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1.
J Nat Prod ; 84(2): 247-258, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533247

RESUMO

Sixteen new sesquiterpene lactones (1-16) along with 13 known analogues (17-29) were isolated from the whole plants of Centipeda minima. The structures of 1-16 were delineated by the combination of NMR spectroscopic experiments, HRESIMS, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, and ECD spectra. Compounds 23-26 showed potent cytotoxicity against Hela, HCT-116, and HepG2 cells with IC50 values of 0.8-2.6, 0.4-3.3, and 1.1-2.6 µM, respectively. Compounds 8, 15, and 24 exhibited significant inhibitory activity on the production of nitric oxide in the lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line, with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 µM.

2.
Virus Res ; 295: 198307, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476695

RESUMO

Bats carry diverse severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs). The suspected interspecies transmission of SARSr-CoVs from bats to humans has caused two severe CoV pandemics, the SARS pandemic in 2003 and the recent COVID-19 pandemic. The receptor utilization of SARSr-CoV plays the key role in determining the host range and the interspecies transmission ability of the virus. Both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as their receptor. Previous studies showed that WIV1 strain, the first living coronavirus isolated from bat using ACE2 as its receptor, is the prototype of SARS-CoV. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV and WIV1 is responsible for ACE2 binding and medicates the viral entry. Comparing to SARS-CoV, WIV1 has three distinct amino acid residues (442, 472, and 487) in its RBD. This study aimed at exploring whether these three residues could alter the receptor utilization of SARSr-CoVs. We replaced the three residues in SARS-CoV (BJ01 strain) S with their counterparts in WIV1 S, and then evaluated the change of their utilization of bat, civet, and human ACE2s using a lentivirus-based pseudovirus infection system. To further validate the S-ACE2 interactions, the binding affinity between the RBDs of these S proteins and the three ACE2s were verified by flow cytometry. The results showed that the single amino acid substitution Y442S in the RBD of BJ01 S enhanced its utilization of bat ACE2 and its binding affinity to bat ACE2. On the contrary, the reverse substitution in WIV1 S (S442Y) significantly attenuated the pseudovirus utilization of bat, civet and human ACE2s for cell entry, and reduced its binding affinity with the three ACE2s. These results suggest that the S442 is critical for WIV1 adapting to bats as its natural hosts. These findings will enhance our understanding of host adaptations and cross-species infections of coronaviruses, contributing to the prediction and prevention of coronavirus epidemics.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16307, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004915

RESUMO

Studies on the risk factors for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) in a population-based cohort are lacking. We assess the prevalence and risk factors of ICP in a Chinese population. In this study, a cohort study was conducted that included 12,200 eligible pregnant women. The overall incidence of ICP in this cohort was 6.06%. With increasing maternal age, the incidence of ICP decreased in women younger than 30 years of age but increased in those older than 30. With increasing pre-pregnancy BMI, the incidence of ICP decreased if the pre-pregnancy BMI was less than 23 kg/m2 but increased if it was 23 kg/m2 or higher. Further analysis showed that the risk of ICP increased when maternal age was < 25 years (Adjusted RR 2.01; 95% CI 1.64-2.47) or ≥ 35 years (Adjusted RR 1.34; 95% CI 1.02-1.76). Furthermore, an increased risk of ICP was associated with pre-pregnancy underweight (adjusted RR 1.27; 95% CI 1.04-1.56), inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) (adjusted RR 1.58; 95% CI 1.28-1.96), lower maternal education (adjusted RR 2.96; 95% CI 2.35-3.74), multiparity (adjusted RR 1.54; 95% CI 1.23-1.93), and twin/multiple pregnancies (adjusted RR 2.12; 95% CI 1.25-3.58). Maternal age (< 25 or ≥ 35 years), underweight, inadequate GWG, lower maternal education, multiparity, and twin/multiple pregnancies were identified as risk factors of ICP.

