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1.
Hepatol Int ; 15(6): 1431-1441, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) infusion was reported to improve liver function in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (DLC); however, whether the medication can improve outcome of these patients is poorly understood. METHODS: This prospective, open-labeled, randomized controlled study enrolled 219 patients with HBV-related DLC who were divided into control group (n = 111) and umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC)-treated group (n = 108), then all of them received a follow-up check from October 2010 to October 2017. The treated patients received three times of UC-MSC infusions at 4-week intervals plus conventional treatment that was only used for control group. The overall survival rate and HCC-free survival rate were calculated as primary endpoints and the liver function and adverse events associated with the medication were also evaluated. RESULTS: During the follow-up check period from 13 to 75th months, there was a significantly higher overall survival rate in the treated group than the control group, while the difference of the hepatocellular carcinoma event-free survival rate between the treated and control groups was not observed during the 75-month follow-up. UC-MSC treatment markedly improved liver function, as indicated by the levels of serum albumin, prothrombin activity, cholinesterase, and total bilirubin during 48 weeks of follow-up. No significant side effects or treatment-related complications were observed in the UC-MSC group. CONCLUSIONS: Therapy of UC-MSC is not only well tolerated, but also significantly improves long-term survival rate, as well as the liver function in patients with HBV-related DLC. UC-MSC medication, therefore, might present a novel therapeutic approach for the disease.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 293: 118523, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793912

RESUMO

Carbendazim (CBZ), a broad-spectrum pesticide frequently detected in fruits and vegetables, could trigger potential toxic risks to mammals. To facilitate the assessment of health risks, this study aimed to characterize the cytochrome P450 (CYPs)-mediated metabolism profiles of CBZ by a combined experimental and computational study. Our results demonstrated that CYPs-mediated region-selective hydroxylation was a major metabolism pathway for CBZ in liver microsomes from various species including rat, mouse, minipig, dog, rabbit, guinea pig, monkey, cow and human, and the metabolite was biosynthesized and well-characterized as 6-OH-CBZ. CYP1A displayed a predominant role in the region-selective hydroxylation of CBZ that could attenuate its toxicity through converting it into a less toxic metabolite. Meanwhile, five other common pesticides including chlorpyrifos-methyl, prochloraz, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, and chlorothalonil could significantly inhibit the region-selective hydroxylation of CBZ, and consequently remarkably increased CBZ exposure in vivo. Furthermore, computational study clarified the important contribution of the key amino acid residues Ser122, and Asp313 in CYP1A1, as well as Asp320 in CYP1A2 to the hydroxylation of CBZ through hydrogen bonds. These results would provide some useful information for the metabolic profiles of CBZ by mammalian CYPs, and shed new insights into CYP1A-mediated metabolic detoxification of CBZ and its health risk assessment.

4.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(8): nwab053, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676098

RESUMO

Mutations and transient conformational movements of the receptor binding domain (RBD) that make neutralizing epitopes momentarily unavailable present immune escape routes for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To mitigate viral escape, we developed a cocktail of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) targeting epitopes located on different domains of spike (S) protein. Screening of a library of monoclonal antibodies generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of COVID-19 convalescent patients yielded potent NAbs, targeting the N-terminal domain (NTD) and RBD domain of S, effective at nM concentrations. Remarkably, a combination of RBD-targeting NAbs and NTD-binding NAbs, FC05, enhanced the neutralization potency in cell-based assays and an animal model. Results of competitive surface plasmon resonance assays and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of antigen-binding fragments bound to S unveil determinants of immunogenicity. Combinations of immunogens, identified in the NTD and RBD of S, when immunized in rabbits and macaques, elicited potent protective immune responses against SARS-CoV-2. More importantly, two immunizations of this combination of NTD and RBD immunogens provided complete protection in macaques against a SARS-CoV-2 challenge, without observable antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. These results provide a proof of concept for neutralization-based immunogen design targeting SARS-CoV-2 NTD and RBD.

