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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595274

RESUMO

A new silver-mediated 1,2-alkylesterification of alkenes with nitriles and acids promoted by a catalytic amount of nickel catalyst for producing acyloxylated nitriles has been developed via a C(sp3)-H functionalization process. By employing the NiI2 and Ag2CO3 catalytic systems, the method features broad substrate scope with respect to carboxylic acids, including linear alkyl acids, cyclic acids, aryl acids and amino acids.

2.
Dalton Trans ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596294

RESUMO

Based on systematic DFT calculations, silaborane-based superhalogen anions, which obey the Wade-Mingos rule, are shown to be capable of giving rise to superacids via their combination with protons. Compared to previous carborane-based systems, the acidities of the composites here are stronger in both the gas phase and solution phase. Thus, the potential of candidates based on silaborane could be greater than those based on carborane in the search for ultra-strong acidic systems. Within a given group, a higher superhalogen anion vertical electron detachment energy (VDE) generally leads to stronger acidity. This consistency arises from the dominant role of the VDE, as established through the decomposition of the gas-phase acidity into different contributions. Thus, constructing superacids from superhalogens is a rational route whose future should be positive. Besides the VDE, other effects, i.e., the deformation energy (DE) and bond dissociation energy (BDE), could also be crucial, especially in terms of the differences between the acidities of composites belonging to different groups. A comparison between the results in the gas phase and solution phase indicates that complete calculations of both gas-phase ΔGacid and solution-phase pKa values are necessary to obtain an unbiased description of the acidity. The solvation free energies of the participants in the deprotonation process, especially the conjugate acid, are responsible for the discrepancies between gas phase and solution phase behavior.

3.
Nanoscale ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596296

RESUMO

Attenuated total reflection surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (ATR-SEIRAS) is a powerful technique that provides structural and functional information during dynamic reactions in aqueous solutions. One existing limitation is the sensitivity to extract the signals of trace-level analytes from the background water in situ and in real time. Here, we proposed a novel ATR-SEIRAS platform that integrated a large-scale triangle gold antenna array onto a conventional ATR-IR platform to increase the sensitivity of this analytical technique. A square centimeter level well-ordered gold antenna array was fabricated onto an Si prism via nanosphere lithography. The size-dependent antenna array resonance had weak correlation with the incident polarization and antenna orientation, allowing antenna array-enhanced IR detection without the requirement of a microscope. In addition, the antenna resonance shift that occurred due to analyte adsorption-induced refractive index variation could be minimized benefiting from the high refractive index of Si (3.4). As a demonstration, we dynamically monitored the adsorption of the trace levels of proteins on top of the antenna array with a real signal enhancement factor larger than 300. Our platform opens an avenue to apply antenna array-enhanced IR spectroscopy in an aqueous environment measured via commercial IR instruments, which is extremely promising for the interfacial applications that require signal enhancement.

4.
Retina ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584558

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the ability of nonperfusion, vessel density, and morphologic measurements using projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography to detect early retinal microvasculature impairments in diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with no diabetic retinopathy (DR) or mild nonproliferative DR and age-matched controls imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography. Foveal avascular zone-related metrics and extrafoveal avascular area were measured in optical coherence tomography angiography images. Vessel density and fractal dimension were calculated with and without a skeletonization process. The vessel diameter index and vessel tortuosity were computed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) estimated diagnostic performances. RESULTS: Dilated capillary diameter was observed in the deep capillary plexus in the diabetic groups. Vessel density and fractal dimension of skeletonized deep capillary plexus significantly and progressively decreased in the no DR and mild nonproliferative DR groups compared with controls. Superficial extrafoveal avascular area, vessel density, and fractal dimension of the skeletonized deep capillary plexus had the highest diagnostic performance to differentiate mild nonproliferative DR from control eyes, with AUCs of 0.885, 0.876, and 0.876, respectively. CONCLUSION: Vessel density and fractal dimension from the skeletonized deep capillary network may be the most sensitive for detecting early retinal capillary loss in diabetes mellitus.

