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1.
Exp Neurol ; 352: 114033, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259351

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity characterized by hallmark impairments in social functioning and repetitive behaviors. Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading single-gene form of autism spectrum disorder, is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Environmental enrichment has been shown to improve several aspects of brain development and affect histopathological, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. However, the optimal time window to initiate it and improve cognitive and emotional development is largely unexplored. In the current study, we determined the longitudinal trends of BDNF-TrkB expression and dendritic development in FXS mice. Additionally, FXS mice were housed in an enriched environment when they showed significantly different BDNF-TrkB pathways and the phenotype of dendritic spines on postnatal day 10 (P10) until P60. The environmental enrichment delayed and attenuated some neurological alterations in FXS mice and prevented the development of cognitive and anxiety-related abnormalities and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. The correlation between neurotrophin-related pathways and multiple autistic-like behaviors was confirmed. Transcriptional profiling indicates that environmental enrichment increases the differences in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampal gene expression associated with the neural system and behavioral development. Our results provide novel evidence on the usefulness of early intervention for neurodevelopmental disorders as a strategy to facilitate positive effects on neural development and behaviors by acting on the BDNF/TrkB-PLCγ1-CaMKII pathway.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893856

RESUMO

Domestic sheep and their wild relatives harbor substantial genetic variants that can form the backbone of molecular breeding, but their genome landscapes remain understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive genome resource for wild ovine species, landraces and improved breeds of domestic sheep, comprising high-coverage (∼16.10×) whole genomes of 810 samples from 7 wild species and 158 diverse domestic populations. We detected, in total, ∼121.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, ∼61 million of which are novel. Some display significant (P < 0.001) differences in frequency between wild and domestic species, or are private to continent-wide or individual sheep populations. Retained or introgressed wild gene variants in domestic populations have contributed to local adaptation, such as the variation in the HBB associated with plateau adaptation. We identified novel and previously reported targets of selection on morphological and agronomic traits such as stature, horn, tail configuration, and wool fineness. We explored the genetic basis of wool fineness and unveiled a novel mutation (chr25: T7,068,586C) in the 3'-UTR of IRF2BP2 as plausible causal variant for fleece fiber diameter. We reconstructed prehistorical migrations from the Near Eastern domestication center to South-and-Southeast Asia and found two main waves of migrations across the Eurasian Steppe and the Iranian Plateau in the Early and Late Bronze Ages. Our findings refine our understanding of genome variation as shaped by continental migrations, introgression, adaptation, and selection of sheep.


Assuntos
Genoma , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 85(2): 561-571, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the improved access to health services in China, inadequate diagnosis and management of dementia are common issues, especially in rural regions. OBJECTIVE: The Hubei Memory & Aging Cohort Study was designed as a prospective study in Central China to determine the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among urban and rural older adults. METHODS: From 2018-2020, participants aged ≥65 years were screened, and data regarding their life behaviors, families, socio-economic status, physical and mental health, social and psychological factors, and cognition were collected. Diagnoses of MCI and dementia were made via consensus diagnosis using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition criteria. RESULTS: Of 8,221 individuals who completed their baseline clinical evaluation, 4,449 (54.1%) were women and 3,164 (38.4%) were from remote rural areas (average age: 71.96 years; mean education period: 7.58 years). At baseline, 25.98%(95%confidence interval [CI]: 24.99-26.96) and 7.24%(95%CI: 6.68-7.80) of the participants were diagnosed with MCI and dementia, respectively. Prevalence showed a strong relationship with age. The substantial disparities between rural and urban regions in MCI and dementia prevalence and multiple dementia-related risk factors were revealed. Especially for dementia, the prevalence rate in rural areas was 2.65 times higher than that in urban regions. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that public health interventions are urgently needed to achieve equitable diagnosis and management for people living with dementia in the communities across urban and rural areas.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , População Urbana
4.
J Neurol ; 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dementia in China, particularly in rural areas, is consistently increasing; however, research on population-attributable fractions (PAFs) of risk factors for dementia is scarce. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey, namely, the China Multicentre Dementia Survey (CMDS) in selected rural and urban areas from 2018 to 2020. We performed face-to-face interviews and neuropsychological and clinical assessments to reach a consensus on dementia diagnosis. Prevalence and weighted PAFs of eight modifiable risk factors (six classical: less childhood education, hearing impairment, depression, physical inactivity, diabetes, and social isolation, and two novels: olfactory decline and being unmarried) for all-cause dementia were estimated. RESULTS: Overall, CMDS included 17,589 respondents aged ≥ 65 years, 55.6% of whom were rural residents. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence for all-cause dementia was 9.11% (95% CI 8.96-9.26), 5.19% (5.07-5.31), and 11.98% (11.8-12.15) in the whole, urban, and rural areas of China, respectively. Further, the overall weighted PAFs of the eight potentially modifiable risk factors were 53.72% (95% CI 52.73-54.71), 50.64% (49.4-51.89), and 56.54% (55.62-57.46) in the whole, urban, and rural areas of China, respectively. The eight risk factors' prevalence differed between rural and urban areas. Lower childhood education (PAF: 13.92%) and physical inactivity (16.99%) were primary risk factors in rural and urban areas, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The substantial urban-rural disparities in the prevalence of dementia and its risk factors exist, suggesting the requirement of resident-specific dementia-prevention strategies.