5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794346

RESUMO

Coronavirus (CoV) pandemics have become a huge threat to the public health worldwide in the recent decades. Typically, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) caused SARS pandemic in 2003 and SARS-CoV-2 caused the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Both viruses are most likely originated from bats. Thus, direct or indirect inter-species transmission from bats to humans is required for the viruses to cause pandemics. Receptor utilization is a key factor determining the host range of viruses which is critical to the inter-species transmission. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, but only ACE2s of certain animals can be utilized by the viruses. Here, we employed pseudovirus cell-entry assay to evaluate the receptor-utilizing capability of ACE2s of 20 animals by the two viruses and found that SARS-CoV-2 utilized less ACE2s than SARS-CoV, indicating a narrower host range of SARS-CoV-2. Especially, SARS-CoV-2 tended not to use murine or non-mammal ACE2s. Meanwhile, pangolin-CoV, another SARS-related coronavirus highly homologous to SARS-CoV-2 in its genome, yet showed similar ACE2 utilization profile with SARS-CoV rather than SARS-CoV-2. Nevertheless, the actual susceptibility of these animals to the coronaviruses should be further verified by in vivo studies. To clarify the mechanism underlying the receptor utilization, we compared the amino acid sequences of the 20 ACE2s and found 5 amino acid residues potentially critical for ACE2 utilization, including the N-terminal 20th and 42nd amino acid residues that might determine the different receptor utilization of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and pangolin-CoV. Our studies enhance the understanding of receptor utilization of pandemic coronaviruses, potentially contributing to the virus tracing, intermediate host screening and epidemic prevention for pathogenic coronaviruses.

6.
Virus Res ; 286: 198074, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589897

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel human coronavirus causing the pandemic of severe pneumonia (Coronavirus Disease 2019, COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is highly pathogenic in human, having posed immeasurable public health challenges to the world. Innate immune response is critical for the host defense against viral infection and the dysregulation of the host innate immune responses probably aggravates SARS-CoV-2 infection, contributing to the high morbidity and lethality of COVID-19. It has been reported that some coronavirus proteins play an important role in modulating innate immunity of the host, but few studies have been conducted on SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we screened the viral proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and found that the viral ORF6, ORF8 and nucleocapsid proteins were potential inhibitors of type I interferon signaling pathway, a key component for antiviral response of host innate immune. All the three proteins showed strong inhibition on type I interferon (IFN-ß) and NF-κB-responsive promoter, further examination revealed that these proteins were able to inhibit the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) after infection with Sendai virus, while only ORF6 and ORF8 proteins were able to inhibit the ISRE after treatment with interferon beta. These findings would be helpful for the further study of the detailed signaling pathway and unveil the key molecular player that may be targeted.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interferon beta/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Interferon beta/imunologia , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Fosfoproteínas , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Elementos de Resposta , Vírus Sendai/genética , Vírus Sendai/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Transfecção/métodos , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
7.
Opt Lett ; 45(9): 2534-2537, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356809

RESUMO

We demonstrate the rapid photodarkening (PD) phenomenon in Tm-doped fiber (TDF) core pumped by a laser at 1080 nm and the bleaching effect of deuterium (${{\rm D}_2}$D2) on PD TDF. By ${{\rm D}_2}$D2 loading for seven days, the PD-induced excess loss (PIEL) in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) region have been largely eliminated, and no degradation was observed within 30 days. PD resistance of the ${{\rm D}_2}$D2 pretreated TDF has been investigated as well. The formation of color centers based on defects and precursors in the silica matrix and the mechanism of ${{\rm D}_2}$D2 bleaching are discussed.