5.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(17): 2037-2044, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343152

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: With the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the importance of vaccines in epidemic prevention and public health has become even more obvious than ever. However, the emergence of multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants worldwide has raised concerns about the effectiveness of current COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we review the characteristics of COVID-19 vaccine candidates in five platforms and the latest clinical trial results of them. In addition, we further discuss future directions for the research and development of the next generation of COVID-19 vaccines. We also summarize the serious adverse events reported recently after the large-scale vaccination with the current COVID-19 vaccines, including the thromboembolism caused by the AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson vaccines.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 271, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267185

RESUMO

COVID-19 vaccines from multiple manufacturers are needed to cope with the problem of insufficient supply. We did two single-center, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 and phase 2 trials to assess the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a recombinant COVID-19 vaccine (Sf9 cells) in healthy population aged 18 years or older in China. Eligible participants were enrolled, the ratio of candidate vaccine and placebo within each dose group was 3:1 (phase 1) or 5:1 (phase 2). From August 28, 2020, 168 participants were sequentially enrolled and randomly assigned to receive the low dose vaccine, high dose vaccine or placebo with the schedule of 0, 28 days or 0, 14, 28 days in phase 1 trial. From November 18, 2020, 960 participants were randomly assigned to receive the low dose vaccine, high dose vaccine or placebo with the schedule of 0, 21 days or 0, 14, 28 days in phase 2 trial. The most common solicited injection site adverse reaction within 7 days in both trials was pain. The most common solicited systematic adverse reactions within 7 days were fatigue, cough, sore throat, fever and headache. ELISA antibodies and neutralising antibodies increased at 14 days, and peaked at 28 days (phase 1) or 30 days (phase 2) after the last dose vaccination. The GMTs of neutralising antibody against live SARS-CoV-2 at 28 days or 30 days after the last dose vaccination were highest in the adult high dose group (0, 14, 28 days), with 102.9 (95% CI 61.9-171.2) and 102.6 (95% CI 75.2-140.1) in phase 1 and phase 2 trials, respectively. Specific T-cell response peaked at 14 days after the last dose vaccination in phase 1 trial. This vaccine is safe, and induced significant immune responses after three doses of vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(11): 1289-1298, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The significant morbidity and mortality resulted from the infection of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) call for urgent development of effective and safe vaccines. We report the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, KCONVAC, in healthy adults. METHODS: Phase 1 and phase 2 randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials of KCONVAC were conducted in healthy Chinese adults aged 18 to 59 years. The participants in the phase 1 trial were randomized to receive two doses, one each on Days 0 and 14, of either KCONVAC (5 or 10 µg/dose) or placebo. The participants in the phase 2 trial were randomized to receive either KCONVAC (at 5 or 10 µg/dose) or placebo on Days 0 and 14 (0/14 regimen) or Days 0 and 28 (0/28 regimen). In the phase 1 trial, the primary safety endpoint was the proportion of participants experiencing adverse reactions/events within 28 days following the administration of each dose. In the phase 2 trial, the primary immunogenicity endpoints were neutralization antibody seroconversion and titer and anti-receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin G seroconversion at 28 days after the second dose. RESULTS: In the phase 1 trial, 60 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-µg vaccine (n = 24), 10-µg vaccine (n = 24), or placebo (n = 12). In the phase 2 trial, 500 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-µg vaccine (n = 100 for 0/14 or 0/28 regimens), 10-µg vaccine (n = 100 for each regimen), or placebo (n = 50 for each regimen). In the phase 1 trial, 13 (54%), 11 (46%), and seven (7/12) participants reported at least one adverse event (AE) after receiving 5-, 10-µg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. In the phase 2 trial, 16 (16%), 19 (19%), and nine (18%) 0/14-regimen participants reported at least one AE after receiving 5-, 10-µg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. Similar AE incidences were observed in the three 0/28-regimen treatment groups. No AEs with an intensity of grade 3+ were reported, expect for one vaccine-unrelated serious AE (foot fracture) reported in the phase 1 trial. KCONVAC induced significant antibody responses; 0/28 regimen showed a higher immune responses than that did 0/14 regimen after receiving two vaccine doses. CONCLUSIONS: Both doses of KCONVAC are well tolerated and able to induce robust immune responses in healthy adults. These results support testing 5-µg vaccine in the 0/28 regimen in an upcoming phase 3 efficacy trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx (No. ChiCTR2000038804, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=62350; No. ChiCTR2000039462, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=63353).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 340: 109453, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785314

