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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909399

RESUMO

Control of magnetic performances of molecular magnets is essential but few efforts have been documented. A green and efficient sonication assisted synthesis of a new heterometallic diruthenium(ii,iii) carbonate, Na[Ni(H2O)4Ru2(CO3)4]·3H2O (1), was carried out by self-assembling in aqueous solution. Compound 1 exhibits spin-glass behavior below ∼5.0 K, and a systematic investigation of the ultrasonic irradiation influence on the powder samples reveals that their coercivity increases from 50 Oe to 743 Oe with the control of ultrasonic power under appropriate conditions.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938932

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether exosomes derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSC-derived exosomes) can repair injured endometrial epithelial cells (EECs). METHODS: HucMSC-derived exosomes and mouse primary EECs were isolated and purified. EECs were exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation for 2 h followed by reoxygenation to mimic injury. After oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R), hucMSC-derived exosomes were added to the EEC culture medium. After 24 h of co-treatment, cell viability and cell death were tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, respectively. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines was tested by real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blot to investigate the potential mechanism. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, 5, 10, and 15 µg/mL of hucMSC-derived exosomes significantly attenuated cell viability decrease and inhibited LDH release of injured EECs, but 1 µg/mL of hucMSC-derived exosomes had no effect on either cell viability or LDH release. Real-time PCR and ELISA analysis revealed that 10 µg/mL of hucMSC-derived exosomes significantly inhibited the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) and increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) in injured EECs. In addition, 10 µg/mL of hucMSC-derived exosomes significantly inhibited toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (RelA) expression in injured EECs. CONCLUSIONS: In OGD/R-induced injured EECs, hucMSC-derived exosomes efficiently improved the cell viability, reduced cell death, and exhibited anti-inflammatory properties against OGD/R.

3.
PeerJ ; 7: e8040, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799072

RESUMO

Ocean acidification and eutrophication are two major environmental issues affecting kelp mariculture. In this study, the growth, photosynthesis, and biochemical compositions of adult sporophytes of Saccharina japonica were evaluated at different levels of pCO2 (400 and 800 µatm) and nutrients (nutrient-enriched and non-enriched seawater). The relative growth rate (RGR), net photosynthetic rate, and all tested biochemical contents (including chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl c, soluble carbohydrates, and soluble proteins) were significantly lower at 800 µatm than at 400 µatm pCO2. The RGR and the contents of Chl a and soluble proteins were significantly higher under nutrient-enriched conditions than under non-enriched conditions. Moreover, the negative effects of the elevated pCO2 level on the RGR, net photosynthetic rate, Chl c and the soluble carbohydrates and proteins contents were synergized by the elevated nutrient availability. These results implied that increased pCO2could suppress the growth and biochemical composition of adult sporophytes of S. japonica. The interactive effects of ocean acidification and eutrophication constitute a great threat to the cultivation of S. japonica due to growth inhibition and a reduction in quality.

4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7623562, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828128

RESUMO

As the initial part in the development of osteoarthritis (OA), subchondral bone sclerosis has been considered to be initiated by excess mechanical loading and proven to be correlated to other pathological changes. Sclerostin, which is an essential mechanical stress response protein, is encoded by the SOST gene. It is expressed in osteocytes and mature chondrocytes and has been proven to be closely correlated to OA. However, the relationship and mechanism between the SOST gene and the development of OA remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the SOST gene in OA pathogenesis in the subchondral bone. A knee anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) mouse osteoarthritis (OA) model on SOST-knockout (SOST KO) and wild-type (WT) mice was established. The pathogenic and phenotypic changes in the subchondral bone were investigated by histology, micro-CT, immunohistochemistry, TRAP staining, Masson staining, and Toluidine blue staining. It was found that sclerostin expression decreased in both the calcified cartilage and mineralized subchondral structures during the development of OA. Joint instability induced a severe cartilage degradation phenotype, with higher OARSI scores in SOST KO mice, when compared to WT mice. SOST KO mice with OA exhibited a higher BMD and BV/TV ratio, as well as a higher rate of bone remodeling and TRAP-positive cell number, when compared to the WT counterparts, but the difference was not significant between the sham-operation groups. It was concluded that loss of sclerostin aggravates knee OA in mice by promoting subchondral bone sclerosis and increasing catabolic activity of cartilage.