5.
J Integr Neurosci ; 18(3): 269-276, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601075

RESUMO

Migraine is a primary neuropsychological disorder, although its etiology and pathogenesis are unknown. It has been reported that using contingent negative variation, the periodicity of migraine attacks is three days in adults. However, there is still a lack of relevant reports about the periodicity of migraine without aura in adults. Therefore, we investigated the changes of contingent negative variation in adults with migraine without aura from three to seven days after migraine attacks in order to provide the basis for exploring the circulation periodicity of migraine without aura. This prospective, observational study involved a group of 34 individuals with migraine without aura, who were screened during the three to seven days after a migraine attack without aura. A healthy group (31 individuals) was used as controls to assess the amplitudes of contingent negative variation and habituation of early contingent negative variation. Indices of the amplitudes included overall contingent negative variation, initial contingent negative variation, terminal contingent negative variation, and postoperative negative contingent variation. Differences between these indicators were analyzed. No significant difference was found between the patient and control groups for either the amplitudes of these measures of contingent negative variation or habituation of the early contingent negative variation for three to seven days after a migraine attack without aura (all P > 0.05). Thus, the study reported here found that the periodicity of migraine attacks without aura in adults is more than three days.

6.
J Cell Physiol ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566711

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that low expression of epoxide hydrolase 1 (EPHX1) is closely associated with varying human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aims to explore the potential mechanism of EPHX1 silencing and revealed a novel regulatory pathway in the pathogenesis of HCC. In this study, micro ribonucleic acid (miR)-184 was predicted and validated to be a regulator of EPHX1 through experiments, and its expression was negatively correlated with the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of EPHX1 in primary tumors. Elevation of EPHX1 suppressed cell proliferation and migration as well as cell cycle progression, and induced apoptosis, while downregulation of miR-184 exhibited the opposite effect on cellular processes. Moreover, LINC00205 interacted with miR-184 and was markedly downregulated in tumors. The effects of the miR-184 inhibitor on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration were reversed in part by the transfection with LINC00205 small interfering RNAs. In addition, LINC00205 acted as a molecular sponge to positively regulate the mRNA and protein levels of EPHX1 via regulating miR-184. The tumorigenicity of HCC cells was enhanced by LINC00205 shRNA but diminished by overexpression of EPHX1 in vivo. Clinically, the EPHX1 expression in patients with HCC was markedly downregulated. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that as a competing endogenous RNA, LINC00205 may regulate EPHX1 by inhibiting miR-184 in the progression of HCC and that targeting the LINC00205/miR-184/EPHX1 axis may provide a treatment protocol for patients.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581091

RESUMO

Bayesian networks are a powerful method for identifying causal relationships among variables. However, as the network size increases, the time complexity of searching the optimal structure grows exponentially. We proposed a novel search algorithm - Fast and Furious Bayesian Network (FFBN). Compared to the existing greedy search algorithm, FFBN uses significantly fewer model configuration rules to determine the causal direction of edges when constructing the Bayesian network, which leads to greatly improved computational speed. We benchmarked the performance of FFBN by reconstructing gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from two DREAM5 challenge datasets. In both datasets, FFBN shows a much faster speed than the existing greedy search algorithm, while maintaining equally good or better performance in recall and precision. We then constructed three whole transcriptome GRNs for primary liver cancer (PL), primary colon cancer (PC) and colon to liver metastasis (CLM) expression data, which the existing greedy search algorithms failed. Three GRNs contain 12,099 common genes. Unprecedentedly, our newly developed FFBN algorithm is able to build up GRNs at a scale larger than 10,000 genes. Using FFBN, we discovered that CLM has its unique cancer molecular mechanisms and shares a certain degree of similarity with both PL and PC.

8.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 326, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To develop a machine learning model for predicting acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) events through commonly available parameters, including baseline characteristics and clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: A secondary analysis of a multi-centre prospective observational cohort study from five hospitals in Beijing, China, was conducted from January 1, 2011, to August 31, 2014. A total of 296 patients at risk for developing ARDS admitted to medical intensive care units (ICUs) were included. We applied a random forest approach to identify the best set of predictors out of 42 variables measured on day 1 of admission. RESULTS: All patients were randomly divided into training (80%) and testing (20%) sets. Additionally, these patients were followed daily and assessed according to the Berlin definition. The model obtained an average area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.82 and yielded a predictive accuracy of 83%. For the first time, four new biomarkers were included in the model: decreased minimum haematocrit, glucose, and sodium and increased minimum white blood cell (WBC) count. CONCLUSIONS: This newly established machine learning-based model shows good predictive ability in Chinese patients with ARDS. External validation studies are necessary to confirm the generalisability of our approach across populations and treatment practices.