RESUMO

Gut bacterial ß-glucuronidase (GUS) plays a pivotal role in the metabolism and reactivation of a vast of glucuronide conjugates of both endogenous and xenobiotic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract of human, which has been implicated in certain drug-induced gastrointestinal tract (GI) toxicity in clinic. Inhibitors of gut microbial GUS exhibited great potentials in relieving the drug-induced GI toxicity. In this study, Selaginella tamariscina and its major biflavonoid amentoflavone (AMF) were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli GUS. Two selective probe substrates for GUS (a specific fluorescent probe substrate for GUS, DDAOG and a classical drug substrate for GUS, SN38G) were used in parallel for charactering the inhibition behaviors. Both the extract of S. tamariscina and its major biflavonoid AMF displayed evident inhibitory effects on GUS, and the IC50 values of AMF against GUS mediated DDAOG and SN-38G hydrolysis were 0.62 and 0.49 µM, respectively. Inhibition kinetics studies indicated that AMF showed mixed type inhibition for GUS-mediated DDAOG hydrolysis, while displayed competitive type inhibition against GUS-mediated SN-38G hydrolysis, with the Ki values of 0.24 and 1.25 µM, respectively. Molecular docking studies and molecular dynamics stimulation results clarified the role of amino acid residues Leu361, Ile363, and Glu413 in the inhibition of AMF on GUS. These results provided some foundations for the potential clinical utility of S. tamariscina and its major biflavonoid AMF for treating drug-induced enteropathy.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucuronidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Selaginellaceae/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Glucuronídeos/metabolismo , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular
11.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(1): 1-11, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434084

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine (Sinovac Biotech) is a quadrivalent split-virion-inactivated influenza vaccine approved in China in June 2020 for individuals ≥3 years of age. It contains 15 µg hemagglutinin per strain including A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata, which could potentially improve protection against influenza B viruses. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we summarize the development of quadrivalent influenza vaccines in China and foreign countries, and assess the immunogenicity and safety from the phase I and III clinical trials of Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine in individuals ≥3 years of age. We also discuss the potential application of Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine in young children 6-35 months of age according to the results of the phase III trial. EXPERT COMMENTARY: The immunogenicity and safety profiles of Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine containing two A and two B strains were comparable to the trivalent vaccines for the shared strains. The addition of a second B strain to the trivalent vaccine could induce superior immune responses for the alternate B strain. Since the two B strains co-circulated worldwide, the introduction of quadrivalent influenza vaccines has been expected to be a cost-effective strategy.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano
12.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(1): e13443, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reveal detailed histopathological changes, virus distributions, immunologic properties and multi-omic features caused by SARS-CoV-2 in the explanted lungs from the world's first successful lung transplantation of a COVID-19 patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 samples were collected from the lungs. Histopathological features and virus distribution were observed by optical microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Immune cells were detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Transcriptome and proteome approaches were used to investigate main biological processes involved in COVID-19-associated pulmonary fibrosis. RESULTS: The histopathological changes of the lung tissues were characterized by extensive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and haemorrhage. Viral particles were observed in the cytoplasm of macrophages. CD3+ CD4- T cells, neutrophils, NK cells, γ/δ T cells and monocytes, but not B cells, were abundant in the lungs. Higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines iNOS, IL-1ß and IL-6 were in the area of mild fibrosis. Multi-omics analyses revealed a total of 126 out of 20,356 significant different transcription and 114 out of 8,493 protein expression in lung samples with mild and severe fibrosis, most of which were related to fibrosis and inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide novel insight that the significant neutrophil/ CD3+ CD4- T cell/ macrophage activation leads to cytokine storm and severe fibrosis in the lungs of COVID-19 patient and may contribute to a better understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Transplante de Pulmão , Pulmão/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Linfócitos B/ultraestrutura , Linfócitos B/virologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/cirurgia , Cromatografia Líquida , Citometria de Fluxo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/ultraestrutura , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , Pulmão/virologia , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Linfonodos/ultraestrutura , Linfonodos/virologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/ultraestrutura , Macrófagos Alveolares/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/patologia , Monócitos/ultraestrutura , Monócitos/virologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Neutrófilos/ultraestrutura , Neutrófilos/virologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Proteômica , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/cirurgia , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T/patologia , Linfócitos T/ultraestrutura , Linfócitos T/virologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(8): ofaa181, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818136