5.
Am J Otolaryngol ; : 102384, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883755

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is currently no gold standard for the diagnosis of eustachian tube (ET) dysfunction. To provide an objective basis for the clinical diagnosis of ET dysfunction, we explored the characteristics of sonotubometry, impedance, tubo-tympano-aerography (TTAG), and tubomanometry (TMM) in volunteers with healthy ETs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sonotubometry, impedance, TTAG, and TMM tests were performed in 110 healthy ears of 55 volunteers, and the characteristics of each ET test were compared and discussed. RESULTS: The ET opening rate was compared between sonotubometry with dry swallowing, impedance with the Valsalva maneuver, TTAG with the Valsalva maneuver, and TMM with a nasopharyngeal pressure of 50 mbar in 100 (90.9%), 102 (92.7%), 99 (90.0%), and 104 (94.5%) ears, respectively; there was no significant difference among the four methods (P = 0.575). In sonotubometry, both dry swallowing and the Valsalva maneuver were superior to wet swallowing in terms of detecting ET opening (P = 0.000). In TMM, both the opening rate and the external auditory canal pressure were positively correlated with the nasopharyngeal pressure. Specifically, the opening rate and external auditory canal pressure increased with an increase in the nasopharyngeal pressure (r = 0.271, P = 0.000; r = 0.315, P = 0.000, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Sonotubometry, impedance, TTAG, and TMM have their own advantages and disadvantages. In clinical practice, the appropriate ET function test should be chosen on the basis of the patient's specific condition.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5076, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700061

RESUMO

Previous studies from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) project have adopted commercial pan-cancer cell line models to identify drug sensitivity biomarkers. However, drug sensitivity biomarkers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have not been widely explored. Here, eight patient-derived cell lines (PDCs) are successfully established from 123 patients with ESCC. The mutation profiling of PDCs can partially recapture the tumor tissue actionable mutations from 161 patients with ESCC. Based on these mutations and relative pathways in eight PDCs, 46 targeted drugs are selected for screening. Interestingly, some drug and biomarker relationships are established that were not discovered in the CCLE project. For example, CDKN2A or CDKN2B loss is significantly associated with the sensitivity of CDK4/6 inhibitors. Furthermore, both PDC xenografts and patient-derived xenografts confirm CDKN2A/2B loss as a biomarker predictive of CDK4/6 inhibitor sensitivity. Collectively, patient-derived models could predict targeted drug sensitivity associated with actionable mutations in ESCC.

7.
J Org Chem ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773963

RESUMO

An NH4I-catalyzed cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) reaction of ethers with imidazopyridine cascade cyclization under transition-metal-free conditions has been developed. Cheap, commercially available ethers were used as both reagents and solvents, and green aqueous H2O2 was used as an oxidizing agent. A series of substituents on 2-(2-aminoaryl) imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines were tolerated, and the reaction gave quinoline-fused imidazopyridines in moderate to good yields.

8.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(12): 7985-7998, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596045

RESUMO

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), also known as an environmental and atypical mycobacteria, can cause the chronic pulmonary infectious diseases. Macrophages have been suggested as the main host cell to initiate the innate immune responses to NTM infection. However, the molecular mechanism to regulate the antimicrobial immune responses to NTM is still largely unknown. Current study showed that the NTM clinical groups, Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium smegmatis, significantly induced the M1 macrophage polarization with the characteristic production of nitric oxide (NO) and marker gene expression of iNOS, IFNγ, TNF-α, IL1-ß and IL-6. Interestingly, a non-histone nuclear protein, HMGN2 (high-mobility group N2), was found to be spontaneously induced during NTM-activated M1 macrophage polarization. Functional studies revealed that HMGN2 deficiency in NTM-infected macrophage promotes the expression of M1 markers and the production of NO via the enhanced activation of NF-κB and MAPK signalling. Further studies exhibited that HMGN2 knock-down also enhanced IFNγ-induced M1 macrophage polarization. Finally, we observed that silencing HMGN2 affected the survival of NTM in macrophage, which might largely relevant to enhanced macrophage polarization into M1 phenotype under the NTM infection. Collectively, current studies thus suggested a novel function of HMGN2 in regulating the anti-non-tuberculous mycobacteria innate immunity of macrophage.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(46): 18428-18436, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644285