5.
Curr Biol ; 30(20): 4085-4095.e6, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822607

RESUMO

The domestication and subsequent global dispersal of livestock are crucial events in human history, but the migratory episodes during the history of livestock remain poorly documented [1-3]. Here, we first developed a set of 493 novel ovine SNPs of the male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) by genome mapping. We then conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and whole-genome sequence variations in a large number of 595 rams representing 118 domestic populations across the world. We detected four different paternal lineages of domestic sheep and resolved, at the global level, their paternal origins and differentiation. In Northern European breeds, several of which have retained primitive traits (e.g., a small body size and short or thin tails), and fat-tailed sheep, we found an overrepresentation of MSY lineages y-HC and y-HB, respectively. Using an approximate Bayesian computation approach, we reconstruct the demographic expansions associated with the segregation of primitive and fat-tailed phenotypes. These results together with archaeological evidence and historical data suggested the first expansion of early domestic hair sheep and the later expansion of fat-tailed sheep occurred ∼11,800-9,000 years BP and ∼5,300-1,700 years BP, respectively. These findings provide important insights into the history of migration and pastoralism of sheep across the Old World, which was associated with different breeding goals during the Neolithic agricultural revolution.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética/genética , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Med Gas Res ; 10(2): 81-84, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541133

RESUMO

Carbon dioxide is a common gas in the air which has been widely used in medical treatment. A carbon dioxide molecule consists of two oxygen atoms and one carbon atom through a covalent bond. In the body, carbon dioxide reacts with water to produce carbonic acid. In healthy people, carbon dioxide is maintained within a narrow range (35-45 mmHg) by physiological mechanisms. The role of hypocapnia (partial pressure of carbon dioxide < 35 mmHg) and hypercapnia (partial pressure of carbon dioxide > 45 mmHg) in the nervous system is intricate. Past researches mainly focus on the effect of hypocapnia to nerve protection. Nevertheless, Hypercapnia seems to play an important role in neuroprotection. The mechanisms of hypocapnia and hypercapnia in the nervous system deserve our attention. The purpose of this review is to summarize the effect of hypocapnia and hypercapnia in stroke and traumatic brain injury.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e20077, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for treatment of end-stage post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) has specific technical difficulties and complications. The aim of this study was to examine the outcome of TKA after PTA and to compare it with a cohort osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: A retrospective review of patients undergoing primary TKA at a single university hospital from 2013 to 2016 was performed. A minimum follow-up of 4 years was required. Patients in the study group were matched 1:2 with patients in the cohort group based on the following criteria: age at time of TKA (±3 years), body mass index (±3 points), sex, and American Society of Anesthesiologists score (±1 point). Outcome measures included surgical time, intraoperative complications, Oxford Knee Score, range of motion, postoperative complications, and revision. RESULTS: This clinical trial is expected to determine whether PTA is associated with increased risks of complications and revision or reduced functional outcomes following TKA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5455).