RESUMO

Background: In this study, we investigated the effects of prior influenza exposure on vaccine-elicited humor immune responses to circulating influenza variants. Method: We randomly selected 360 participants in previous clinical trials stratified by age. Blood samples were collected and tested by hemagglutination-inhibition tests during the 2015-2016 influenza seasons in China. The antigenic map was plotted and antigenic distance was calculated. Results: Subjects with H1-priming had higher cross-reactive antibodies titers against A/JiangsuTinghu/11019/2015(H3N2) compared with subjects with B-priming did (P adjusted = .038). Subjects with H1-priming also had higher cross-reactive antibodies titers against A/Jiangsu Qinhuai/11059/2015(H3N2) than subjects with both H1 and B priming (P adjusted = .036). Nevertheless, subjects with no H1 and B-priming had higher cross-reactive antibodies titers against A/Jiangsu Qinhuai/11059/2015(H3N2) than subjects with both H1 and B priming (P adjusted = .012). Antigenic distance was well matched with serological results. Moeover, age-specific differences in human postvaccination responses against the identical circulating strain was noted. In addition, children had the most cross-reactive response to both H3N2 and B-yamagata subtypes. Conclusions: Our results suggest that prior exposure to H1 or B influenza virus may influence cross-reactivity of H3-specific postvaccination responses and consequently could influence the vaccine effectiveness. Our findings also support that there are age-specific differences in human postvaccination responses.

