herbal medicine, coronary heart disease". This review investigated the relationship between GM and CHD, as well as the intervention of TCM in CHD and GM, and aims to provide valuable insights for the treatments of CHD by TCM.

5.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 15: 736310, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594188

RESUMO

Microglia are macrophages that reside in the central nervous system (CNS) and belong to the innate immune system. Moreover, they are crucially involved in CNS development, maturation, and aging; further, they are closely associated with neurons. In normal conditions, microglia remain in a static state. Upon trauma or lesion occurrence, microglia can be activated and subsequently polarized into the pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory phenotype. The phenotypic transition is regulated by numerous modulators. This review focus on the literature regarding the modulators and signaling pathways involved in regulating the microglial phenotypic transition, which are rarely mentioned in other reviews. Hence, this review provides molecular insights into the microglial phenotypic transition, which could be a potential therapeutic target for neuroinflammation.

6.
Oncol Lett ; 22(5): 787, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594428

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer with the highest mortality rate worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for ~85% of the total number of lung cancer cases. In the past two decades, immunotherapy has become a more promising treatment method than traditional treatments (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy). Immunotherapy has been shown to improve the survival rate of patients and to have a superior effect when controlling lung cancer than traditional therapy. However, only a small number of patients can benefit from immunotherapy, and not all patients who qualify experience long-term benefits. In the clinic, the objective response rate of programmed cell death protein 1 treatment without the prior screening of patients is only 15-20%. Immunotherapy is associated with both opportunities and challenges for patients with NSCLC. The current challenges of immunotherapy include the lack of accurate biomarkers, inevitable resistance and insufficient understanding of immune checkpoints. In previous years, several methods for overcoming the challenges posed by immunotherapy have been proposed, but combination therapy is the most suitable choice. A large number of studies have shown that the combination of drugs can significantly improve their efficacy, compared with monotherapy, and that some therapeutic combinations have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of NSCLC. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a traditional medical practice in China that can play an important role in immunotherapy. Most agents used in TCM originate from plants, and have the advantages of low toxicity and multiple targets. In addition, TCM includes a unique class of drugs that can improve autoimmunity. Therefore, TCM may be a promising treatment method for all types of cancer.

7.
Front Chem ; 9: 717210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660527

RESUMO

Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metal contaminants in soils and water bodies and poses a serious threat to ecosystems and humans. However, cadmium is also an important resource widely used in many industries. The recovery of cadmium in the form of high-value products is considered as an ideal disposal strategy for Cd-contaminated environments. In this work, Pistia stratiotes was used to recycle cadmium from wastewaters through phytoaccumulation and then transformed into carbon-supported cadmium sulfide photocatalyst (CdS@C) through carbonization and hydrothermal reaction. The CdS@C photocatalyst contained a mixture of cubic and hexagonal CdS with lower band gap energy (2.14 eV) and high electron-hole separation efficiency, suggesting an excellent photoresponse ability and photocatalytic efficiency. The impressive stability and photocatalytic performance of CdS@C were demonstrated in efficient photodegradation of organic pollutants. •OH and O2•- were confirmed as the major active species for organic pollutants degradation during CdS@C photocatalysis. This work provides new insights into addressing Cd contaminated water bodies and upcycling in the form of photocatalyst.

8.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 721795, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660582

RESUMO

Background: Necroptosis is a vital regulator of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Meanwhile, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) is abundantly increased during MI/R injury. However, whether 4-HNE induces cardiomyocyte necroptosis during MI/R remains unknown. Methods: To observe the relationship between 4-HNE and necroptosis during MI/R, C57BL/6 mice and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2-transgenic (ALDH2-Tg) mice were both exposed to left anterior descending artery ligation surgery to establish MI/R injury models. For further study, isolated mouse hearts and H9c2 cells were both treated with 4-HNE to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Results: Necroptosis and 4-HNE were both upregulated in I/R-injured hearts. Cardiomyocyte necroptosis was significantly decreased in I/R-injured hearts from ALDH2-Tg mice as compared with that of wild-type mice. In vitro studies showed that necroptosis was enhanced by 4-HNE perfusion in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Knockdown of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIP1) using small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented 4-HNE-induced cardiomyocyte necroptosis, manifesting that RIP1 played a key role in the upregulation of cell necroptosis by 4-HNE. Further studies found that 4-HNE reduced the protein degradation of RIP1 by preventing K48-polyubiquitination of RIP1. Conclusion: 4-HNE contributes to cardiomyocyte necroptosis by regulating ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation of RIP1.