Assuntos
Artrite/etiologia , Artrite/cirurgia , Artroplastia do Joelho , Traumatismos do Joelho/complicações , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Neurosci ; 40(6): 1355-1365, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882402

RESUMO

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability, resulted from the silencing of the Fmr1 gene and the subsequent loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Spine dysgenesis and cognitive impairment have been extensively characterized in FXS; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. As an important regulator of spine maturation, intercellular adhesion molecule 5 (ICAM5) mRNA may be one of the targets of FMRP and involved in cognitive impairment in FXS. Here we show that in Fmr1 KO male mice, ICAM5 was excessively expressed during the late developmental stage, and its expression was negatively correlated with the expression of FMRP and positively related with the morphological abnormalities of dendritic spines. While in vitro reduction of ICAM5 normalized dendritic spine abnormalities in Fmr1 KO neurons, and in vivo knockdown of ICAM5 in the dentate gyrus rescued the impaired spatial and fear memory and anxiety-like behaviors in Fmr1 KO mice, through both granule cell and mossy cell with a relative rate of 1.32 ± 0.15. Furthermore, biochemical analyses showed direct binding of FMRP with ICAM5 mRNA, to the coding sequence of ICAM5 mRNA. Together, our study suggests that ICAM5 is one of the targets of FMRP and is implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of FXS. ICAM5 could be a therapeutic target for treating cognitive impairment in FXS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is characterized by dendritic spine dysgenesis and cognitive dysfunctions, while one of the FMRP latent targets, ICAM5, is well established for contributing both spine maturation and learning performance. In this study, we examined the potential link between ICAM5 mRNA and FMRP in FXS, and further investigated the molecular details and pathological consequences of ICAM5 overexpression. Our results indicate a critical role of ICAM5 in spine maturation and cognitive impairment in FXS and suggest that ICAM5 is a potential molecular target for the development of medication against FXS.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Espinhas Dendríticas/metabolismo , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Espinhas Dendríticas/patologia , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/metabolismo , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/complicações , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurogênese/genética
9.
Yi Chuan ; 41(10): 928-938, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624055

RESUMO

The goat genome is the research basis for the protection and utilization of goat resources, which is important for breeding and improving goat breeds. At present, with the continuous improvement of goat reference genome, various important research progress in goat origin, evolution and adaptability has been achieved. In this review, we summarize the research progress in the goat genome in detail, encompassing goat genome structure, genome map (genetic, physical and comparative maps), goat high throughput sequencing and SNP chip development. We aim to provide a theoretical foundation for the development of goat genome selection.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genoma , Cabras/genética , Animais , Cruzamento
10.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(2): 283-303, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445533

RESUMO

Tibetan sheep are the most common and widespread domesticated animals on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and have played an essential role in the permanent human occupation of this high-altitude region. However, the precise timing, route, and process of sheep pastoralism in the QTP region remain poorly established, and little is known about the underlying genomic changes that occurred during the process. Here, we investigate the genomic variation in Tibetan sheep using whole-genome sequences, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal variants in 986 samples throughout their distribution range. We detect strong signatures of selection in genes involved in the hypoxia and ultraviolet signaling pathways (e.g., HIF-1 pathway and HBB and MITF genes) and in genes associated with morphological traits such as horn size and shape (e.g., RXFP2). We identify clear signals of argali (Ovis ammon) introgression into sympatric Tibetan sheep, covering 5.23-5.79% of their genomes. The introgressed genomic regions are enriched in genes related to oxygen transportation system, sensory perception, and morphological phenotypes, in particular the genes HBB and RXFP2 with strong signs of adaptive introgression. The spatial distribution of genomic diversity and demographic reconstruction of the history of Tibetan sheep show a stepwise pattern of colonization with their initial spread onto the QTP from its northeastern part ∼3,100 years ago, followed by further southwest expansion to the central QTP ∼1,300 years ago. Together with archeological evidence, the date and route reveal the history of human expansions on the QTP by the Tang-Bo Ancient Road during the late Holocene. Our findings contribute to a depth understanding of early pastoralism and the local adaptation of Tibetan sheep as well as the late-Holocene human occupation of the QTP.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Genoma , Migração Humana , Hibridização Genética , Ovinos/genética , Altitude , Animais , Ecótipo , Humanos , Seleção Genética , Tibet
11.
Med Gas Res ; 8(2): 64-66, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30112168

