Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 163
Filtrar
1.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(10): 1182-1191, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its natriuretic peptide receptors A (NPR-A) and C (NPR-C) are involved in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological process of blood pressure. The present study aimed to determine the role of NPR-C in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. METHODS: The Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) and salt-resistant (DR) rats were used in this study. Animals were matched according to their age and weight, and then placed on either a high-salt (HS, 8%) or a normal-salt (NS, 0.4%) diet for 6 weeks randomly using random number table. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasmatic sodium concentration (PLNa), urinary sodium excretion (UVNa), and serum creatinine concentration (Scr) were measured. The concentration of ANP in blood and tissues (heart and kidney) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of ANP, NPR-A, and NPR-C in kidney was evaluated with western blot analysis. Regarding renal redox state, the concentration changes in malondialdehyde (MDA), lipofuscin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in kidney were detected by a spectrophotometric method. The kidney damage was evaluated using pathological techniques and the succinodehydrogenase (SDHase) examination. Furthermore, after an intra-peritoneal injection of C-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)4-23 (C-ANP4-23), an NPR-C receptor agonist, the SBP, biochemical values in blood and urine, and renal redox state were evaluated. The paired Student's t test and analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni test were performed for statistical analyses of the comparisons between two groups and multiple groups, respectively. RESULTS: The baseline SBP in all groups was within the normal range. At the end of the 6-week experiment, HS diet significantly increased the SBP in DS rats from 116.63 ±â€Š2.90 mmHg to 162.25 ±â€Š2.15 mmHg (t = -10.213, P < 0.001). The changes of SBP were not significant in DS rats on an NS diet and DR rats on an NS diet or on an HS diet (all P > 0.05). The significant increase of PLNa, UVNa, and Scr related to an HS diet was found in both DS and DR rats (all P < 0.05). However, significant changes in the concentration (t = -21.915, P < 0.001) and expression of renal ANP (t = -3.566, P = 0.016) and the expression of renal NPR-C (t = 5.864, P = 0.002) were only observed in DS hypertensive rats. The significantly higher desmin immunochemical staining score (t = -5.715, P = 0.005) and mitochondrial injury score (t = -6.325, P = 0.003) accompanied by the lower SDHase concentration (t = 3.972, P = 0.017) revealed mitochondrial pathologic abnormalities in podocytes in DS rats with an HS diet. The distinct increases of MDA (t = -4.685, P = 0.009), lipofuscin (t = -8.195, P = 0.001), and Nox (t = -12.733, P < 0.001) but not NOS (t = -0.328, P = 0.764) in kidneys were also found in DS hypertensive rats. C-ANP4-23 treatment significantly decreased the SBP induced by HS in DS rats (P < 0.05), which was still higher than NS groups with the vehicle or C-ANP4-23 treatment (P < 0.05). Moreover, the HS-induced increase of MDA, lipofuscin, Nox concentrations, and Nox4 expression in DS rats was significantly attenuated by C-ANP4-23 treatment as compared with those with HS diet and vehicle injection (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that the renal NPR-C might be involved in the salt-sensitive hypertension through the damage of mitochondria in podocytes and the reduction of the anti-oxidative function. Hence, C-ANP4-23 might serve as a therapeutic agent in treating salt-sensitive hypertension.