14.
Lancet ; 396(10249): 479-488, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is the first randomised controlled trial for assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of a candidate non-replicating adenovirus type-5 (Ad5)-vectored COVID-19 vaccine, aiming to determine an appropriate dose of the candidate vaccine for an efficacy study. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial of the Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine was done in a single centre in Wuhan, China. Healthy adults aged 18 years or older, who were HIV-negative and previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-free, were eligible to participate and were randomly assigned to receive the vaccine at a dose of 1 × 1011 viral particles per mL or 5 × 1010 viral particles per mL, or placebo. Investigators allocated participants at a ratio of 2:1:1 to receive a single injection intramuscularly in the arm. The randomisation list (block size 4) was generated by an independent statistician. Participants, investigators, and staff undertaking laboratory analyses were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoints for immunogenicity were the geometric mean titres (GMTs) of specific ELISA antibody responses to the receptor binding domain (RBD) and neutralising antibody responses at day 28. The primary endpoint for safety evaluation was the incidence of adverse reactions within 14 days. All recruited participants who received at least one dose were included in the primary and safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04341389. FINDINGS: 603 volunteers were recruited and screened for eligibility between April 11 and 16, 2020. 508 eligible participants (50% male; mean age 39·7 years, SD 12·5) consented to participate in the trial and were randomly assigned to receive the vaccine (1 × 1011 viral particles n=253; 5 × 1010 viral particles n=129) or placebo (n=126). In the 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles dose groups, the RBD-specific ELISA antibodies peaked at 656·5 (95% CI 575·2-749·2) and 571·0 (467·6-697·3), with seroconversion rates at 96% (95% CI 93-98) and 97% (92-99), respectively, at day 28. Both doses of the vaccine induced significant neutralising antibody responses to live SARS-CoV-2, with GMTs of 19·5 (95% CI 16·8-22·7) and 18·3 (14·4-23·3) in participants receiving 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles, respectively. Specific interferon γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay responses post vaccination were observed in 227 (90%, 95% CI 85-93) of 253 and 113 (88%, 81-92) of 129 participants in the 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles dose groups, respectively. Solicited adverse reactions were reported by 183 (72%) of 253 and 96 (74%) of 129 participants in the 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles dose groups, respectively. Severe adverse reactions were reported by 24 (9%) participants in the 1 × 1011 viral particles dose group and one (1%) participant in the 5 × 1010 viral particles dose group. No serious adverse reactions were documented. INTERPRETATION: The Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine at 5 × 1010 viral particles is safe, and induced significant immune responses in the majority of recipients after a single immunisation. FUNDING: National Key R&D Programme of China, National Science and Technology Major Project, and CanSino Biologics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adenoviridae , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(10): 1182-1191, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its natriuretic peptide receptors A (NPR-A) and C (NPR-C) are involved in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological process of blood pressure. The present study aimed to determine the role of NPR-C in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. METHODS: The Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) and salt-resistant (DR) rats were used in this study. Animals were matched according to their age and weight, and then placed on either a high-salt (HS, 8%) or a normal-salt (NS, 0.4%) diet for 6 weeks randomly using random number table. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasmatic sodium concentration (PLNa), urinary sodium excretion (UVNa), and serum creatinine concentration (Scr) were measured. The concentration of ANP in blood and tissues (heart and kidney) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of ANP, NPR-A, and NPR-C in kidney was evaluated with western blot analysis. Regarding renal redox state, the concentration changes in malondialdehyde (MDA), lipofuscin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in kidney were detected by a spectrophotometric method. The kidney damage was evaluated using pathological techniques and the succinodehydrogenase (SDHase) examination. Furthermore, after an intra-peritoneal injection of C-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)4-23 (C-ANP4-23), an NPR-C receptor agonist, the SBP, biochemical values in blood and urine, and renal redox state were evaluated. The paired Student's t test and analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni test were performed for statistical analyses of the comparisons between two groups and multiple groups, respectively. RESULTS: The baseline SBP in all groups was within the normal range. At the end of the 6-week experiment, HS diet significantly increased the SBP in DS rats from 116.63 ±â€Š2.90 mmHg to 162.25 ±â€Š2.15 mmHg (t = -10.213, P < 0.001). The changes of SBP were not significant in DS rats on an NS diet and DR rats on an NS diet or on an HS diet (all P > 0.05). The significant increase of PLNa, UVNa, and Scr related to an HS diet was found in both DS and DR rats (all P < 0.05). However, significant changes in the concentration (t = -21.915, P < 0.001) and expression of renal ANP (t = -3.566, P = 0.016) and the expression of renal NPR-C (t = 5.864, P = 0.002) were only observed in DS hypertensive rats. The significantly higher desmin immunochemical staining score (t = -5.715, P = 0.005) and mitochondrial injury score (t = -6.325, P = 0.003) accompanied by the lower SDHase concentration (t = 3.972, P = 0.017) revealed mitochondrial pathologic abnormalities in podocytes in DS rats with an HS diet. The distinct increases of MDA (t = -4.685, P = 0.009), lipofuscin (t = -8.195, P = 0.001), and Nox (t = -12.733, P < 0.001) but not NOS (t = -0.328, P = 0.764) in kidneys were also found in DS hypertensive rats. C-ANP4-23 treatment significantly decreased the SBP induced by HS in DS rats (P < 0.05), which was still higher than NS groups with the vehicle or C-ANP4-23 treatment (P < 0.05). Moreover, the HS-induced increase of MDA, lipofuscin, Nox concentrations, and Nox4 expression in DS rats was significantly attenuated by C-ANP4-23 treatment as compared with those with HS diet and vehicle injection (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that the renal NPR-C might be involved in the salt-sensitive hypertension through the damage of mitochondria in podocytes and the reduction of the anti-oxidative function. Hence, C-ANP4-23 might serve as a therapeutic agent in treating salt-sensitive hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Podócitos , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Dahl
16.
Lancet ; 395(10240): 1845-1854, 2020 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A vaccine to protect against COVID-19 is urgently needed. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 (Ad5) vectored COVID-19 vaccine expressing the spike glycoprotein of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain. METHODS: We did a dose-escalation, single-centre, open-label, non-randomised, phase 1 trial of an Ad5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine in Wuhan, China. Healthy adults aged between 18 and 60 years were sequentially enrolled and allocated to one of three dose groups (5 × 1010, 1 × 1011, and 1·5 × 1011 viral particles) to receive an intramuscular injection of vaccine. The primary outcome was adverse events in the 7 days post-vaccination. Safety was assessed over 28 days post-vaccination. Specific antibodies were measured with ELISA, and the neutralising antibody responses induced by vaccination were detected with SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralisation and pseudovirus neutralisation tests. T-cell responses were assessed by enzyme-linked immunospot and flow-cytometry assays. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04313127. FINDINGS: Between March 16 and March 27, 2020, we screened 195 individuals for eligibility. Of them, 108 participants (51% male, 49% female; mean age 36·3 years) were recruited and received the low dose (n=36), middle dose (n=36), or high dose (n=36) of the vaccine. All enrolled participants were included in the analysis. At least one adverse reaction within the first 7 days after the vaccination was reported in 30 (83%) participants in the low dose group, 30 (83%) participants in the middle dose group, and 27 (75%) participants in the high dose group. The most common injection site adverse reaction was pain, which was reported in 58 (54%) vaccine recipients, and the most commonly reported systematic adverse reactions were fever (50 [46%]), fatigue (47 [44%]), headache (42 [39%]), and muscle pain (18 [17%]. Most adverse reactions that were reported in all dose groups were mild or moderate in severity. No serious adverse event was noted within 28 days post-vaccination. ELISA antibodies and neutralising antibodies increased significantly at day 14, and peaked 28 days post-vaccination. Specific T-cell response peaked at day 14 post-vaccination. INTERPRETATION: The Ad5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine is tolerable and immunogenic at 28 days post-vaccination. Humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 peaked at day 28 post-vaccination in healthy adults, and rapid specific T-cell responses were noted from day 14 post-vaccination. Our findings suggest that the Ad5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine warrants further investigation. FUNDING: National Key R&D Program of China, National Science and Technology Major Project, and CanSino Biologics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Adenoviridae , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , China , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(11): 2769-2777, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945978