RESUMO

Stroke, also known as "cerebrovascular accident", is an acute cerebrovascular disease that is caused by a sudden rupture of blood vessels in the brain or obstruction of the blood supply by blockage of blood vessels, thus including hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. The incidence of ischemic stroke is higher than that of hemorrhagic stroke, and accounts for 80% of the total number of strokes. However, the mortality rate of hemorrhagic stroke is relatively high. Internal carotid artery and vertebral artery occlusion and stenosis can cause ischemic stroke, and especially males over 40 years of age are at a high risk of morbidity. According to the survey, stroke in urban and rural areas has become the first cause of death in China. It is also the leading cause of disability in Chinese adults. In a word, stroke is characterized by high morbidity, high mortality and high disability rates. Studies have shown that many noble gases have the neuroprotective effects. For example, xenon has been extensively studied in various animal models of neurological injury including stroke, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Compared to xenon, Argon, as a noble gas, is abundant, cheap and widely applicable, and has been also demonstrated to be neuroprotective in many research studies. In a variety of models, ranging from oxygen-glucose deprivation in cell culture to complex models of mid-cerebral artery occlusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage or retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in animals. Argon administration after individual injury demonstrated favorable effects, particularly increased cell survival and even improved neuronal function. Therefore the neuroprotective effects of argon may be of possible clinical use for opening a potential therapeutic window in stroke. It is important to illuminate the mechanisms of argon in nerve function and to explore the best use of this gas in stroke treatment.

12.
Med Gas Res ; 8(4): 167-171, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713670

RESUMO

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment for multiple pathological states, which involves hypoxic conditions. Over the past 50 years, HBOT has been recommended and used in a wide variety of medical conditions, clinically in the treatment of ischemic or nonhealing wounds and radiation-injured tissue, and in the treatment of malignancy. The mechanism of this treatment is providing oxygen under pressure which is higher than the atmosphere thus increasing tissue oxygen concentration. When cells get enough oxygen in the microenvironment, they become active and replicate effectively. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer death among male around the world. It is estimated that more than 29,000 men died from metastatic prostate cancer in 2014. With the development of the prostate-specific antigen-based screening technology, prostate cancer incidence has increased markedly over time. According to the survey, the morbidity and mortality of prostate cancer have surpassed bladder cancer and renal carcinoma, becoming the most common cancer in urology in Chinese adults. Nowadays, the main solution to deal with prostate cancer is still the surgical ways, including laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Nevertheless, the complications of the surgical treatment have not been completely avoided. HBOT has gained great clinical recognition over the decade. It has been demonstrated that HBOT has considerable effects on carcinoma, especially on decreasing complications and improving mortality. So, it is important to combine the HBOT with patients who suffer from prostate cancer. This review illuminates the effect and underlying mechanism of the HBOT in prostate cancer for further clinical application.