2.
Lancet ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A vaccine to protect against COVID-19 is urgently needed. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 (Ad5) vectored COVID-19 vaccine expressing the spike glycoprotein of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain. METHODS: We did a dose-escalation, single-centre, open-label, non-randomised, phase 1 trial of an Ad5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine in Wuhan, China. Healthy adults aged between 18 and 60 years were sequentially enrolled and allocated to one of three dose groups (5 × 1010, 1 × 1011, and 1·5 × 1011 viral particles) to receive an intramuscular injection of vaccine. The primary outcome was adverse events in the 7 days post-vaccination. Safety was assessed over 28 days post-vaccination. Specific antibodies were measured with ELISA, and the neutralising antibody responses induced by vaccination were detected with SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralisation and pseudovirus neutralisation tests. T-cell responses were assessed by enzyme-linked immunospot and flow-cytometry assays. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04313127. FINDINGS: Between March 16 and March 27, 2020, we screened 195 individuals for eligibility. Of them, 108 participants (51% male, 49% female; mean age 36·3 years) were recruited and received the low dose (n=36), middle dose (n=36), or high dose (n=36) of the vaccine. All enrolled participants were included in the analysis. At least one adverse reaction within the first 7 days after the vaccination was reported in 30 (83%) participants in the low dose group, 30 (83%) participants in the middle dose group, and 27 (75%) participants in the high dose group. The most common injection site adverse reaction was pain, which was reported in 58 (54%) vaccine recipients, and the most commonly reported systematic adverse reactions were fever (50 [46%]), fatigue (47 [44%]), headache (42 [39%]), and muscle pain (18 [17%]. Most adverse reactions that were reported in all dose groups were mild or moderate in severity. No serious adverse event was noted within 28 days post-vaccination. ELISA antibodies and neutralising antibodies increased significantly at day 14, and peaked 28 days post-vaccination. Specific T-cell response peaked at day 14 post-vaccination. INTERPRETATION: The Ad5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine is tolerable and immunogenic at 28 days post-vaccination. Humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 peaked at day 28 post-vaccination in healthy adults, and rapid specific T-cell responses were noted from day 14 post-vaccination. Our findings suggest that the Ad5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine warrants further investigation. FUNDING: National Key R&D Program of China, National Science and Technology Major Project, and CanSino Biologics.

3.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its natriuretic peptide receptors A (NPR-A) and C (NPR-C) are involved in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological process of blood pressure. The present study aimed to determine the role of NPR-C in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. METHODS: The Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) and salt-resistant (DR) rats were used in this study. Animals were matched according to their age and weight, and then placed on either a high-salt (HS, 8%) or a normal-salt (NS, 0.4%) diet for 6 weeks randomly using random number table. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasmatic sodium concentration (PLNa), urinary sodium excretion (UVNa), and serum creatinine concentration (Scr) were measured. The concentration of ANP in blood and tissues (heart and kidney) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of ANP, NPR-A, and NPR-C in kidney was evaluated with western blot analysis. Regarding renal redox state, the concentration changes in malondialdehyde (MDA), lipofuscin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in kidney were detected by a spectrophotometric method. The kidney damage was evaluated using pathological techniques and the succinodehydrogenase (SDHase) examination. Furthermore, after an intra-peritoneal injection of C-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)4-23 (C-ANP4-23), an NPR-C receptor agonist, the SBP, biochemical values in blood and urine, and renal redox state were evaluated. The paired Student's t test and analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni test were performed for statistical analyses of the comparisons between two groups and multiple groups, respectively. RESULTS: The baseline SBP in all groups was within the normal range. At the end of the 6-week experiment, HS diet significantly increased the SBP in DS rats from 116.63 ±â€Š2.90 mmHg to 162.25 ±â€Š2.15 mmHg (t = -10.213, P < 0.001). The changes of SBP were not significant in DS rats on an NS diet and DR rats on an NS diet or on an HS diet (all P > 0.05). The significant increase of PLNa, UVNa, and Scr related to an HS diet was found in both DS and DR rats (all P < 0.05). However, significant changes in the concentration (t = -21.915, P < 0.001) and expression of renal ANP (t = -3.566, P = 0.016) and the expression of renal NPR-C (t = 5.864, P = 0.002) were only observed in DS hypertensive rats. The significantly higher desmin immunochemical staining score (t = -5.715, P = 0.005) and mitochondrial injury score (t = -6.325, P = 0.003) accompanied by the lower SDHase concentration (t = 3.972, P = 0.017) revealed mitochondrial pathologic abnormalities in podocytes in DS rats with an HS diet. The distinct increase of MDA (t = -4.685, P = 0.009), lipofuscin (t = -8.195, P = 0.001), and Nox (t = -12.733, P < 0.001) but not NOS (t = -0.328, P = 0.764) in kidneys were also found in DS hypertensive rats. C-ANP4-23 treatment significantly decreased the SBP induced by HS in DS rats (P < 0.05), which was still higher than NS groups with the vehicle or C-ANP4-23 treatment (P < 0.05). Moreover, the HS-induced increase of MDA, lipofuscin, NADPH concentrations, and Nox4 expression in DS rats was significantly attenuated by C-ANP4-23 treatment as compared with those with HS diet and vehicle injection (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that the renal NPR-C might be involved in the salt-sensitive hypertension through the damage of mitochondria in podocytes and the reduction of the anti-oxidative function. Hence, C-ANP4-23 might serve as a therapeutic agent in treating salt-sensitive hypertension.