RESUMO

The Arthus reaction is a rare adverse reaction that usually occurs after vaccination with large and more severe local reactions, belonging to type Ⅲ hypersensitivity reaction. This reaction is characterized by pain, swelling, induration (Tissue that becomes firm) and edema, even accompanied by severe necrosis or ulceration at the injection sites. However, most of mild cases generally can be cured without treatment, and only severe cases need to be treated with anti-allergy. Therefore, this adverse reaction is often ignored by people.We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Chinese database (CNKI database and Wan Fang database) for published studies using the terms "Arthus reaction" or "Arthus phenomenon", combined with "vaccine", with no date or language restrictions for all publications before January 28, 2019. Only 30 cases of Arthus reaction were found, of which only one case died.4 cases of Arthus reaction post-dose-1 were reported in the review. The proportion of Arthus reaction occurred after the first, second and third injections in those case reports was 13.3%, 50.0%, and 23.3%, respectively. Arthus reaction was determined according to the clinical symptoms (The symptoms which were observed by the researchers, such as red, swelling and painful with itching at or around the injection sites). The specific causes of Arthus reaction after one dose of vaccination are not described in detail in literatures. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that the case has a pre-existing specific IgG (Such as pre-existing antibody, etc.) to cause the Arthus reaction.And 17 reported cases were observed in children younger than 6 y. In addition, we collected only 18 cases of bacterial vaccine-induced Arthus reaction and 12 cases of viral vaccines. However, there are no other data (Such as the total number and incidence rate of vaccination) in literatures, so we cannot compare statistically significant differences. At presents, no previous reviews of vaccine-induced Arthus reaction have been found. Thus, a systematic review about vaccine-associated Arthus reaction is urgently needed to deepen people's understanding and concern of this phenomenon. In this manuscript, we retrospectively reviewed the description of the discovery process and mechanisms of Arthus reaction, a description of the characteristics of Arthus reaction cases, reporting the Arthus reaction cases in China during 2010-2015, diagnostic criteria and general treatment, preventive measures of Arthus reaction, and challenges remaining to be investigated in the future.


