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1.
Opt Lett ; 47(5): 1057-1060, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35230289

RESUMO

Tunable microwave dispersion is highly desired for a wide field of microwave signal processing. However, a conventional microwave dispersive delay line usually suffers from either a small dispersion value or a narrow operation bandwidth. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the optically magnified dispersion of a microwave signal with a wide and flexible tunable range, based on a bandwidth-scaling microwave photonic system. The obtained microwave dispersion can therefore be magnified from the corresponding optical dispersion with a magnification factor that can be continuously tuned from 10,000 to 85,000. Meanwhile, a proof-of-concept experiment that includes both compression and stretching of chirped microwave pulses is reported. Microwave dispersion from 1.34 ns/GHz to 10.92 ns/GHz can be secured by the corresponding magnification of an optical dispersion value of 16 ps/nm.

2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 658, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35115493

RESUMO

Radiocesium remediation is desirable for ecological protection, human health and sustainable development of nuclear energy. Effective capture of Cs+ from acidic solutions is still challenging, mainly due to the low stability of the adsorbing materials and the competitive adsorption of protons. Herein, the rapid and highly selective capture of Cs+ from strongly acidic solutions is achieved by a robust K+-directed layered metal sulfide KInSnS4 (InSnS-1) that exhibits excellent acid and radiation resistance. InSnS-1 possesses high adsorption capacity for Cs+ and can serve as the stationary phase in ion exchange columns to effectively remove Cs+ from neutral and acidic solutions. The adsorption of Cs+ and H3O+ is monitored by single-crystal structure analysis, and thus the underlying mechanism of selective Cs+ capture from acidic solutions is elucidated at the molecular level.

3.
Nature ; 601(7891): 85-91, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34912115

RESUMO

The state and behaviour of a cell can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In particular, tumour progression is determined by underlying genetic aberrations1-4 as well as the makeup of the tumour microenvironment5,6. Quantifying the contributions of these factors requires new technologies that can accurately measure the spatial location of genomic sequence together with phenotypic readouts. Here we developed slide-DNA-seq, a method for capturing spatially resolved DNA sequences from intact tissue sections. We demonstrate that this method accurately preserves local tumour architecture and enables the de novo discovery of distinct tumour clones and their copy number alterations. We then apply slide-DNA-seq to a mouse model of metastasis and a primary human cancer, revealing that clonal populations are confined to distinct spatial regions. Moreover, through integration with spatial transcriptomics, we uncover distinct sets of genes that are associated with clone-specific genetic aberrations, the local tumour microenvironment, or both. Together, this multi-modal spatial genomics approach provides a versatile platform for quantifying how cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors contribute to gene expression, protein abundance and other cellular phenotypes.


Assuntos
Células Clonais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Genômica/métodos , Animais , Células Clonais/patologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Fenótipo , RNA-Seq , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma
4.
Cell Rep ; 37(5): 109915, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731600

RESUMO

Single-cell RNA sequencing has revealed extensive molecular diversity in gene programs governing mammalian spermatogenesis but fails to delineate their dynamics in the native context of seminiferous tubules, the spatially confined functional units of spermatogenesis. Here, we use Slide-seq, a spatial transcriptomics technology, to generate an atlas that captures the spatial gene expression patterns at near-single-cell resolution in the mouse and human testis. Using Slide-seq data, we devise a computational framework that accurately localizes testicular cell types in individual seminiferous tubules. Unbiased analysis systematically identifies spatially patterned genes and gene programs. Combining Slide-seq with targeted in situ RNA sequencing, we demonstrate significant differences in the cellular compositions of spermatogonial microenvironment between mouse and human testes. Finally, a comparison of the spatial atlas generated from the wild-type and diabetic mouse testis reveals a disruption in the spatial cellular organization of seminiferous tubules as a potential mechanism of diabetes-induced male infertility.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Espermatogênese/genética , Espermatogônias/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Algoritmos , Animais , Microambiente Celular , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia Confocal , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Especificidade da Espécie , Espermatogônias/patologia , Testículo/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
5.
ChemSusChem ; 14(24): 5499-5507, 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648234