4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-8, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186950

RESUMO

Background: Compared with trivalent influenza vaccines, quadrivalent influenza vaccines are expected to provide wider protection against influenza B virus infections. We developed a novel quadrivalent subunit influenza vaccine which was distinct from the influenza vaccines available on the market in production process. In this research, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent subunit influenza vaccine in animal models.Methods: In toxicity assessment, 40 SD rats were randomly assigned to be intramuscularly injected with 1.0 ml of the tested vaccine (33 µg/ml) or 0.9% sodium chloride solution. In irritation assessment, eight rabbits were randomly assigned to receive 0.5 ml of tested vaccine or phosphate buffer solution intramuscularly. Thirty-two guinea pigs were randomly assigned to be intramuscularly injected with high-dose tested vaccine (0.5 ml), low-dose tested vaccine (0.05 ml), ovalbumin, or 0.9% sodium chloride solution, respectively, for sensitization assessment. In immunogenicity assessment, 50 BALB/c mice were equally randomized to receive one dose of tested vaccine, two doses of tested vaccine with an interval of 14 days, 0.5 ml of trivalent subunit influenza vaccine, 0.5 ml of monovalent subunit influenza vaccine, or 0.5 ml of phosphate buffer solution. Orbital blood was collected before and 28 and 42 days after administration of the injections for detecting influenza antibody titers.Results: No abnormal toxicity and irritation in rats and rabbits showed in the gross autopsy and histopathological examinations. The results of sensitization in guinea pigs indicated that no obvious allergic symptoms observed in the high-dose and low-dose vaccine groups within 30 min after twice provocations, and the result of sensitization evaluation was negative. Vaccine induced significant immune responses in mice with 100% seroconversion rates at 28 and 42 days after the first dose. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies at day 28 in one-dose quadri-vaccine and two-dose quadri-vaccine groups were comparable to those in the tri-vaccine or mono-vaccine groups for shared influenza strains. However, the GMTs of HI antibodies against H1N1 (P = 0.025) and BV (P = 0.049) at day 42 in one-dose quadri-vaccine group were significantly lower than those in the tri-vaccine or mono-vaccine groups. The GMTs of HI antibodies against H1N1, H3N1, BY, and BV at day 28 and day 42 were comparable between one-dose quadri-vaccine and two-dose quadri-vaccine groups.Conclusions: The quadrivalent subunit influenza vaccine was safe and immunogenic in animal models. One dose of the vaccine could elicit a satisfactory antibody response in mice.

5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-7, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209003

RESUMO

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the dominant pathogen in severe and fatal hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) cases. Since 2015, three inactivated EV71 vaccines have been approved in China. The vaccination coverage of the EV71 vaccine has been relatively low, especially in rural areas. A cross-sectional survey from July 19 to August 22, 2018, was conducted in three rural counties of northern Jiangsu Province among parents of children aged 6-60 months. We adopted a pretested validated questionnaire to assess knowledge, awareness, and attitude of HFMD and EV71 vaccines among respondents and used univariate and multivariate binary logistic analyses to explore potential factors associated with the acceptance of EV71 vaccines. Of the 1,112 parents who participated, 87.8% were willing to vaccinate their children with EV71 vaccines. Parents over 40 y old were less likely to have their children vaccinated [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-3.97]. Parents who lived in Ganyu (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31-0.79) or Xinyi county (aOR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.20-0.53), had a university or higher degree (aOR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11-0.64), had good knowledge of EV71 vaccines (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.98), perceived their children's disease susceptibility, and worried about the severity of HFMD had a higher willingness to vaccinate their children. Most parents were willing to vaccinate their children against EV71-related HFMD. Parental age, location, education level, knowledge of EV71 vaccines, concern about susceptibility, and severity of HFMD were all factors that influenced willingness to vaccinate.