Assuntos
Reação de Arthus/etiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Reação de Arthus/prevenção & controle , China , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 31(2): e13493, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a functional disorder with chronic and relapsing clinical features. Vasopressin (VP) is a hormone responsible for water and stress homeostasis and also regulates gastrointestinal inflammation and motility. We explored whether VP was related to IBD pathogenesis and its possible pathway. METHODS: Colitis was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice. The disease activity and colonic damage were evaluated through a scoring system. Locations of the V1a receptor were revealed by immunochemistry method in colon. Ussing chamber technique was performed for the electrophysiological characterization by using rat ileum. The (Arg8 )-Vasopressin (AVP)-evoked short-circuit current (Isc) was recorded in the presence of conivaptan (V1a and V2 receptor antagonist), tolvaptan (V1b receptor antagonist), tetrodotoxin (TTX), atropine, cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors (indomethacin, nonspecific COX antagonist; SC560, COX-1 antagonist; NS560, COX-2 antagonist), and a stabilizer of mast cell (cromolyn sodium), respectively. KEY RESULTS: TNBS resulted in the obvious loss of body weight and tissue damages in mice. AVP significantly aggravated the TNBS-induced colitis, which was attenuated by conivaptan but not tolvaptan. V1a receptors were found immunopositive in neurons among the enteric nervous system. AVP evoked a pulsatile response in Isc. Its amplitude, frequency, and cycle duration were around 8-15 µA/cm2 , 10-11 mHz, and 1.5 minutes, respectively. Notably, the AVP-evoked change in Isc was abolished by TTX, atropine, conivaptan, indomethacin, NS560, and cromolyn sodium, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: VP-V1a receptor played the proinflammatory role in TNBS-induced colitis by promoting COX-2-dependent prostaglandin release from mucosal mast cells, which was mediated by the cholinergic pathway.


Assuntos
Colite/fisiopatologia , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de Vasopressinas/metabolismo , Vasopressinas/metabolismo , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neurônios/metabolismo , Prostaglandinas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ácido Trinitrobenzenossulfônico/toxicidade
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 29(3): 987-996, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722244

RESUMO

Quantitative evaluation of ecosystem service is a primary premise for rational resources exploitation and sustainable development. Examining ecosystem services flow provides a scientific method to quantity ecosystem services. We built an assessment indicator system based on land cover/land use under the framework of four types of ecosystem services. The types of ecosystem services flow were reclassified. Using entropy theory, disorder degree and developing trend of indicators and urban ecosystem were quantitatively assessed. Beijing was chosen as the study area, and twenty-four indicators were selected for evaluation. The results showed that the entropy value of Beijing urban ecosystem during 2004 to 2015 was 0.794 and the entropy flow was -0.024, suggesting a large disordered degree and near verge of non-health. The system got maximum values for three times, while the mean annual variation of the system entropy value increased gradually in three periods, indicating that human activities had negative effects on urban ecosystem. Entropy flow reached minimum value in 2007, implying the environmental quality was the best in 2007. The determination coefficient for the fitting function of total permanent population in Beijing and urban ecosystem entropy flow was 0.921, indicating that urban ecosystem health was highly correlated with total permanent population.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Entropia , Pequim , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
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