9.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(10): 733, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570763

RESUMO

Notch proteins drive oncogenesis of many cancers, most prominently T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Because geranylgeranylated Rab proteins regulate Notch processing, we hypothesized that inhibition of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS) would impair Notch processing and reduce viability of T-ALL cells that express Notch. Here, we show that GGDPS inhibition reduces Notch1 expression and impairs the proliferation of T-ALL cells. GGDPS inhibition also reduces Rab7 membrane association and depletes Notch1 mRNA. GGDPS inhibition increases phosphorylation of histone H2A.X, and inhibitors of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase (ATM) mitigate GGDPS inhibitor-induced apoptosis. GGDPS inhibition also influences c-abl activity downstream of caspases, and inhibitors of these enzymes prevent GGDPS inhibitor-induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, induction of apoptosis by GGDPS inhibition is reduced by co-treatment with γ-secretase inhibitors. While inhibitors of γ-secretase deplete one specific form of the Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD), they also increase Notch1 mRNA expression and increase alternate forms of Notch1 protein expression in cells treated with a GGDPS inhibitor. Furthermore, inhibitors of γ-secretase and ATM increase Notch1 mRNA stability independent of GGDPS inhibition. These results provide a model by which T-ALL cells use Notch1 to avoid DNA-damage-induced apoptosis, and can be overcome by inhibition of GGDPS through effects on Notch1 expression and its subsequent response.

10.
J Immunol ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591147

RESUMO

Previous studies of Jak-STAT inhibitors have shown promise in treating kidney diseases. The activation of Jak-STAT components is important in cell fate determination in many cell types, including bone marrow-derived cells, which are important contributors in renal interstitial fibrosis. In this study, we tested the effect of a new STAT3 inhibitor, BP-1-102, on monocyte-to-fibrocyte transition and the progression of renal interstitial fibrosis. We tested the effect of BP-1-102 in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction in vivo and IL-33-treated bone marrow-derived monocytes in vitro. BP-1-102 treatment alleviated renal interstitial fibrosis, reduced collagen deposition and extracellular matrix protein production, inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration, suppressed the percentage of CD45+ PDGFRß+, CD45+ CD34- Col I+ and CD45+ CD11b+ Col I+ cells within the obstructed kidney and reduced the mRNA levels of the proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines IL-1ß, TGF-ß, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and CXCL16. In vitro, BP-1-102 inhibited the IL-33-induced phenotypic transition into fibroblast precursors in bone marrow-derived monocytes, marked by reduced CD45+ CD34- Col I+ and CD45+ CD11b+ Col I+ cell percentage. Our results indicate a potential mechanism by which the STAT3 inhibitor BP-1-102 inhibits bone marrow-derived monocyte transition into fibroblast precursors in an IL-33/STAT3-dependent manner and thereby alleviates renal interstitial fibrosis.

11.
Cancer Res ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575549

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Cytological examination is the current "gold standard" for lung cancer diagnosis, however this has low sensitivity. Here, we identified a typical methylation signature of histone genes in lung cancer by whole-genome DNA methylation analysis, which was validated by a TCGA lung cancer cohort (n=907) and was further confirmed in 265 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples with specificity and sensitivity of 96.7% and 87.0%, respectively. More importantly, HIST1H4F was universally hypermethylated in all seventeen tumor types from TCGA datasets (n=7344), which was further validated in nine different types of cancer (n=243). These results demonstrate that HIST1H4F can function as a Universal-Cancer-Only Methylation (UCOM) marker, which may aid in understanding general tumorigenesis and improve screening for early cancer diagnosis.

12.
Cancer Res ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481501

RESUMO

Obese women have higher risk of bearing breast tumors which are highly aggressive and resistant to therapies. Tumor-promoting effects of obesity occur locally via adipose inflammation and related alterations to the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as systemically via circulating metabolic mediators (e.g. free fatty acids, FFA) associated with excess adiposity and implicated in toll-like receptor-mediated activation of macrophages - key cellular players in obesity-related cancer progression. While the contribution of macrophages to pro-neoplastic effects of obesity is well-documented, the role of ECM components and their enzymatic degradation is less appreciated. We show that heparanase, the sole mammalian endoglucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate in ECM, is preferentially expressed in clinical/experimental obesity-associated breast tumors. Heparanase deficiency abolished obesity-accelerated tumor progression in vivo. Heparanase orchestrated a complex molecular program which occurred concurrently in adipose and tumor tissue, and sustained the cancer-promoting action of obesity. Heparanase was required for adipose tissue macrophages (atM) to produce inflammatory mediators responsible for local induction of aromatase, a rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. Estrogen upregulated heparanase in hormone-responsive breast tumors. In subsequent stages, elevated levels of heparanase induced acquisition of pro-cancerous phenotype by tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), resulting in activation of tumor-promoting signaling and acceleration of breast tumor growth under obese conditions. As techniques to screen for heparanase expression in tumors become available, these findings provide rational and a mechanistic basis for designing anti-heparanase approaches to uncouple obesity and breast cancer in a rapidly growing population of obese patients.