6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(3): 437-445, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091361

RESUMO

CaliciNet China, a network of provincial, county, and city laboratories coordinated by the Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was launched in October 2016 to monitor the epidemiology and genotype distribution of norovirus outbreaks in China. During October 2016-September 2018, a total of 556 norovirus outbreaks were reported, and positive fecal samples from 470 (84.5%) outbreaks were genotyped. Most of these outbreaks were associated with person-to-person transmission (95.1%), occurred in childcare centers or schools (78.2%), and were reported during November-March of each year (63.5%). During the 2-year study period, 81.2% of all norovirus outbreaks were typed as GII.2[P16]. In China, most norovirus outbreaks are reported by childcare centers or schools; GII.2[P16] is the predominant genotype. Ongoing surveillance by CaliciNet China will provide information about the evolving norovirus genotype distribution and outbreak characteristics important for the development of effective interventions, including vaccines.

7.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048164

RESUMO

Mammalian mitochondria have small genomes encoding very limited numbers of proteins. Over one thousand proteins and noncoding RNAs encoded by the nuclear genome must be imported from the cytosol into the mitochondria. Here, we report the identification of hundreds of circular RNAs (mecciRNAs) encoded by the mitochondrial genome. We provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence to show that mecciRNAs facilitate the mitochondrial entry of nuclear-encoded proteins by serving as molecular chaperones in the folding of imported proteins. Known components involved in mitochondrial protein and RNA importation, such as TOM40 and PNPASE, interact with mecciRNAs and regulate protein entry. The expression of mecciRNAs is regulated, and these transcripts are critical for the adaption of mitochondria to physiological conditions and diseases such as stresses and cancers by modulating mitochondrial protein importation. mecciRNAs and their associated physiological roles add categories and functions to the known eukaryotic circular RNAs and shed novel light on the communication between mitochondria and the nucleus.

8.
Endocrine ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of once weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) dulaglutide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception to August 18, 2019. Revman5.3 and Stata13.0 software were used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-one trials including 20,367 patients were analyzed. Compared with control group, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in 0.75 mg dulaglutide group and 1.5 mg dulaglutide group were reduced by 0.29% and 0.55%, respectively. More patients treated with 0.75 mg dulaglutide [RR 1.24, 95% CI (1.08, 1.42), p = 0.002] and 1.5 mg dulaglutide [RR 1.66, 95% CI (1.40, 1.99), p < 0.00001] had reached the target of HbA1c 7.0%. In patients with T2DM, 0.75 mg dulaglutide and 1.5 mg dulaglutide had a statistically higher adverse events (AEs) incidence than control, whereas the risk of hypoglycaemia was lower in 0.75 mg dulaglutide group and 1.5 mg dulaglutide group than in control group. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the current evidence, 0.75 and 1.5 mg dulaglutide are associated with better glycemic control and lower rate of hypoglycemia in patients with T2DM.

9.
Food Chem ; 312: 126084, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901820

RESUMO

The pit mud (PM) prokaryotic communities with obvious difference between old and young PM is essential for solid-fermentation of Chinese Strong-Flavor Baijiu. The bottom-PM (BPM) is considered more important. In this study, the multidimensional prokaryotic communities of old and young BPMs were investigated. The old BPM presented stratified difference within the depth of 0-7 cm, especially, the surface 0-1 cm was characteristic of dominant Caproiciproducens (34.79%). The young BPM showed significant difference between quarter/center and deep corner (1-7 cm), the former were characteristic of abundant Lactobacillus (12.80%-42.72%), while the deep corner was distinctive of dominant Caproiciproducens (17.85%-64.45%). The lactic acid, pH and soluble Ca2+ were considered as the 3 most significant environmental factors through redundancy analysis (RDA). This study may help illuminate the BPM aging process, and allow the future artificial regulation of young BPM.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Aromatizantes/análise , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Lactobacillus , Paladar , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-10, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545124

RESUMO

Vaccination has been one of the major revolutions in the history of human health. Vaccination programs have targeted entire populations such as infants or elderly subjects as a matter of being efficient with time and resources. These general populations are heterogeneous in terms of factors such as ethnicity, health status, and socio-economics. Thus, there have been variations in the safety and effectiveness profiles of certain vaccinations according to current population-wide strategies. As the concept of precision medicine has been raised in recent years, many researchers have suggested that vaccines could be administered more precisely in terms of particular target populations, vaccine formulations, regimens, and dosage levels. This review addresses the concept and framework of precision immunization, summarizes recent and representative clinical trials of among specific populations, mentions important factors to be addressed in customizing vaccinations, and provides suggestions on the establishment of precision immunization with the goal of maximizing the effectiveness of vaccines in general.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 1380, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824317