9.
Cell ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678143

RESUMO

Glucose consumption is generally increased in tumor cells to support tumor growth. Interestingly, we report that glycogen accumulation is a key initiating oncogenic event during liver malignant transformation. We found that glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) catalyzing the last step of glycogenolysis is frequently downregulated to augment glucose storage in pre-malignant cells. Accumulated glycogen undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation, which results in the assembly of the Laforin-Mst1/2 complex and consequently sequesters Hippo kinases Mst1/2 in glycogen liquid droplets to relieve their inhibition on Yap. Moreover, G6PC or another glycogenolysis enzyme-liver glycogen phosphorylase (PYGL) deficiency in both human and mice results in glycogen storage disease along with liver enlargement and tumorigenesis in a Yap-dependent manner. Consistently, elimination of glycogen accumulation abrogates liver growth and cancer incidence, whereas increasing glycogen storage accelerates tumorigenesis. Thus, we concluded that cancer-initiating cells adapt a glycogen storing mode, which blocks Hippo signaling through glycogen phase separation to augment tumor incidence.

10.
Energy Sustain Soc ; 11(1): 31, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545317

RESUMO

Background: Photovoltaic Poverty Alleviation Projects (PPAPs) have been implemented in Chinese rural areas since 2014. As a new energy policy, PPAPs have played an important role in alleviating rural poverty. However, the adoption of solar PV faces multiple barriers from the perspective of beneficiaries. Therefore, this study aims to discuss and analyze factors affecting beneficiaries' satisfaction and their trust in State Grid, promoting the adoption of solar PV. Methods: Based on the integrated American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) and Unified Theory of Acception and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model, this study used the Structural Equation Model (SEM) to reveal how the beneficiaries' satisfaction enhance their trust in State Grid. The data were obtained from a survey of 928 PPAPs' beneficiaries by stratified and random sampling in Chinese rural areas. Results: The results confirm that environmental perception in this study has positive impact on beneficiaries' satisfaction. In addition, perceived quality also has a positive effect on beneficiaries' satisfaction and trust in State Grid; however, social influence has a negative impact on beneficiaries' satisfaction; behavior expectation can directly promote beneficiaries' satisfaction while indirectly propel their trust in State Grid. Conclusions: This study constructs an integrated customer satisfaction model from the perspective of beneficiaries and proposes relevant measures to promote the adoption of solar PV that can be applied to poverty reduction in other developing countries worldwide.

11.
Cancer Nurs ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compression therapy is a common method for treating breast cancer-related lymphedema. However, no specific evidence exists to guide practitioners on the morbidity of lymphedema, limb volume, and range of motion. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to compare the effects of compression therapy and routine nursing during the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema and to provide a basis for better clinical decision-making. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP databases were searched through January 21, 2021. Meta-analysis and description of the outcomes were performed by using the RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: A total of 17 studies were included. A meta-analysis of 13 studies was conducted. The experimental group had a lower morbidity of lymphedema, the difference was significant, and there was no heterogeneity (P < .05; odds ratio, 0.35, I2 = 31%). There was no significant difference between the experimental group and control group in limb volume, and there was significant heterogeneity (P = .44, mean difference = 4.51, I2 = 85%). Regarding range of motion, the standardized mean difference of shoulder adduction, shoulder lift, shoulder abduction, and shoulder extension were 1.37, 0.69, 0.56, and 0.87, respectively, and the differences were significant; there was heterogeneity (P < .05, I2 = 92%). CONCLUSIONS: Compression therapy can reduce the morbidity of lymphedema and improve limb movement, but the effect on limb volume needs to be further explored. IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE: In terms of therapeutic effectiveness and limb function, the results provide evidence that physicians can reduce the morbidity of lymphedema, reduce the degree of limb, and increase limb mobility by applying compression therapy.