RESUMO

Lysine lipoylation, a highly conserved lysine post-translational modification, plays a critical role in regulating cell metabolism. The catalytic activity of a number of vital metabolic proteins, such as pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), depends on lysine lipoylation. Despite its important roles, the detailed biological regulatory mechanism of lysine lipoylation remains largely unexplored. Herein we designed a powerful affinity-based probe, KPlip, to interrogate the interactions of lipoylated peptide/proteins under native cellular environment. Large-scale chemical proteomics analysis revealed a number of binding proteins of KPlip, including sirtuin 2 (Sirt2), an NAD+-dependent protein deacylase. To explore the potential activity of Sirt2 toward lysine lipoylation, we designed a single-step fluorogenic probe, KTlip, which reports delipoylation activity in a continuous manner. The results showed that Sirt2 led to significant delipoylation of KTlip, displaying up to a 60-fold fluorescence increase in the assay. Further kinetic experiments with different peptide substrates revealed that Sirt2 can catalyze the delipoylation of peptide (DLAT-PDH, K259) with a remarkable catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of 3.26 × 103 s-1 M-1. The activity is about 400-fold higher than that of Sirt4, the only mammalian enzyme with known delipoylation activity. Furthermore, overexpression and silencing experiments demonstrated that Sirt2 regulates the lipoylation level and the activity of endogenous PDH, thus unequivocally confirming that PDH is a genuine physiological substrate of Sirt2. Using our chemical probes, we have successfully established the relationship between Sirt2 and lysine lipoylation in living cells for the first time. We envision that such chemical probes will serve as useful tools for delineating the roles of lysine lipoylation in biology and diseases.

10.
J Comput Biol ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638413

RESUMO

Given a set [Formula: see text]. of phylogenetic trees with the same leaf-label set X, we wish to remove some leaves from the trees so that there is a tree T with leaf-label set X displaying all the resulting trees. Note that the labels of leaves removed from one input tree may be different from those of leaves removed from another input tree. One objective is to minimize the total number of leaves removed from the trees, whereas the other is to minimize the maximum number of leaves removed from an input tree. Chauve et al. refer to the problem with the first (respectively, second) objective as AST-LR (respectively, AST-LR-d), and they show that both problems are NP-hard, where NP is the class of problems solvable in non-deterministic polynomial time. They further present algorithms for the parameterized versions of both problems. In this article, we point out that their algorithm for the parameterized version of AST-LR is flawed and present a new algorithm. Since neither Chauve et al.'s algorithm for AST-LR-d nor our new algorithm for AST-LR looks practical, we further design integer-linear programming (ILP for short) models for AST-LR and AST-LR-d, and we discuss speedup issues when using popular ILP solvers (say, GUROBI or CPLEX) to solve the models. Our experimental results show that our ILP approach is quite efficient.

11.
Food Res Int ; 125: 108624, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554059

RESUMO

The dried and aged pericarps of Citri Reticulatae are condiments and medicinal products in southeast and eastern Asia for hundreds of years, among which Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae 'Chachiensis' (PCR-C) is the premium one with obvious health benefits. In order to explore the microbiota in PCR-C and their relationship with the chemical components during aging, culture-independent methods were applied to investigate PCR-C microbiota for the first time. Here in different PCR-C samples, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed common central bacterial community, which were absent or only accounted for small proportion in fresh pericarps or jute bag controls. Bacillus and Lactococcus were the top two dominant genera in PCR-C with acidic pH (4.06-4.51) and low moisture (11.48%-19.13%). Several OTUs were found to closely relate with specific compositions in essential oils and phenolics, such as d-limonene and nobiletin, which contributed to PCR-C flavor and quality. As the first study to reveal the central bacterial communities in PCR-C, it provides new insights to improve the quality and aging process of traditional Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae, and lays foundation for functional characterization of the microbes within.