8.
Virol Sin ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236817

RESUMO

Porcine adenoviruses (PAdVs) are classified into three species, PAdV-A, PAdV-B, and PAdV-C. The genomes of PAdV-A and PAdV-C have been well characterized. However, the genome of PAdV-B has never been completely sequenced, and the epidemiology of PAdV-B remains unclear. In our study, we have identified a novel strain of PAdV-B, named PAdV-B-HNU1, in porcine samples collected in China by viral metagenomic assay and general PCR. The genome of PAdV-B-HNU1 is 31,743 bp in length and highly similar to that of California sea lion adenovirus 1 (C. sea lion AdV-1), which contains typical mastadenoviral structures and some unique regions at the carboxy-terminal end. Especially, PAdV-B-HNU1 harbors a dUTPase coding region not clustering with other mastadenoviruses except for C. sea lion AdV-1 and a fiber coding region homologous with galectin 4 and 9 of animals. However, the variance of GC contents between PAdV-B-HNU1 (55%) and C. sea lion AdV-1 (36%) indicates their differential evolutionary paths. Further epidemiologic study revealed a high positive rate (51.7%) of PAdV-B-HNU1 in porcine lymph samples, but low positive rates of 10.2% and 16.1% in oral swabs and rectal swabs, respectively. In conclusion, this study characterized a novel representative genome of a lymphotropic PAdV-B with unique evolutionary origin, which contributes to the taxonomical and pathogenic studies of PAdVs.

10.
Microbes Infect ; 22(4-5): 221-225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199943

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the newly identified human coronavirus causing severe pneumonia pandemic, was probably originated from Chinese horseshoe bats. However, direct transmission of the virus from bats to humans is unlikely due to lack of direct contact, implying the existence of unknown intermediate hosts. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor of SARS-CoV-2, but only ACE2s of certain species can be utilized by SARS-CoV-2. Here, we evaluated and ranked the receptor-utilizing capability of ACE2s from various species by phylogenetic clustering and sequence alignment with the currently known ACE2s utilized by SARS-CoV-2. As a result, we predicted that SARS-CoV-2 tends to utilize ACE2s of various mammals, except murines, and some birds, such as pigeon. This prediction may help to screen the intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Aves/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Humanos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Microbes Infect ; 22(2): 80-85, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087334

RESUMO

At the end of December 2019, a novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, caused an outbreak of pneumonia spreading from Wuhan, Hubei province, to the whole country of China, which has posed great threats to public health and attracted enormous attention around the world. To date, there are no clinically approved vaccines or antiviral drugs available for these human coronavirus infections. Intensive research on the novel emerging human infectious coronaviruses is urgently needed to elucidate their route of transmission and pathogenic mechanisms, and to identify potential drug targets, which would promote the development of effective preventive and therapeutic countermeasures. Herein, we describe the epidemic and etiological characteristics of 2019-nCoV, discuss its essential biological features, including tropism and receptor usage, summarize approaches for disease prevention and treatment, and speculate on the transmission route of 2019-nCoV.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/genética , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Epidemias , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Receptores Virais , Tropismo Viral
12.
Virol J ; 16(1): 35, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Papillomaviruses (PVs) and polyomaviruses (PyVs) infect diverse vertebrates including human and cause a broad spectrum of outcomes from asymptomatic infection to severe disease. There has been no PV and only one PyV detected in tree shrews, though the genomic properties of tree shrews are highly similar to those of the primates. METHODS: Swab and organ samples of tree shrews collected in the Yunnan Province of China, were tested by viral metagenomic analysis and random PCR to detect the presence of PVs and PyVs. By PCR amplification using specific primers, cloning, sequencing and assembling, genomes of two PVs and one PyV were identified in the samples. RESULTS: Two novel PVs and a novel PyV, named tree shrew papillomavirus 1 and 2 (TbelPV1 and TbelPV2) and polyomavirus 1 (TbelPyV1) were characterized in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). The genomes of TbelPV1, TbelPV2, and TbelPyV1 are 7410 bp, 7526 bp, and 4982 bp in size, respectively. The TbelPV1 genome contains 7 putative open-reading frames (ORFs) coding for viral proteins E1, E2, E4, E6, E7, L1, and L2; the TbelPV2 genome contains 6 ORFs coding for viral proteins E1, E2, E6, E7, L1, and L2; and the TbelPyV1 genome codes for the typical small and large T antigens of PyV, as well as the VP1, VP2, and VP3 capsid proteins. Genomic comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that TbelPV1 and TbelPV2 represented 2 novel PV genera of Papillomaviridae, and TbelPyV1 represented a new species of genus Alphapolyomavirus. Our epidemiologic study indicated that TbelPV1 and TbelPV2 were both detected in oral swabs, while TbelPyV1 was detected in oral swabs and spleens. CONCLUSION: Two novel PVs (TbelPV1 and TbelPV2) and a novel PyV (TbelPyV) were discovered in tree shrews and their genomes were characterized. TbelPV1, TbelPV2, and TbelPyV1 have the highest similarity to Human papillomavirus type 63, Ursus maritimus papillomavirus 1, and Human polyomavirus 9, respectively. TbelPV1 and TbelPV2 only showed oral tropism, while TbelPyV1 showed oral and spleen tropism.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Papillomaviridae/genética , Polyomavirus/genética , Tupaia/virologia , Animais , China , Genômica , Metagenômica , Boca/virologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Baço/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Tropismo Viral
13.
Opt Express ; 26(16): 20430-20441, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30119353