RESUMO

Oxytocin (OT), a hormone synthesized within the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, when given intracerebroventricularly, induces strong scratching behaviors. However, it is not clear whether intradermal injection (ID) of OT elicits itch sensation. Herein, we found that OT (0.02 mg/ml) did not elicit an itch-scratching response in mice but aggravated chloroquine (CQ, 3 mmol/L)-elicited scratching behavior. Similar to OT, arginine vasopressin (AVP, 0.02 mg/ml), which is structurally related to OT, also enhanced CQ-induced scratching behavior but did not directly induce scratching behavior in mice. Mechanistically, OT-mediated enhancement of CQ-induced scratching behavior was significantly suppressed by conivaptan (0.05 mg/ml), a vasopressin-1a receptor (V1AR) antagonist and 1,400 W (3 mg/kg), inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), but not OT receptor (OTR) antagonist L-368,899 (0.05 mg/ml). Notably, conivaptan also directly decreased CQ-induced scratching. In conclusion, OT plays a role in CQ-induced scratching behavior via V1AR binding events. V1AR antagonists could be used as possible treatments for CQ-induced itch.

12.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625015

RESUMO

Various genetic polymorphisms have been linked to lung cancer susceptibility and survival outcomes. Vitamin D (VD) regulates cell proliferation and differentiation, inhibits tumor growth and induces apoptosis. Observations from several previous studies including our own suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the VD pathway may be associated with lung cancer risk. The aim of this study is to assess if genetic polymorphisms in the VD pathway are associated with the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes in the VD pathway were genotyped with the TaqMan assays in 542 patients with primary NSCLC, and the relationships between these SNPs and overall survival were evaluated. We found that SNP rs10741657 in the CYP2R1 gene was associated with the prognosis of NSCLC, especially in elderly patients and not being treated with chemotherapy. Some of the VD pathway-related genetic polymorphisms may influence the prognosis of NSCLC. More research is needed to further confirm the finding and test if VD supplements can be used for NSCLC treatment.

13.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(11): 1150-1158, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was licensed in China based on immunologic noninferiority to 7-valent PCV (PCV7). As part of the noninferiority study, immunogenicity and safety of PCV13 administered as a 3- or 2-dose infant series followed by a toddler dose were examined in healthy Chinese infants. METHODS: Infants (42- to 77-days-old) were randomized to a 3-dose PCV13 or PCV7 infant series administered double-blind at 3, 4 and 5 months or PCV13 administered open-label at 2, 4 and 6 months and a 2-dose open-label series at 3 and 5 months; all subjects received a toddler dose (12 months). Serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations were measured 1 month after the infant series and before and after the toddler dose. Opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) was measured in a subset of subjects at each time point. Safety was evaluated. RESULTS: One month after the infant series, serotype-specific immune responses (IgG ≥ 0.35 µg/mL) were similar for the 2- versus 3-dose schedules, except for serotype 6B, which was significantly lower in the 2-dose group [70.1% in the PCV13 (3, 5 + 12 mo) group vs. 93.2% in the PCV13 (3, 4, 5 + 12 mo) group and 94.7% in the PCV13 (2, 4, 6 + 12 mo) group]. IgG geometric mean concentrations and OPA geometric mean titers trended numerically higher with 3- versus 2-dose schedules. No significant differences in immunogenicity were observed between the 3- versus 2-dose schedules after the toddler dose. PCV13 was well-tolerated across all schedules. CONCLUSIONS: PCV13 administered as a 3- or 2-dose infant series followed by a toddler dose was immunogenic and well tolerated in healthy Chinese infants and likely protective against PCV13 serotypes; immune responses with a 2-dose schedule were lower for some serotypes.