RESUMO

Electrolysis of seawater can be a promising technology, but chloride ions in seawater can lead to adverse side reactions and the corrosion of electrodes. A new transition metal boride-based self-supported electrocatalyst was prepared for efficient seawater electrolysis by directly soaking nickel foam (NF) in a mixture of phenolic resin (PR) and boron carbide (B4 C), followed by an 800 °C annealing. During PR carbonization process, the reaction of B4 C and NF generated nickel boride (Nix B) with high catalytic activity, while PR-derived carbon coating was doped with boron atoms from B4 C (B-CPR ). The B-CPR coating fixed Nix B/B4 C particles in the frames and holes to improve the space utilization of NF. Meanwhile, the B-CPR coating effectively protected the catalyst from the corrosion by seawater and facilitates the transport of electrons. The optimal Nix B/B4 C/B-CPR /NF required 1.50 and 1.58 V to deliver 100 and 500 mA cm-2 , respectively, in alkaline natural seawater for the oxygen evolution reaction.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957354

RESUMO

A novel in-syringe temperature-controlled liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidified floating ionic liquid (in-syringe TC-LLME-SFIL) combined with high performance liquid chromatography was developed for the simultaneous determination of monuron, chlorotoluron, atrazine, monolinuron, propazine and prometryn in commercial vegetable protein drinks. The samples were deproteinized by trichloroacetic acid and further cleaned up by solid phase extraction column. The ionic liquid tributyldodecylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate ([P4 4 4 12]BF4) was used as extraction solvent and dispersed into the depurated sample solution to form fine droplets with the assistance of heating and vortex. With the help of an ice bath, the ionic liquid phase solidified and floated on the surface of aqueous phase. After separation from the aqueous phase, the solidified ionic liquids were dissolved with acetonitrile and the resulting solution was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Some extraction parameters, including type and amount of adsorbent, type and amount of ionic liquids, amount of NaCl, melting temperature and time of ionic liquid, vortex time, pH of sample solution, ice bath temperature and time, were investigated and optimized by single-factor experiment, Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken design. The results showed that good linearities (r ≥ 0.9994) were obtained in the concentration range of 7.8-1000.0 µg/L. The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.25-2.59 µg/L and 0.82-8.63 µg/L, respectively. The spiked recoveries were 81.26-118.42% with the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 3) lower than 8.17%. The present method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of triazine and phenylurea herbicides in vegetable protein drinks.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Compostos de Fenilureia , Triazinas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Herbicidas/análise , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Microextração em Fase Líquida/instrumentação , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Fenilureia/análise , Compostos de Fenilureia/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Seringas , Triazinas/análise , Triazinas/isolamento & purificação
7.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 45, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990613

RESUMO

Ruminal microbiota changes frequently with high grain diets and the occurrence of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). A grain-induced goat model of SARA, with durations of a significant decrease in the rumen pH value to less than 5.6 and an increase in the rumen lipopolysaccharides concentration, is constructed for real-time monitoring of bacteria alteration. Using 16 S rRNA gene sequencing, significant bacterial differences between goats from the SARA and healthy groups are identified at every hour for six continuous hours after feeding. Moreover, 29 common differential genera between two groups over 6 h after feeding are all related to the altered pH and lipopolysaccharides. Transplanting the microbiota from donor goats with SARA could induce colonic inflammation in antibiotic-pretreated mice. Overall, significant differences in the bacterial community and rumen fermentation pattern between the healthy and SARA dairy goats are real-time monitored, and then tested using ruminal microbe transplantation to antibiotic-treated mice.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Rúmen/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/etiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/metabolismo , Animais , Biodiversidade , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Cabras , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Transcriptoma
8.
New Phytol ; 231(3): 1056-1072, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892513