RESUMO

The laser performance of a high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier is mainly hindered by the onset of mode instability. In this work, the slope efficiency and mode instability threshold of the ytterbium-doped fiber under various gamma-ray radiation doses have been measured. Experimental results reveal that gamma-ray radiation-induced photodarkening degrades mode instability severely, and gamma-ray radiation-induced mode instability degradation can be partly bleached by hours of pump-light injection. It is shown that gamma-ray radiation-induced photodarkening results in a steep reduction of slope efficiency and mode instability threshold; moreover, the entire irradiated fiber can be partly bleached by hours of pump-light injection and exhibits both time and gamma-ray radiation-dose saturation properties. The experimental results indicate that mode instability mitigation can be partly realized by pump-light injection and implies photodarkening suppression is beneficial for TMI mitigation, which is very promising for the advancement of high-power fiber lasers.

14.
Opt Lett ; 43(5): 1075-1078, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489784

RESUMO

We demonstrate the almost complete 2 µm laser power recovery of the gamma-ray-irradiated thulium (Tm)-doped silica fiber under deuterium loading. The optical-optical slope efficiency and the cladding absorption spectra of the Tm-doped fiber with gamma-ray irradiation and deuterium treatment have been measured for comparison. It was found that the slope efficiency of the irradiated Tm-doped fiber could be recovered to 96.1% of the pristine after deuterium bleaching, which significantly degraded from 60.7% to 25.3% after irradiation. Meanwhile, the additional absorption attenuation of the irradiated Tm-doped with D2 treatment completely vanished. Based on the comprehensive comparison of cladding absorption spectra, the probable mechanism of the deuterium bleaching effect on irradiated Tm-doped fiber has also been discussed.

15.
Genome Announc ; 5(45)2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122882

RESUMO

An avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was detected from trachea swabs of chickens in Hubei province, China, in 2016. The complete genome of the IBV strain, CK/CH/HB/2016, was characterized and analyzed to better understand IBV epidemiology in China.