12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 695491, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489943

RESUMO

Patients with liver disease are susceptible to infection with Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus), but the specific reasons remain elusive. Through RNA-seq, we found that when mice with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) were infected with V. vulnificus by gavage, compared with the Pair group, the small intestinal genes affecting intestinal permeability were upregulated; and the number of differentially expressed genes related to immune functions (e.g., such as cell chemotaxis, leukocyte differentiation, and neutrophil degranulation) decreased in the liver, spleen, and blood. Further analysis showed that the number of white blood cells decreased in the Pair group, whereas those in the ALD mice did not change significantly. Interestingly, the blood bacterial load in the ALD mice was about 100 times higher than that of the Pair group. After the ALD mice were infected with V. vulnificus, the concentrations of T cell proliferation-promoting cytokines (IL-2, IL-23) decreased. Therefore, unlike the Pair group, ALD mice had weaker immune responses, lower T cell proliferation-promoting cytokines, and higher bacterial loads post-infection, possibly increasing their susceptibility to V. vulnificus infection. These new findings we presented here may help to advance the current understanding of the reasons why patients with liver disease are susceptible to V. vulnificus infection and provides potential targets for further investigation in the context of treatment options for V. vulnificus sepsis in liver disease patient.

13.
Acta Biomater ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536603

RESUMO

The high risk of tumor recurrence presents a big challenge in melanoma therapy. Photothermal therapy (PTT) has merged as a powerful weapon against tumor in recent years, which produces tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and recruits dendritic cells (DCs) to tumor sites through immunogenic cell death (ICD) for immune activation. However, due to the lack of activation signals of DCs, the immune effect induced by PTT is not sufficient to inhibit the recurrence and proliferation of tumor. To efficiently cooperate PTT and immunotherapy to circumvent tumor recurrence, here we constructed a polydopamine (PDA) based core-shell nanoplatform loading CpG ODNs to elicit robust photothermal ablation and antitumor immune responses. Cationized polydopamine coated with hyaluronic acid (HA) shell was proven an efficient photothermal agent that increased the surface temperature of tumor by 16 °C and induced ICD. CpG ODNs effectively induced maturation of DCs by elevating the expression of co-stimulating markers. PTT combined with CpG ODNs achieved a remarkable synergistic treatment effect in the maturation of DCs and activation of T cells in melanoma-bearing mice model compared with PTT or CpG ODNs alone. Furthermore, in a tumor recurrence model, photothermal-immune combination therapy increased the infiltration of CTLs in distant tumor compared with PTT or CpG ODNs alone. The combination therapy overcame insufficient immunity at distant tumor caused by PTT alone and relieved immunosuppression microenvironment of the tumor. Hence, the PDA based core-shell nanoplatform presents a potent photo-immunotherapy against proliferation and recurrence of melanoma. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In order to solve the insufficient immunity induced by photothermal therapy (PTT), CpG ODNs were utilized to enhance the weak immune response mediated by PTT through inducing DCs maturation. Hence, we designed a polydopamine (PDA) based core-shell nanoplatform loading CpG ODNs followed by hyaluronic acid named PPP/CpG/HA to elicit robust photothermal ablation and antitumor immune responses. CpG ODNs were delivered to the tumor site through the targeting effect of the HA shell. The core-shell nanoplatform achieved a remarkable synergistic treatment effect in the maturation of DCs and activation of T cells, thereby overcoming insufficient immunity at distant tumor caused by PTT alone. The core-shell nanoplatform presents a potent photo-immunotherapy against proliferation and recurrence of melanoma.

14.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 512, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unilateral breast cancer (UBC) patients with germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants have a higher risk of developing contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and need contralateral risk-reducing local treatments, including contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (CRRM) and prophylactic irradiation (CPI). The aim of our study was to systematically explore the efficacy of CRRM and CPI in reducing CBC risk and increasing survival. METHODS: A search was done, and eligible randomized trials and cohort studies should include and compare UBC patients with germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants who have and have not received contralateral risk-reducing local treatment. Random-effects meta-analysis was used in this study. Primary outcomes of the studies included overall survival (OS) and the incidence of contralateral breast cancer (CBC), and secondary outcomes included breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). RESULTS: A total of five studies with 1769 UBC patients with germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants were enrolled in our meta-analysis. CRRM was correlated with a lower risk of CBC in UBC patients with germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants (summary RR = 0.07; 95%CI 0.03-0.13, I2 = 3%), a significantly increased OS (summary RR, 1.15; 95%CI 1.04-1.26, I2 = 26%) and a significantly increased BCSS (summary RR, 1.18; 95%CI 1.07-1.31, I2 = 64%) compared with surveillance. CPI also decreased the risk of CBC (RR 0.02; 95%CI 0.05-0.88) but did not significantly improve OS (RR 0.97; 95%CI 0.90-1.05) and BCSS (RR 0.97; 95%CI 0.90-1.05) compared with surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: CRRM reduces CBC risk and increases OS and BCSS in UBC patients with germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants, and could be offered as a risk-reducing local treatment. For those who oppose CRRM, CPI could be offered for CBC-risk reduction, while its survival benefit is still uncertain.