RESUMO

The improvement of cold adaptation has contributed to the increased growing area of rice. Standing variation and de novo mutation are distinct natural sources of beneficial alleles in plant adaptation. However, the genetic mechanisms and evolutionary patterns underlying these sources in a single population during crop domestication remain elusive. Here we cloned the CTB2 gene, encoding a UDP-glucose sterol glucosyltransferase, for cold tolerance in rice at the booting stage. A single standing variation (I408V) in the conserved UDPGT domain of CTB2 originated from Chinese Oryza rufipogon and contributed to the cold adaptation of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica. CTB2 is located in a 56.8 kb region, including the previously reported gene CTB4a in which de novo mutation arose c. 3200 yr BP in Yunnan province, China, conferring cold tolerance. Standing variation of CTB2 and de novo mutation of CTB4a underwent stepwise selection to facilitate cold adaptation to expand rice cultivation from high-altitude to high-latitude regions. These results provide an example of stepwise selection on two kinds of variation and describe a new molecular mechanism of cold adaptation in japonica rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Alelos , China , Domesticação , Genes de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Seleção Genética
9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(11): 13434-13442, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705090

RESUMO

The need to effectively and selectively remove radioactive 137Cs and 90Sr from nuclear waste solutions persists to mitigate their environmental mobility and high radiotoxicity. Because it is difficult to effectively remove them from acidic environments that degrade most sorbents, new sorbent materials are highly desirable. Here, efficient removal of Cs+ and Sr2+ is achieved by the composite of layered tin sulfide (Me2NH2)4/3(Me3NH)2/3Sn3S7·1.25H2O (FJSM-SnS) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) (FJSM-SnS/PAN). The granulous composite possesses regular particle morphology and good mechanical strength as an engineered form. It shows excellent acid-base and γ-irradiation resistance, high maximum adsorption capacities (qm) of 296.12 and 62.88 mg/g for Cs+ and Sr2+ ions, respectively, and high selectivity even in the presence of excess Na+ ions or using lake water. Impressively, qmCs of FJSM-SnS/PAN reaches 89.29 mg/g under even acidic conditions (pH = 2.5). The column loaded with FJSM-SnS/PAN granules exhibits high removal rates (R) toward low-concentration Cs+ and Sr2+ ions under both neutral and acidic conditions. Moreover, the composite can be recycled and reused with high RCs and RSr. This work highlights the great potential of metal sulfide ion-exchangers in engineered form for the efficient removal of Cs+ or Sr2+ ions, especially under acidic conditions, for radionuclide remediation.

10.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(3): 313-319, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288904

RESUMO

Measurement of the location of molecules in tissues is essential for understanding tissue formation and function. Previously, we developed Slide-seq, a technology that enables transcriptome-wide detection of RNAs with a spatial resolution of 10 µm. Here we report Slide-seqV2, which combines improvements in library generation, bead synthesis and array indexing to reach an RNA capture efficiency ~50% that of single-cell RNA-seq data (~10-fold greater than Slide-seq), approaching the detection efficiency of droplet-based single-cell RNA-seq techniques. First, we leverage the detection efficiency of Slide-seqV2 to identify dendritically localized mRNAs in neurons of the mouse hippocampus. Second, we integrate the spatial information of Slide-seqV2 data with single-cell trajectory analysis tools to characterize the spatiotemporal development of the mouse neocortex, identifying underlying genetic programs that were poorly sampled with Slide-seq. The combination of near-cellular resolution and high transcript detection efficiency makes Slide-seqV2 useful across many experimental contexts.