14.
FASEB J ; 33(12): 13202-13215, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533002

RESUMO

Ample evidence indicates that nutrient concentrations in extracellular milieux affect signaling mediated by environmental sensor proteins. For instance, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is reduced during protein malnutrition and is known to be modulated by concentrations of several amino acids when in a multiprotein signaling complex that contains regulatory-associated protein of mTOR. We hypothesized that a partial decrease in mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity intrinsic to B-lineage cells would perturb lymphocyte development or function, or both. We show that a cell-intrinsic decrease in mTORC1 activity impacted developmental progression, antigen receptor repertoire, and function along the B lineage. Thus, preimmune repertoires of B-lineage cells were altered in the marrow and periphery in a genetic model of regulatory-associated protein of mTOR haplo-insufficiency. An additional role for mTORC1 was revealed when a B-cell antigen receptor transgene was found to circumvent the abnormal B-cell development: haploinsufficient B cells were profoundly impaired in responses to antigen in vivo. Collectively, our findings indicate that mTORC1 serves as a rheostat that shapes differentiation along the B lineage, the preimmune repertoire, and antigen-driven selection of mature B cells. The findings also reveal a range in the impact of this nutrient sensor on activity-response relationships for distinct endpoints.-Raybuck, A. L., Lee, K., Cho, S. H., Li, J., Thomas, J. W., Boothby, M. R. mTORC1 as a cell-intrinsic rheostat that shapes development, preimmune repertoire, and function of B lymphocytes.

15.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 133(18): 1977-1992, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519790

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammation, but the accurate etiology remains to be elucidated. Increasing evidence has shown that macrophages polarize to different phenotypes depending on the intestinal microenvironment and are associated with the progression of IBD. In the present study, we investigated the effect of oxytocin, a neuroendocrinal, and pro-health peptide, on the modulation of macrophages polarization and the progression of experimental colitis. Our data demonstrated that oxytocin decreased the sensitivity of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide stimulation with lower expression of inflammatory cytokines, like IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α, but increased the sensitivity to IL-4 stimulation with enhanced expression of M2-type genes, arginase I (Arg1), CD206, and chitinase-like 3 (Chil3). This bidirectional modulation was partly due to the up-regulation of ß-arrestin2 and resulted in the inhibition of NF-κB signaling and reinforcement of Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 phosphorylation. Moreover, oxytocin receptor (OXTR) myeloid deficiency mice were more susceptible to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) intervention compared with the wild mice. For the first time, we reveal that oxytocin-oxytocin receptor system participates in modulating the polarization of macrophages to an anti-inflammatory phenotype and alleviates experimental colitis. These findings provide new potential insights into the pathogenesis and therapy of IBD.

16.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-6, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368388

RESUMO

Cytochrome c has been used as first-aid in the clinic for organs which are lacking oxygen. But recent report show cytochrome c injection destroys dendritic cells (DCs) which play a pivotal role in feto-maternal tolerance. However, it is not clear whether cytochrome c injection causes abortion. The cytochrome c was injected by tail vein of mice at the Day 5.5 of pregnancy (E5.5) after mating with male BALB/c mice. The total number of implantations and resorption sites was recorded at the E12.5 in pregnant mice. Expression of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis-α interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12 and transforming growth factor-ß in the mouse endometrium was measured by ELISA. Injection of cytochrome c via tail vein at the E5.5 induced fetal resorption at E12.5, and evoked an immune imbalance at the maternal-fetal interface. Notably, injection of mouse bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs) rescued the cytochrome c-evoked embryo resorption. The present study suggests cytochrome c injection causes embryo resorption in mice, hinting caution regarding the use of cytochrome c in pregnant women. In addition, it may provide an easy and novel way to establish a mouse model of abortion. Highlights Cytochrome c injection induced fetal rejection. Cytochrome c injection leads to a T helper 1/T helper 2 imbalance at the maternal-fetal interface. A mouse model of abortion was established by injecting tail vein with cytochrome c.

17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(12): 2952-2959, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348731

RESUMO

Background: This exploratory study aimed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of 1 and 2 doses of meningococcal serogroups A and C tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine (MenAC-TT) in toddles.Methods: Healthy participants aged 12-23 months were randomized into two groups to receive 1 or 2 doses of the tested vaccine. The interval was 28 days between two doses. Blood samples were collected at day 0 before the immunization and day 28 post-each dose. Safety observation was conducted during 28 days after each vaccination. Serious adverse event (SAE) was conducted throughout 6 month observation period.Results: Overall 301 toddles were vaccinated. Twenty-eight days post full-course vaccination, ≥97.20% toddles had titers ≥1:8 and ≥81.48% had titers ≥1:128 for MenA and MenC in the two schedules groups. There were no significant differences between the two schedule groups for each titer thresholds and serogroups. Up to month 12 post the first dose, titers ≥1:8 and 1:128 were declined to 71.32-80.83% and 26.67-57.85% for each meningococcal serogroups. Most adverse reactions (ARs) were mild or moderate, and the incidence of grade 3 ARs was below 3.33%. The incidence of redness was significantly higher in the two doses group than that in the one dose group, in terms of grade 1 and grade 2 were higher. No SAEs were considered causally related to vaccination.Conclusion: The MenAC-TT showed similarly safety and immunogenicity profile in toddles with two schedules. It will be more important to provide the data for formulating appropriate immunization strategies in different age groups in China.