13.
RSC Adv ; 8(33): 18272-18283, 2018 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35541145

RESUMO

A multi-functional anti-pathogen coating with "release-killing", "contact-killing" and "anti-adhesion" properties was prepared from biocompatible polymer encapsulated chlorine dioxide (ClO2) which protected the active ingredient from the outside environment. A slow sustained-release of ClO2 from micelles over fifteen days was detected for long-term release-killing. Micelles only release ClO2 on demand in minimum inhibitory concentrations. We prepared nanoparticles which were covalently clustered on micelle surfaces to improve contact-killing as well as to improve the stability of the micelle. Copper nanoparticles were generated using the biosynthesis method including l-vitamin C, which avoids the toxicity and allows for the preparation of copper nanoparticles in a green environment. Synergistic anti-pathogen activity could be generated by a combination of micelle released ClO2 and ascorbic acid. In addition to release-killing and contact-killing, a pluronic polymer coated surface also provides an additional "anti-adhesion" property through its protein-repelling ability. In this research, the designed coating demonstrated a broad-spectrum of activity to kill drug-resistant bacteria, viruses and spores in short period of time. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and anti-oxidase assays, we found that the designed coatings killed the pathogens via bio-oxidation. We also carried out acute respiratory toxicity tests in this research. Analysis of blood samples, lung function and histopathological slices indicated that the synthesized micelles allowed a controlled and sustained release of ClO2 to kill pathogens while maintaining an overall ClO2 concentration in the air within a safe range.

14.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 28: 152-160, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28779923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cupping therapy is widely used in East Asia, the Middle East, or Central and North Europe to manage the symptom of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the available evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of cupping therapy for treating patients with KOA. METHODS: The following databases were searched from their inception until January 2017: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and four Chinese databases [WanFang Med Database, Chinese BioMedical Database, Chinese WeiPu Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)]. Only the RCTs related to the effects of cupping therapy on KOA were included in this systematic review. A quantitative synthesis of RCTs will be conducted using RevMan 5.3 software. Study selection, data extraction, and validation was performed independently by two reviewers. Cochrane criteria for risk-of-bias were used to assess the methodological quality of the trials. RESULTS: Seven RCTs met the inclusion criteria, and most were of low methodological quality. Study participants in the dry cupping therapy plus the Western medicine therapy group showed significantly greater improvements in the pain [MD = -1.01, 95%CI (-1.61, -0.41), p < 0.01], stiffness [MD = -0.81, 95%CI (-1.14, -0.48), p < 0.01] and physical function [MD = -5.53, 95%CI (-8.58, -2.47), p < 0.01] domains of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) compared to participants in the Western medicine therapy group, with low heterogeneity (Chi2 = 0.00 p = 1.00, I2 = 0% in pain; Chi2 = 0.45 p = 0.50, I2 = 0% in stiffness; Chi2 = 1.09 p = 0.30, I2 = 9% in physical function). However, it failed to do so on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) [MD = -0.32, 95%CI (-0.70, 0.05), p = 0.09]. In addition, when compared with Western medicine therapy alone, meta-analysis of four RCTs suggested favorable statistically significant effects of wet cupping therapy plus western medicine on response rate [MD = 1.06, 95%CI (1.01, 1.12), p = 0.03; heterogeneity: Chi2 = 1.13, p = 0.77, I2 = 0%] and Lequesne Algofunctional Index (LAI) [MD = -2.74, 95%CI (-3.41, -2.07), p < 0.01; heterogeneity: Chi2 = 2.03, p = 0.57, I2 = 0% ]. CONCLUSION: Only weak evidence can support the hypothesis that cupping therapy can effectively improve the treatment efficacy and physical function in patients with KOA.


Assuntos
Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Adulto , Humanos , Dor , Medição da Dor , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Mol Biol Evol ; 34(9): 2380-2395, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645168