15.
Clin Nurs Res ; : 10547738211046737, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519566

RESUMO

We explore the association of hope and quality of life in breast cancer chemotherapy women. Their quality of life is related to treatment effects and disease outcomes. This cross-sectional study was conducted in City, China, in 2017. In a convenience sampling, 450 women who underwent breast cancer chemotherapy were selected from two hospitals. Descriptive statistics, single-factor analysis, Spearman correlation, linear regression, and structural equation modeling were used to analyze data. The mean quality of life score was 65.65. In linear regression analysis, we found patients' quality of life was significantly related to age, marital status, education level, chemotherapy cycle, and hope. Structural equation results showed the "temporality and future" and "interconnectedness" subscales of the HHI explained 43% of the variance in quality of life. We found hope is an important aspect in quality of life, and further research is needed to determine if nurses can influence this aspect of care.

16.
Chem Asian J ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546651

RESUMO

Process intensification, targeting the maximization of spatial-temporal productivity utilizing minimum energy and resources has always been the constant trends especially in chemical industry. In this regard, tandem reactions that are able to perform a multi-step reaction in a single pot by eliminating costly separation steps have been viewed as a typical paradigm. However, a spatial isolation of varied active sites with a controlled manner in a single catalyst to avoid deactivation and work synergistically is a challenging problem yet sometimes being overlooked. In this work, a spatial base-metal core-shell structured catalyst with wrinkled surface was successfully fabricated by a direct homoepitaxial growth method in an acid/water system, which exhibited increased hydrophobicity, exposure of active sites and significantly improved product selectivity towards one-pot Knoevenagel condensation-hydrogenation tandem reaction compared with the uncoated catalyst. Meanwhile, the catalytic performance was largely retained and the structural stability was maintained even after successive 8 cycles, which shows great promise for industrial applications.

17.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 671170, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568312

RESUMO

MicroRNAs let-7c and let-7f, two members of the let-7 family, were involved in regulating osteoblast differentiation and have an important role in bone formation. Let-7e-5p, which also belonged to the let-7 family, presented in the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells and mouse embryonic stem cells. However, the role of let-7e-5p in osteoblast differentiation was unclear. Thus, this study aimed to elucidate the function of let-7e-5p in osteoblast differentiation and its mechanism. Firstly, we found that the let-7e-5p mimic promoted osteoblast differentiation but not the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells by positively regulating the expression levels of osteogenic-associated genes (RUNX2, OCN, OPN, and OSX), the activity of ALP, and formation of mineralized nodules. Moreover, we ascertained that the let-7e-5p mimic downregulated the post-transcriptional expression of SOCS1 by specifically binding to the 3' untranslated region of SOCS1 mRNA. Also, let-7e-5p-induced SOCS1 downregulation increased the protein levels of p-STAT5 and IGF-1, which were both modulated by SOCS1 molecules. Furthermore, let-7e-5p abrogated the inhibition of osteogenic differentiation mediated by SOCS1 overexpression. Therefore, these results suggested that let-7e-5p regulated the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway to upregulate IGF-1 gene expression by inhibiting SOCS1. These findings may provide a new insight into the regulatory role of let-7e-5p in osteogenic differentiation and imply the existence of a novel mechanism underlying let-7e-5p-mediated osteogenic differentiation.