Assuntos
Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética
11.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 18(12): 2491-2503, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490579

RESUMO

Genetic studies on cold tolerance at the reproductive stage in rice could lead to significant reductions in yield losses. However, knowledge about the genetic basis and adaptive differentiation, as well as the evolution and utilization of the underlying natural alleles, remains limited. Here, 580 rice accessions in two association panels were used to perform genome-wide association study, and 156 loci associated with cold tolerance at the reproductive stage were identified. Os01g0923600 and Os01g0923800 were identified as promising candidate genes in qCTB1t, a major associated locus. Through population genetic analyses, 22 and 29 divergent regions controlling cold adaptive differentiation inter-subspecies (Xian/Indica and Geng/Japonica) and intra-Geng, respectively, were identified. Joint analyses of four cloned cold-tolerance genes showed that they had different origins and utilizations under various climatic conditions. bZIP73 and OsAPX1 differentiating inter-subspecies evolved directly from wild rice, whereas the novel mutations CTB4a and Ctb1 arose in Geng during adaptation to colder climates. The cold-tolerant Geng accessions have undergone stronger selection under colder climate conditions than other accessions during the domestication and breeding processes. Additive effects of dominant allelic variants of four identified genes have been important in adaptation to cold in modern rice varieties. Therefore, this study provides valuable information for further gene discovery and pyramiding breeding to improve cold tolerance at the reproductive stage in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Alelos , Temperatura Baixa , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas
12.
ChemSusChem ; 13(14): 3718-3725, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363782

RESUMO

The development of low-cost electrocatalysts with excellent activity and durability for both the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) poses a huge challenge in water splitting. In this study, a simple and scalable strategy is proposed to fabricate 3 D heteronanorods on nickel foam, in which nickel molybdenum phosphide nanorods are covered with cobalt iron phosphide (P-NM-CF HNRs). As a result of the rational design, the P-NM-CF HNRs have a large surface area, tightly connected interfaces, optimized electronic structures, and synergy between the metal atoms. Accordingly, the P-NM-CF HNRs exhibit a remarkably high catalytic activity for the OER under alkaline conditions and wide-pH HER. For overall water splitting, the catalyst only requires a voltage of 1.53 V to reach a current density of 10 mA cm-2 in 1 m KOH with prominent stability, and the activity is not degraded after stability testing for 36 h. This new strategy can inspire the design of durable nonprecious-metal catalysts for large-scale industrial water splitting.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(23): 26222-26231, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401005

RESUMO

The discovery of novel high-nuclearity oxo-clusters considerably promotes the development of cluster science. We report a high-nuclearity oxo-cluster-based compound with acid/alkali-resistance and radiation stabilities, namely, (H3O)7[Cd7Sb24O24(l-tta)9(l-Htta)3(H2O)6]·29H2O (FJSM-CA; l-H4tta = l-tartaric acid), which features a two-dimensionally anionic layer based on the largest Sb-oxo-clusters with 28-metal-ion-core [Cd4Sb24O24]. It is challenging to efficiently capture Sr2+, Ba2+ (analogue of 226Ra), and [UO2]2+ ions from aqueous solutions due to their high water solubility and environmental mobility, while it is unprecedented that a novel Sb-oxo-cluster-based framework material FJSM-CA can efficiently remove these hazardous ions accompanied with intriguing structural transformations. Especially, it shows fast ion-exchange abilities for Sr2+, Ba2+, and [UO2]2+ (reaches equilibrium within 2, 10, and 20 min, respectively) and high exchange capacity (121.91 mg/g), removal rate R (96%), and distribution coefficient KdU (2.46 × 104 mL/g) for uranium. Moreover, the underlying mechanism is clearly revealed, which is attributed to strong electrostatic interactions between exchanged cations and highly negative-charged frameworks and the strong affinity of (COO)- groups for these cations. Proton conduction of the pristine and Sr2+, Ba2+, [UO2]2+-loaded products was investigated. This work highlights the design of new oxo-cluster-based materials for radionuclide remediation and proton conduction performance.

14.
Dalton Trans ; 49(16): 5020-5023, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196029

RESUMO

An indium selenide [Bmmim]6[In10Se16Cl4]·(MIm)2 (Bmmim = 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium, MIm = 1-methylimidazole) cluster has been synthesized and characterized. The discrete T3 cluster could be stably dispersed in dimethyl sulfoxide, exhibiting photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity at least six times that of the pristine in the solid state due to the exposure of more active sites.