RESUMO

China has a rich resource of native sheep (Ovis aries) breeds associated with historical movements of several nomadic societies. However, the history of sheep and the associated nomadic societies in ancient China remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the genomic diversity of Chinese sheep using genome-wide SNPs, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal variations in > 1,000 modern samples. Population genomic analyses combined with archeological records and historical ethnic demographics data revealed genetic signatures of the origins, secondary expansions and admixtures, of Chinese sheep thereby revealing the peopling patterns of nomads and the expansion of early pastoralism in East Asia. Originating from the Mongolian Plateau ∼5,000‒5,700 years ago, Chinese sheep were inferred to spread in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River ∼3,000‒5,000 years ago following the expansions of the Di-Qiang people. Afterwards, sheep were then inferred to reach the Qinghai-Tibetan and Yunnan-Kweichow plateaus ∼2,000‒2,600 years ago by following the north-to-southwest routes of the Di-Qiang migration. We also unveiled two subsequent waves of migrations of fat-tailed sheep into northern China, which were largely commensurate with the migrations of ancestors of Hui Muslims eastward and Mongols southward during the 12th‒13th centuries. Furthermore, we revealed signs of argali introgression into domestic sheep, extensive historical mixtures among domestic populations and strong artificial selection for tail type and other traits, reflecting various breeding strategies by nomadic societies in ancient China.


Assuntos
Filogeografia/métodos , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos/genética , Cruzamento , China , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Extremo Oriente , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Haplótipos , Humanos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ovinos/genética , Migrantes , Cromossomo Y/genética
16.
Mol Immunol ; 81: 26-34, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27888717

RESUMO

In invertebrates, ficolin-like proteins (FLPs) play important roles in innate immunity against pathogens. Previous studies primarily investigated the functions of FLPs in immune recognition, activation, and regulation. However, limited research has examined the functions of FLPs as immune effectors. In this work, a ficolin-like protein was identified in red swam crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and designated as PcFLP1. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot were employed to analyze the distribution and expression profiles of PcFLP1 in the tissues of the crayfish. The results indicated that PcFLP1 was present in all tested tissues, including hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gill, stomach, and mid-intestine. The expression level of PcFLP1 was up-regulated in hemocytes, hepatopancreas and mid-intestines of the crayfish challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Further study demonstrated that PcFLP1 could protect the hepatopancreatic cells of crayfish from V. parahaemolyticus infection. The recombinant PcFLP1 enhanced bacterial elimination in crayfish, whereas the antibacterial action was inhibited after PcFLP1 was knocked down. Furthermore, PcFLP1 could bound to bacteria and inhibited bacterial replication. These results demonstrated that PcFLP1 plays an important role in the anti-Vibrio immunity of red swamp crayfish.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Astacoidea/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Lectinas/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Astacoidea/genética , Western Blotting , Imunofluorescência , Imunidade Inata/genética , Lectinas/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
17.
Mol Biol Evol ; 33(10): 2576-92, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27401233

RESUMO

Global climate change has a significant effect on extreme environments and a profound influence on species survival. However, little is known of the genome-wide pattern of livestock adaptations to extreme environments over a short time frame following domestication. Sheep (Ovis aries) have become well adapted to a diverse range of agroecological zones, including certain extreme environments (e.g., plateaus and deserts), during their post-domestication (approximately 8-9 kya) migration and differentiation. Here, we generated whole-genome sequences from 77 native sheep, with an average effective sequencing depth of ∼5× for 75 samples and ∼42× for 2 samples. Comparative genomic analyses among sheep in contrasting environments, that is, plateau (>4,000 m above sea level) versus lowland (<100 m), high-altitude region (>1500 m) versus low-altitude region (<1300 m), desert (<10 mm average annual precipitation) versus highly humid region (>600 mm), and arid zone (<400 mm) versus humid zone (>400 mm), detected a novel set of candidate genes as well as pathways and GO categories that are putatively associated with hypoxia responses at high altitudes and water reabsorption in arid environments. In addition, candidate genes and GO terms functionally related to energy metabolism and body size variations were identified. This study offers novel insights into rapid genomic adaptations to extreme environments in sheep and other animals, and provides a valuable resource for future research on livestock breeding in response to climate change.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Clima , Meio Ambiente , Ambientes Extremos , Genoma , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
18.
Exp Ther Med ; 10(3): 995-1002, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26622428