18.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569712

RESUMO

AIMS: There is an emerging interest in elucidating the natural history and prognosis for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in whom left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) subsequently improves. The characteristics and outcomes were compared between heart failure with recovered ejection fraction (HFrecEF) and persistent HFrEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a retrospective study of adults who underwent at least two echocardiograms 3 months apart between 1 November 2015 and 31 October 2019 with an initial diagnosis of HFrEF. The subjects were divided into HFrecEF group (second LVEF > 40%, ≥10% absolute improvement in LVEF) and persistent HFrEF group (<10% absolute improvement in LVEF) according to the second LVEF. To further study the characteristics of HFrecEF patients, the cohort was further divided into LVEF improvement of 10-20% and >20% subgroups. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and rehospitalization. A total of 1160 HFrEF patients were included [70.2% male, mean (standard deviation) age: 62 ± 13 years]. On the second echocardiogram, 284 patients (24.5%) showed HFrecEF and 876 patients (75.5%) showed persistent HFrEF. All-cause mortality was identified in 23 (8.10%) HFrecEF and 165 (18.84%) persistent HFrEF, whilst 76 (26.76%) and 426 (48.63%) showed rehospitalizations, respectively. Survival analysis showed that the persistent HFrEF subgroup experienced a significantly higher mortality at 12 and 24 months and a higher hospitalization at 12, 24, 48, and more than 48 months following discharge. Multivariate Cox regression showed that persistent HFrEF had a higher risk of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 2.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-3.56, P = 0.000] and rehospitalization (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.45-2.36, P = 0.000) than the HFrecEF group. Subgroup analysis showed that the LVEF ≥ 20% improvement subgroup had lower rates of adverse outcomes compared with those with less improvement of 10-20%. CONCLUSIONS: Heart failure with recovered ejection fraction is a distinct HF phenotype with better clinical outcomes compared with those with persistent HFrEF. HFrecEF patients have a relatively better short-term mortality at 24 months but not thereafter.

19.
Mol Ther Oncolytics ; 22: 468-482, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553033

RESUMO

lncRNA DSCR8 (Down syndrome critical region 8) is involved in progression of many cancers, but its specific role in gastric cancer (GC) is still unclear. Here, qRT-PCR detected upregulated expression of DSCR8 and Cdc42 and downregulated expression of miR-137 in GC. The protein expression level of Cdc42 in GC was upregulated as tested by western blot. Statistical analysis showed that DSCR8 was closely associated with some malignant clinicopathological features (such as tumor size, metastasis, and stage) in GC patients. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that DSCR8 was localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Dual-luciferase reporter gene, RNA immunoprecipitation, and biotin pull-down assays showed that DSCR8 could bind to miR-137 could bind to Cdc42. In vitro and in vivo assays showed that DSCR8 could promote proliferation, invasion, and the cycle of GC cells and inhibit cell apoptosis. In addition, a rescue experiment showed that DSCR8 regulated progression of GC cells via miR-137. Furthermore, DSCR8 regulated Cdc42 in GC cells by inhibiting miR-137. Taken together, these data indicated that DSCR8 could adsorb miR-137 to reduce its inhibitory effect on Cdc42 expression, thereby promoting the progression of GC cells and regulating the cell cycle. These results provide a novel direction for DSCR8 as a target of GC.

20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17941, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504162

RESUMO

Artificial neural networks (ANN) which include deep learning neural networks (DNN) have problems such as the local minimal problem of Back propagation neural network (BPNN), the unstable problem of Radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and the limited maximum precision problem of Convolutional neural network (CNN). Performance (training speed, precision, etc.) of BPNN, RBFNN and CNN are expected to be improved. Main works are as follows: Firstly, based on existing BPNN and RBFNN, Wavelet neural network (WNN) is implemented in order to get better performance for further improving CNN. WNN adopts the network structure of BPNN in order to get faster training speed. WNN adopts the wavelet function as an activation function, whose form is similar to the radial basis function of RBFNN, in order to solve the local minimum problem. Secondly, WNN-based Convolutional wavelet neural network (CWNN) method is proposed, in which the fully connected layers (FCL) of CNN is replaced by WNN. Thirdly, comparative simulations based on MNIST and CIFAR-10 datasets among the discussed methods of BPNN, RBFNN, CNN and CWNN are implemented and analyzed. Fourthly, the wavelet-based Convolutional Neural Network (WCNN) is proposed, where the wavelet transformation is adopted as the activation function in Convolutional Pool Neural Network (CPNN) of CNN. Fifthly, simulations based on CWNN are implemented and analyzed on the MNIST dataset. Effects are as follows: Firstly, WNN can solve the problems of BPNN and RBFNN and have better performance. Secondly, the proposed CWNN can reduce the mean square error and the error rate of CNN, which means CWNN has better maximum precision than CNN. Thirdly, the proposed WCNN can reduce the mean square error and the error rate of CWNN, which means WCNN has better maximum precision than CWNN.

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