16.
Sci Rep ; 7: 43715, 2017 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28255171

RESUMO

The flavonoid compounds, proanthocyanidins (PAs), protect plants from biotic stresses, contribute to the taste of many fruits, and are beneficial to human health in the form of dietary antioxidants. In this study, we functionally characterized two Malus crabapple R2R3-MYB transcription factors, McMYB12a and McMYB12b, which co-regulate PAs and anthocyanin biosynthesis. McMYB12a was shown to be mainly responsible for upregulating the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes by binding to their promoters, but to be only partially responsible for regulating PAs biosynthetic genes. In contrast, McMYB12b showed preferential binding to the promoters of PAs biosynthetic genes. Overexpression of McMYB12a and McMYB12b in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) altered the expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes and promoted the accumulation of PAs and anthocyanins in tobacco petals. Conversely, transient silencing their expression in crabapple plants, using a conserved gene region, resulted in reduced PAs and anthocyanin production a green leaf phenotype. Meanwhile, transient overexpression of the two genes and silenced McMYB12s in apple (Malus domestica) fruit had a similar effect as overexpression in tobacco and silenced in crabapple. This study reveals a new mechanism for the coordinated regulation of PAs and anthocyanin accumulation in crabapple leaves, which depends on an auto-regulatory balance involving McMYB12a and McMYB12b expression.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/fisiologia , Proantocianidinas/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Vias Biossintéticas , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Inativação Gênica , Malus/classificação , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
Opt Express ; 23(19): 24236-45, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26406629

RESUMO

Tm-doped fiber laser or amplifier can be applied in varied adverse environments. In this work, we demonstrate the pump bleaching of Tm-doped silica fiber with 793nm pump source under gamma-ray irradiation in the range 50Gy-675Gy. The recovery time, the fiber slope efficiency and the fiber cladding absorption spectra after irradiation and bleaching have been measured. It is found that the recovery time and radiation induce absorption are positively associated with doses, however, the fiber slope efficiency of irradiated TDF and bleached TDF are both negatively correlated with doses. Based on the simulation of the fiber core temperature, the probable mechanism of pump bleaching is also discussed.

18.
Inorg Chem ; 54(6): 3006-11, 2015 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25706684

RESUMO

Two solvent-free two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymers, (2)∞[Fe(ptim)2] (1) and (2)∞[Fe(ptpy)2] (2) (Hptim = 2-(5-(4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridine; Hptpy = 2-(5-(4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridine), have been successfully prepared by solvothermal reactions. Their iron atoms are bridged by the corresponding multidentate anionic ligands into dense neutral structures. The magnetic data reveal that complexes 1 and 2 are rare examples exhibiting reversible one-step high-temperature spin crossover behaviors with spin transition temperatures of 419 and 416 K, respectively. Moreover, these structures also display remarkable thermal stability up to 714 K (for 1) and 690 K (for 2), which are confirmed by thermogravimetric and variable-temperature powder X-ray diffraction analyses.

19.
Opt Lett ; 40(5): 681-4, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25723406

RESUMO

We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, the strong recovery of the optical-optical slope efficiency of gamma-ray-irradiated Tm-doped fiber under 793 nm laser diode (LD) pumping. The fiber optical-optical slope efficiency, the fiber cladding absorption spectra, and the fluorescence spectra of the Tm-doped fiber before and after 500 Gy gamma-ray irradiation have been measured for comparison. It is found that the fiber optical-optical slope efficiency had significant degradation from 56.3% to 26.7% after irradiation and recovered to 40.8% after 15 h pump bleaching. Based on comparative analysis of fiber cladding absorption spectra among pristine fiber, irradiation, and bleaching, the reasons for the strong recovery have also been discussed.

20.
Chemistry ; 21(4): 1645-51, 2015 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25428657

RESUMO

A Hoffman-like coordination polymer with appreciable porosity and uncoordinated pyridyl groups, namely, [Fe(2,5-bpp){Au(CN)2}2]⋅x Solv (2,5-bpp = 2,5-bis(pyrid-4-yl)pyridine; Solv = solvent), was synthesised and characterised. A series of fascinating spin-crossover behaviours with abrupt, stepwise and hysteretic features were obtained by exchange with a range of protic solvents (ethanol, n-propanol, isopropyl alcohol, sec-butanol and isobutanol). Guest-host hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the H-accepting site of the framework are primarily responsible for the pronounced cooperativity of these spin-crossover behaviours. Meanwhile, the tunable critical temperatures over a range of about 130 K are presumably attributable to a certain degree of competition between internal pressure and local electronic influences of solvents.

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