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a three-dimensional (3D) culture system of sodium alginate gel on the directional differentiation induction of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into chondrocytes, as well as the in vitro gene transfection technique. The biological characteristics of the passage and proliferation of rabbit BMSCs were investigated under conditions of in vitro monolayer and 3D culture of sodium alginate gel. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 gene recombinant adenoviral cosmid vectors and the recombinant adenoviral vector Ad.TGF-ß1 were constructed, and the effect of Ad.TGF-ß1 transfection on the differentiation of BMSCs into chondrocytes was investigated. The whole bone marrow rinsing method was used to obtain, separate and purify the rabbit BMSCs, and the in vitro monolayer and 3D culture of sodium alginate gel were thus successfully and stably established. A safe, stable and efficient method of constructing Ad.TGF-ß1 TGF-ß1 gene recombinant adenoviral vectors was established. Following TGF-ß1 transfection, BMSCs were able to continuously secrete significantly increased amounts of specific extracellular matrix components of chondrocytes, such as collagen II and proteoglycans. Furthermore, the effects in the post-gene transfection 3D culture group were found to be enhanced compared with those in the monolayer culture group. In conclusion, the 3D culture system of sodium alginate gel and in vitro gene transfection exhibited significant inductive effects on differentiation, which could be used to promote BMSCs to differentiate into chondrocytes.

19.
J Neurol Sci ; 359(1-2): 298-304, 2015 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26671131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cell apoptosis is involved in acute brain injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The protein cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) is cleaved by the action of caspases during apoptosis, and the resulting fragments are released into the blood as caspase-cleaved CK (CCCK)-18. Our study examined the relationship between circulating CCCK-18 levels and long-term clinical outcomes among aSAH patients. METHODS: We recruited 128 aSAH patients and 128 controls (matched on age and sex). Serum was collected at admission to the emergency department. Unfavorable outcome was defined as the Glasgow Outcome Score scores of 1-3. After a 6-month follow-up period, outcomes were assessed using a logistic regression analyses. The prognostic predictive values were evaluated according to receiver operating curves analysis. RESULTS: aSAH patients had higher plasma CCCK-18 levels compared to controls (235.1 ± 86.8 U/L vs. 25.6 ± 23.4 U/L, P<0.001). CCCK-18 was independently associated with World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) scores (t=4.460, P<0.001) and modified Fisher scores (t=3.781, P<0.001). Furthermore, CCCK-18 levels were markedly higher among patients with an unfavorable outcome and among non-survivors. CCCK-18 was yet identified as an independent prognostic predictor for mortality (odds ratio, 5.769; 95% confidence interval, 1.196-27.832; P=0.029) and unfavorable outcome (odds ratio, 4.909; 95% confidence interval, 1.521-15.838; P=0.008), as well as had similar predictive values for them compared with WFNS scores and modified Fisher scores. CONCLUSIONS: High circulating CCCK-18 levels were associated with injury severity and a poor clinical outcome after aSAH and CCCK-18 had the potential to be a good prognostic biomarker for aSAH.


Assuntos
Queratina-18/sangue , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia Digital , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
20.
Yi Chuan ; 37(6): 528-34, 2015 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26351048

RESUMO

Recently, transcriptome sequencing technology has achieved significant progresses in gene network regulation of important economic traits in animals. As the derivative of mammalian skin, hair follicle is capable of self-renew. Its proliferation and differentiation result in hair formation. Researches have revealed that many growth factors and receptors coordinate genes and environment, as well as play an extremely important role during hair growth. In this review, we summarize the progresses that transcriptome sequencing technologies have achieved in researches of hair follicle development and renegeration in a variety of species, such as humans, mice, goats. We aim to provide theoretical mechanisms for the artificial interference of villus growth cycle, and new ideas for therapeutic treatment of skin hair follicle- related diseases.


Assuntos
Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma , Animais , Doenças do Cabelo/genética , Doenças do Cabelo/terapia , Humanos , MicroRNAs/fisiologia
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