15.
Med Res Arch ; 8(3)2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222651

RESUMO

Aging is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is itself associated with alterations in renal structure and function. There are no specific interventions to attenuate age-dependent renal dysfunction and the mechanism(s) responsible for these deficits have not been fully elucidated. In this study, male Fischer 344 rats, which develop age-dependent nephropathy, were feed a casein- or soy protein diet beginning at 16 mon (late life intervention) and renal structure and function was assessed at 20 mon. The soy diet did not significantly affect body weight, but was renoprotective as assessed by decreased proteinuria, increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and decreased urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1). Renal fibrosis, as assessed by hydroxyproline content, was decreased by the soy diet, as were several indicators of inflammation. RNA sequencing identified several candidates for the renoprotective effects of soy, including decreased expression of Twist2, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that network analysis suggest may regulate the expression of several genes associated with renal dysfunction. Twist2 expression is upregulated in the aging kidney and the unilateral ureteral obstruction of fibrosis; the expression is limited to distal tubules of mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate the renoprotective potential of soy protein, putatively by reducing inflammation and fibrosis, and identify Twist2 as a novel mediator of renal dysfunction that is targeted by soy.

16.
Transl Stroke Res ; 10(5): 546-556, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465328

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is a devastating neurological disease that can cause permanent brain damage, but to date, few biomarkers are available to reliably assess the severity of injury during acute onset. In this study, quantitative proteomic analysis of ischemic mouse brain detected the increase in expression levels of clusterin (CLU) and cystatin C (CST3). Since CLU is a secretary protein, serum samples (n = 70) were obtained from acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients within 24 h of stroke onset and together with 70 matched health controls. Analysis of CLU levels indicated significantly higher levels in AIS patients than healthy controls (14.91 ± 4.03 vs. 12.79 ± 2.22 ng/L; P = 0.0004). Analysis of serum CST3 also showed significant increase in AIS patients as compared with healthy controls (0.90 ± 0.19 vs. 0.84 ± 0.12 ng/L; P = 0.0064). The serum values of CLU were also positively correlated with the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, the time interval after stroke onset, as well as major stroke risk factors associated with lipid profile. These data demonstrate that elevated levels of serum CLU and CST3 are independently associated with AIS and may serve as peripheral biomarkers to aid clinical assessment of AIS and its severity. This pilot study thus contributes to progress toward preclinical proteomic screening by using animal models and allows translation of results from bench to bedside.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Clusterina/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Idoso , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Cistatina C/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Proteoma/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
17.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 163: 95-104, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286440

RESUMO

Ionic liquid-based salt-induced liquid-liquid extraction was developed for the first time and applied to the extraction of four active constituents, including polydatin, resveratrol, emodin, and physcion in Polygonum cuspidatum (P. cuspidatum). In this study, ionic liquid was used as extraction solvent. The dried P. cuspidatum samples purchased from the pharmacy were triturated and passed through a 120-mesh sieve. The obtained sample powders were dried to constant weight at 55 ℃, and then mixed with extraction solvent. The extraction was carried out with the aid of ultrasound. Three phases, including ionic liquid-rich, salt-rich and solid sample phases were formed in the presence of salt. The target analytes were enriched in ionic liquid phase and then determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The experimental parameters, such as type and volume of ionic liquid, type and amount of salt, pH value of extraction medium, ultrasound power, ultrasound time and centrifugal condition, were optimized. The calibration curves showed good linear relationship (r > 0.9994). The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 2.8-29.5 and 9.4-98.3 ng mL-1, respectively. The spiked recoveries were between 92.16% and 105.41%. Compared with hot reflux extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction, the proposed method requires less extraction solvent and time. The present method can be applied to the determination of polyphenols and anthraquinones in P. cuspidatum.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Fallopia japonica/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Polifenóis/análise , Antraquinonas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido/instrumentação , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polifenóis/química , Fatores de Tempo , Ondas Ultrassônicas
18.
J Exp Bot ; 69(20): 4723-4737, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295905