12.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122157, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557653

RESUMO

The separation efficiencies of wheat straw components by hydrothermal treatment and ethanol extraction have been compared. The results showed that the lignin removal rate by two-step hydrothermal-ethanol method was significantly lower than that of single-step ethanol extraction. Microscopic and adsorption studies (using SEM/AFM, XPS and pore structure analysis) showed that during the hydrothermal treatment a large lignin fraction migrated from the intercellular layer and cell wall and deposited on the fiber surface. Furthermore, the deposited lignin then spread on the fiber surface to form a lignin coating layer, which prevented its dissolution in ethanol. Without prior heating, i.e., upon a single step ethanol extraction, the massive lignin deposition was avoided, presumably due to its efficient dissolution hindering its tight binding with carbohydrate polymers on the fiber surface. Therefore, the lignin removal efficiency was drastically reduced as a result of hydrothermal treatment compared to ethanol extraction.


Assuntos
Lignina , Triticum , Adsorção , Parede Celular , Etanol
13.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 557: 65-75, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514094

RESUMO

Environmentally switched superwetting surfaces that can be used for separating various oil/water mixtures are of particular interest due to the increasing difficulty and complexity in oily wastewater treatment. Here, a novel fluorine-free pH-responsive coating is prepared by surface modification of SiO2 nanoparticles with dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] ammonium chloride and (N, N-dimethyl-3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane. With the assistance of polyethylene imine as a binder, such coating can be used for different porous substrates, e. g. cotton fabric and filter paper, to develop separation materials having tunable superhydrophilicity/superhydrophobicity and high antibacterial property. Due to the well-controlled surface wettability upon the pH variation, the as-prepared materials can effectively separate various types of oil/water mixtures with efficiency higher than 99.9%, including the layered oil/water mixture, water-in-oil emulsions and oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by different types of surfactants. Additionally, the materials can resist strong acid/base solutions and various organic solvents as well as 50-cycle mechanical abrasion and 120-cycle tape-peeling without losing anti-wetting performance. Featuring the tunable surface wettability, chemical/mechanical robustness, and antibacterial activity, such coating holds promising applications for treating various oil/water mixtures in harsh and biological-contamination conditions.

14.
Org Lett ; 21(18): 7519-7523, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483134

RESUMO

Although carbon-carbon, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-oxygen double bonds or their combinations have extensively been applied in phosphine-catalyzed asymmetric cycloaddition, a nitrogen-nitrogen double bond has never been investigated in chiral phosphine catalysis. In this paper, we present phosphine-catalyzed asymmetric [3+2] cycloaddition of diazenes with Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates to give chiral dihydropyrazoles in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities. Various MBH carbonates and diazenes worked well under the mild reaction conditions.

15.
J Biophotonics ; 12(12): e201900151, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465142

RESUMO

Recently, the incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases, especially the Crohn's disease (CD) and gastrointestinal luminal tuberculosis (ITB), has grown rapidly worldwide. Currently there is no general gold standard to distinguish between CD and ITB tissues, which both have tuberculosis and surrounding fibrous structures. Mueller matrix imaging technique is suitable for describing the location, density and distribution behavior of such fibrous structures. In this study, we apply the Mueller matrix microscopic imaging to the CD and ITB tissue samples. The 2D Mueller matrix images of the CD and ITB tissue slices are measured using the Mueller matrix microscope developed in our previous study, then the Mueller matrix polar decomposition and Mueller matrix transformation parameters are calculated. To evaluate the distribution features of the fibrous structures surrounding the tuberculosis areas more quantitatively and precisely, we analyze the retardance related Mueller matrix derived parameters, which show clear different distribution behaviors between the CD and ITB tissues, using the Tamura image processing method. It is demonstrated that the Mueller matrix derived parameters can reveal the structural features of tuberculosis areas and be used as quantitative indicators to distinguish between CD and ITB tissues, which may be useful for the clinical diagnosis.