14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(75): 11295-11298, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475996

RESUMO

A new Lewis acid catalysed formal hetero-[5+2] cycloaddition of 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrroles to terminal alkynes is described. By employing a FeCl3 and BF3·OEt2 co-catalytic strategy, the ring-opening of 1-tosyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrroles by selective cleavage of the C(sp2)-N bond and subsequent annulation have been achieved to access 1-tosyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-azepines with excellent regioselectivity, offering a new avenue for cycloaddition through the ring-opening of non-strained-ring-based units.

15.
Food Funct ; 10(9): 6000-6008, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482168

RESUMO

Lemon is a healthy fruit with high medicinal value. This study found that lemon water soluble extract (LET) can reduce uric acid levels in mice with potassium oxonate induced hyperuricemia. Histopathological analysis suggested that LET caused little damage to the kidneys of mice. It affected mABCG2 and mGLUT9 mRNA expression only in hyperuricemic mice, but not in healthy mice. Our further results show that potassium citrate, rather than citric acid, is the main ingredient in LET with a hypouricemic effect. This study also indicates that lemon does have unique medicinal value for the treatment of hyperuricemia, and that potassium citrate has the potential to be developed as a drug for hyperuricemia. Lowering uric acid through LET and potassium citrate may directly promote the degradation of excessive uric acid in patients with hyperuricemia.

16.
J Cardiol ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of superior vena cava (SVC) isolation (SVCI) using second-generation cryoballoon (CB) ablation remains unknown. METHODS: Electrical isolation of SVC was attempted using the second-generation CB ablation catheter in 14 canines. Ablation duration was randomized to either 90 s (7 canines) or 120 s (7 canines). SVC venography was performed to identify the SVC-right atrium (RA) junction. The 28-mm CB was positioned above SVC-RA junction. Repeat electrophysiological assessment in the live animals was conducted 40-60 days post-ablation, after which animals were euthanized for histological examination. RESULTS: Acute SVCI was successfully performed in all canines. No significant differences in numbers of freezes (1.7 ±â€¯0.8 vs. 1.5 ±â€¯0.5, p = 0.658), time to isolation (TTI) (24.3 ±â€¯8.1s vs. 22.7 ±â€¯9.0s, p = 0.297), temperature at isolation (-23.4 ±â€¯12.5 °C vs. -21.5 ±â€¯11.1 °C, p = 0.370), and nadir temperature (-51.2 ±â€¯6.2 °C vs. -53.3 ±â€¯7.0 °C, p = 0.195) were observed between the 90-s and 120-s groups. There were no procedural complications except one transient sinus bradycardia in the 120-s group. After ablation, animals survived for 51 ±â€¯5 days. Chronic SVCI was achieved in 6 of 7 (85.7%) SVCs in the 90-s group and 7 of 7 SVCs (100%) in the 120-s group (p = 0.299). Histological analysis revealed that a circumferential transmural lesion was achieved in all isolated SVCs. No sinus node (SN) and phrenic nerve injuries were observed. The minimum distance between ablation lesion and SN was 5.1 ±â€¯3.0 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The second-generation CB ablation catheter is both safe and effective in achieving SVC isolation in a canine model. Effective SVCI was found in the 90-s dosing strategy.

17.
Virol J ; 16(1): 114, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus type-6 (HPV6) is the major etiological agent of anogenital warts both men and women. The present study aimed to characterize the genetic diversity among HPV6 in Southwest China, and to investigate the origin of, selective pressure experienced by, and impact of the resultantly identified genetic variants on the HPV6 secondary structure. METHODS: Phylogenetic trees were constructed by Maximum-likelihood and the Kimura 2-parameters methods by Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. The diversity of secondary structure was analyzed by PSIPred software. The selection pressures acting on the E6/E7 genes were estimated by Phylogenetic Analyses by Maximum Likelihood version 4.8 software. RESULTS: HPV6 was the most prevalent low risk HPV type in southwest China. In total, 143 E6 and E7 gene sequences of HPV6 isolated from patients were sequenced and compared to GenBank HPV6 reference sequence X00203. The results of these analyses revealed that both the HPV6 E6 and E7 were highly conserved within the analyzed patient samples, and comprised only 3 types of variant sequence, respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of HPV6 E6 and E7 sequences revealed seven/five single-nucleotide mutations, two/four and five/one of which were non-synonymous and synonymous, respectively. The phylogenetic analyses of the E6 and E7 sequences indicated that they belonged to sub-lineage A1 and sub-lineage B1, whereas the selective pressure analyses showed that only the E7 mutation sites 4R, 34E, and 52F were positive selection. CONCLUSIONS: HPV6 (detection rate = 13.10%) was very prevalent in southwest China, both the HPV6 E6 and E7 sequences were highly conserved within the analyzed patient samples in southwest China, indicating that the low risk HPV6 can adapt to the environment well without much evolution.