RESUMO

Grain length is one of the determinants of yield in rice and auxin plays an important role in regulating it by mediating cell growth. Although several genes in the auxin pathway are involved in regulating grain length, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we identify a RING-finger and wd40-associated ubiquitin-like (RAWUL) domain-containing protein, Gnp4/LAX2, with a hitherto unknown role in regulation of grain length by its influence on cell expansion. Gnp4/LAX2 is broadly expressed in the plant and subcellular localization analysis shows that it encodes a nuclear protein. Overexpression of Gnp4/LAX2 can significantly increase grain length and thousand-kernel weight. Moreover, Gnp4/LAX2 physically interacts with OsIAA3 and consequently interferes with the OsIAA3-OsARF25 interaction in vitro and in vivo. OsIAA3 RNAi plants consistently exhibit longer grains, while the mutant osarf25 has small grains. In addition, OsARF25 binds to the promoter of OsERF142/SMOS1, a regulator of organ size, and positively regulates its expression. Taken together, the results reveal that Gnp4/LAX2 functions as a regulator of grain length through participation in the OsIAA3-OsARF25-OsERF142 pathway and that it has potential value for molecular breeding in rice.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Grão Comestível/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Oryza , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9939, 2018 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967418

RESUMO

Every two years groups worldwide participate in the Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment to blindly test the strengths and weaknesses of their computational methods. CASP has significantly advanced the field but many hurdles still remain, which may require new ideas and collaborations. In 2012 a web-based effort called WeFold, was initiated to promote collaboration within the CASP community and attract researchers from other fields to contribute new ideas to CASP. Members of the WeFold coopetition (cooperation and competition) participated in CASP as individual teams, but also shared components of their methods to create hybrid pipelines and actively contributed to this effort. We assert that the scale and diversity of integrative prediction pipelines could not have been achieved by any individual lab or even by any collaboration among a few partners. The models contributed by the participating groups and generated by the pipelines are publicly available at the WeFold website providing a wealth of data that remains to be tapped. Here, we analyze the results of the 2014 and 2016 pipelines showing improvements according to the CASP assessment as well as areas that require further adjustments and research.


Assuntos
Caspase 12/metabolismo , Caspases/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Software , Caspase 12/química , Caspases/química , Humanos , Conformação Proteica
20.
Mol Ther ; 26(9): 2178-2188, 2018 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802017

RESUMO

Lyophilized keratinocyte-targeted nanocarriers (TLNκ) loaded with locked nucleic acid (LNA) modified anti-miR were developed for topical application to full thickness burn injury. TLNκ were designed to selectively deliver LNA-anti-miR-107 to keratinocytes using the peptide sequence ASKAIQVFLLAG. TLNκ employed DOTAP/DODAP combination pH-responsive lipid components to improve endosomal escape. To minimize interference of clearance by non-targeted cells, especially immune cells in the acute wound microenvironment, surface charge was neutralized. Lyophilization was performed to extend the shelf life of the lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). Encapsulation efficiency of anti-miR in lyophilized TLNκ was estimated to be 96.54%. Cargo stability of lyophilized TLNκ was tested. After 9 days of loading with anti-miR-210, TLNκ was effective in lowering abundance of the hypoxamiR miR-210 in keratinocytes challenged with hypoxia. Keratinocyte uptake of DiD-labeled TLNκ was selective and exceeded 90% within 4 hr. Topical application of hydrogel-dispersed lyophilized TLNκ encapsulating LNA anti-miR-107 twice a week significantly accelerated wound closure and restoration of skin barrier function. TLNκ/anti-miR-107 application depleted miR-107 and upregulated dicer expression, which accelerated differentiation of keratinocytes. Expression of junctional proteins such as claudin-1, loricrin, filaggrin, ZO-1, and ZO-2 were significantly upregulated following TLNκ/anti-miR-107 treatment. These LNPs are promising as topical therapeutic agents in the management of burn injury.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Liofilização , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Pele/patologia , Animais , Antagomirs/administração & dosagem , Antagomirs/uso terapêutico , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização
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