16.
Org Lett ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453704

RESUMO

In this work, an efficient palladium-catalyzed Heck-type reaction was successfully used to synthesize a wide range of monoaryl- or diaryl-substituted P-ligands with excellent yields and diastereoselectivity (up to 98% yield, dr >20:1). The preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrated that it possibly underwent a cationic Heck reaction that was assisted by silver salt, and it revealed the significant role of P(O)Ar2 for excellent yields and diastereoselectivity.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380746

RESUMO

We address a learning-to-normalize problem by proposing Switchable Normalization (SN), which learns to select different normalizers for different normalization layers of a deep neural network. SN employs three distinct scopes to compute statistics (means and variances) including a channel, a layer, and a minibatch. SN switches between them by learning their importance weights in an end-to-end manner. It has several good properties. First, it adapts to various network architectures and tasks. Second, it is robust to a wide range of batch sizes, maintaining high performance even when small minibatch is presented (eg 2 images/GPU). Third, SN does not have sensitive hyper-parameter, unlike group normalization that searches the number of groups as a hyper-parameter. Without bells and whistles, SN outperforms its counterparts on various challenging benchmarks, such as ImageNet, COCO, CityScapes, ADE20K, MegaFace and Kinetics. Analyses of SN are also presented to answer the following three questions: (a) Is it useful to allow each normalization layer to select its own normalizer? (b) What impacts the choices of normalizers? (c) Do different tasks and datasets prefer different normalizers? We hope SN will help ease the usage and understand the normalization techniques in deep learning. The code of SN has been released at https://github.com/switchablenorms.

18.
J Org Chem ; 84(14): 9322-9329, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257876

RESUMO

A new photoredox-catalyzed cascade reaction is described to access fluorinated pyrrolo[1,2-d]benzodiazepine derivatives under mild conditions. In this process, single electron transfer (SET) between the excited state photocatalyst fac-Ir(ppy)3 and ethyl bromodifluoroacetate initiated the regioselective radical addition to a wide range of 2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl) anilines or indol-substituted anilines, followed by another SET process and intramolecular amidation.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3162, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320636

RESUMO

HECT E3 ligases control the degradation and functioning of numerous oncogenic/tumor-suppressive factors and signaling proteins, and their activities must be tightly regulated to prevent cancers and other diseases. Here we show that the Nedd4 family HECT E3 WWP1 adopts an autoinhibited state, in which its multiple WW domains sequester HECT using a multi-lock mechanism. Removing WW2 or WW34 led to a partial activation of WWP1. The structure of fully inhibited WWP1 reveals that many WWP1 mutations identified in cancer patients result in a partially active state with increased E3 ligase activity, and the WWP1 mutants likely promote cell migration by enhancement of ∆Np63α degradation. We further demonstrate that WWP2 and Itch utilize a highly similar multi-lock autoinhibition mechanism as that utilized by WWP1, whereas Nedd4/4 L and Smurf2 utilize a slightly variant version. Overall, these results reveal versatile autoinhibitory mechanisms that fine-tune the ligase activities of the HECT family enzymes.

20.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 365-376, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325881

RESUMO

Enormous research interest is devoted to fabricating three-dimensional graphene-based gels (3D GBGs) toward improved conversion of solar energy by virtue of the intrinsic properties of single graphene and 3D porous structure characteristics. Here, this concise minireview is primarily focused on the recent progress on applications of 3D GBGs, including aerogels and hydrogels, in photocatalytic degradation of pollutants from water and air, such as organic pollutants, heavy metal ions, bacteria and gaseous pollutants. In particular, the preponderances of 3D GBG photocatalysts for environmental pollutants degradation have been elaborated. Furthermore, in addition to discussing opportunities offered by 3D GBG composite photocatalysts, we also describe the existing problems and the future direction of 3D GBG materials in this burgeoning research area. It is hoped that this review could spur multidisciplinary research interest for advancing the rational utilization of 3D GBGs for practical applications in environmental remediation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Grafite/química , Gases , Géis , Metais Pesados , Energia Solar , Luz Solar , Água/química
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