18.
Clin Lab ; 65(9)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is one of the most commonly diagnosed age-related bone diseases worldwide, and it is also one of the leading causes of fracture. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical molecular regulators that are involved in the bone re-modelling processes, and the circulating miRNAs were stable in the peripheral blood. Thus, to detect the level of miRNAs in plasma of osteoporotic patients may be an efficient, repeatable, and inexpensive method for the early diagnosis and evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential diagnostic value of miR-100 in plasma of patients with osteoporosis. METHODS: A total of 120 osteoporotic patients were recruited and 120 healthy individuals were also included as the control group. The plasma of the participants was collected and the RNAs were extracted. The expressions of miR-100 in different clinical samples were examined using the RT-qPCR method. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) was drawn to determine the diagnostic value of miR-100 for osteoporosis. Next, the correlation between the plasma levels of miR-100 and T-scores of the patients were evaluated and, finally, the correlation between the plasma level of miR-100 and the expression levels of 25OH-D2 and 25OH-D3 were analyzed. RESULTS: miR-100 was significantly increased in plasma of patients with osteoporosis in comparison with healthy individuals; moreover, results of ROC analysis indicated that plasma level of miR-100 is a sensitive biomarker that could distinguish osteoporosis patients from healthy controls (AUC, 0.8916, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8468 to 0.9364). Furthermore, miR-100 was found to be negatively correlated with both vBMD (r = -0.3117, p = 0.0005) and Lumbar Spine L2-L4 T-score in patients with osteoporosis (r = -0.2929, p = 0.012). Finally, the plasma level of miR-100 was negatively correlated with the levels of 25OH-D2 (r = -0.3002, p = 0.0008) and 25OH-D3 (r = -0.3105, p = 0.0006) of the osteoporotic patients. CONCLUSIONS: miR-100 was abnormally increased in the plasma of osteoporotic patients, suggesting that circulating miR-100 could serve as potential biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment osteoporosis.

19.
World Neurosurg ; 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) typically has a single intradural drainage vein, abnormally connecting with the radiculomeningeal artery at the dura root sleeve. Multiple intradural draining veins are extremely rare. To date, only one case of spinal DAVF with multiple draining veins has been reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 62-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of progressive weakness and numbness in her lower extremities. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed extensive edema of the cord and prominent vascular flow voids. Spinal angiography demonstrated a right L3 DAVF with supply from the left L3 lumbar artery. The feeding artery was also thought to give rise to the artery of Adamkiewicz. The spinal DAVF was surgically treated, and the artery of Adamkiewicz was retained. Her postoperative symptoms gradually improved. Eight months after the surgery, her symptoms gradually worsened. Repeat spinal angiography revealed a right L3 DAVF at the same location of the first fistula. In retrospect, the draining vein identified on the second angiography was mistakenly considered as the artery of Adamkiewicz at the first angiography. Therefore, the initial fistula was drained through double draining veins, one of them mimicking the artery of Adamkiewicz. The fistula was coagulated and divided. Postoperatively, the patient's symptoms gradually improved. Three months after the second surgery, she was able to walk independently. CONCLUSIONS: Spinal DAVF is a rare disease, but clinicians should be cautious of possible multiple drainage veins in its diagnosis and treatment.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(8): 080401, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491194

RESUMO

We report an experiment to test quantum interference, entanglement, and nonlocality using two dissimilar photon sources, the Sun and a semiconductor quantum dot on the Earth, which are separated by ∼150 million kilometers. By making the otherwise vastly distinct photons indistinguishable in all degrees of freedom, we observe time-resolved two-photon quantum interference with a raw visibility of 0.796(17), well above the 0.5 classical limit, providing unambiguous evidence of the quantum nature of thermal light. Further, using the photons with no common history, we demonstrate postselected two-photon entanglement with a state fidelity of 0.826(24) and a violation of Bell inequality by 2.20(6). The experiment can be further extended to a larger scale using photons from distant stars and open a new route to quantum optics experiments at an astronomical scale.

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