18.
Microbiol Res ; 226: 10-18, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284939

RESUMO

Microbial oxidation of antimonite [Sb(III)] to antimonate [Sb(V)] is a detoxification process which contributes to Sb(III) resistance. Antimonite oxidase AnoA is essential for Sb(III) oxidation, however, the regulation mechanism is still unknown. Recently, we found that the expressions of phosphate transporters were induced by Sb(III) using proteomics analysis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4, thus, we predicted that the phosphate regulator PhoB may regulate bacterial Sb(III) oxidation and resistance. In this study, comprehensive analyses were performed and the results showed that (1) Genomic analysis revealed two phoB (named as phoB1 and phoB2) and one phoR gene in strain GW4; (2) Reporter gene assay showed that both phoB1 and phoB2 were induced in low phosphate condition (50 µM), but only phoB2 was induced by Sb(III); (3) Genes knock-out/complementation, Sb(III) oxidation and Sb(III) resistance tests showed that deletion of phoB2 significantly inhibited the expression of anoA and decreased bacterial Sb(III) oxidation efficiency and Sb(III) resistant. In contrast, deletion of phoB1 did not obviously affect anoA's expression level and Sb(III) oxidation/resistance; (4) A putative Pho motif was predicted in several A. tumefaciens strains and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that PhoB2 could bind with the promoter sequence of anoA; (5) Site-directed mutagenesis and short fragment EMSA revealed the exact DNA binding sequence for the protein-DNA interaction. These results showed that PhoB2 positively regulates Sb(III) oxidation and PhoB2 is also associated with Sb(III) resistance. Such regulation mechanism may provide a great contribution for bacterial survival in the environment with Sb and for bioremediation application.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/metabolismo , Antimônio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Arsenitos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Oxirredução , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/metabolismo , Proteômica
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121854, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357041

RESUMO

Two strains, Enterobacter sp. Z1 and Klebsiella sp. Z2, were exhibited great capacities for heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification (HNAD) and intracellular phosphate accumulation. Strikingly, the co-cultured strains enhanced the removal efficiency of total nitrogen and phosphate, with removal efficiencies of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and soluble phosphate of 99.64%, 99.85%, 96.94% and 66.7% respectively. Furthermore, high removal efficiencies from wastewaters with high concentrations of ammonia (over 1000 mg/L) were achieved by inoculation with the co-strains, which left residual ammonia of less than 1 mg/L within 10 h. To elucidate the mechanism of HNAD in co-strains, quantitative PCR was carried out to examine the expression levels of hydroxylamine oxidase (Hao), nitrate reductase (NapA and NarG), nitrite reductase (NirS) and polyphosphate kinase (Ppk), and the results showed that the napA2, narG and ppk genes in the strains were significantly upregulated under the co-cultured conditions and provided an explanation for the nitrogen and phosphate removal.


Assuntos
Enterobacter/metabolismo , Klebsiella/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Desnitrificação , Processos Heterotróficos , Nitrato Redutase/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrificação , Nitrito Redutases/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(29): 14620-14629, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262817

RESUMO

Deregulated expression of c-Myc is an important molecular hallmark of cancer. The oncogenic function of c-Myc has been largely attributed to its intrinsic nature as a master transcription factor. Here, we report the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) E2F1 messenger RNA (mRNA) stabilizing factor (EMS) as a direct c-Myc transcriptional target. EMS functions as an oncogenic molecule by promoting G1/S cell cycle progression. Mechanistically, EMS cooperates with the RNA binding protein RALY to stabilize E2F1 mRNA, and thereby increases E2F1 expression. Furthermore, EMS is able to connect c-Myc to cell cycle control and tumorigenesis via modulating E2F1 mRNA stability. Together, these findings reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism through which c-Myc induces E2F1 expression and also implicate EMS as an important player in the regulation of c-Myc function.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA