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1.
Mol Cell ; 75(3): 644-660.e5, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398325

RESUMO

Cell-cell communication via ligand-receptor signaling is a fundamental feature of complex organs. Despite this, the global landscape of intercellular signaling in mammalian liver has not been elucidated. Here we perform single-cell RNA sequencing on non-parenchymal cells isolated from healthy and NASH mouse livers. Secretome gene analysis revealed a highly connected network of intrahepatic signaling and disruption of vascular signaling in NASH. We uncovered the emergence of NASH-associated macrophages (NAMs), which are marked by high expression of triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells 2 (Trem2), as a feature of mouse and human NASH that is linked to disease severity and highly responsive to pharmacological and dietary interventions. Finally, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) serve as a hub of intrahepatic signaling via HSC-derived stellakines and their responsiveness to vasoactive hormones. These results provide unprecedented insights into the landscape of intercellular crosstalk and reprogramming of liver cells in health and disease.

2.
Br J Haematol ; 186(4): 574-579, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119735

RESUMO

Hereditary thrombocytopenias can be subclassified based on mode of inheritance and platelet size. Here we report a family with autosomal dominant (AD) thrombocytopenia with normal platelet size. Linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing identified the R1026W substitution in ITGA2B as the causative defect. The same mutation has been previously reported in 7 Japanese families/patients with AD thrombocytopenia, but all of these patients had macrothrombocytopenia. This is the first report of a family with AD thrombocytopenia with normal platelet size resulting from mutation in ITGA2B. ITGA2B mutations should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of this latter disorder.

3.
PLoS Genet ; 15(5): e1008130, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048900

RESUMO

Nanophthalmos is a rare, potentially devastating eye condition characterized by small eyes with relatively normal anatomy, a high hyperopic refractive error, and frequent association with angle closure glaucoma and vision loss. The condition constitutes the extreme of hyperopia or farsightedness, a common refractive error that is associated with strabismus and amblyopia in children. NNO1 was the first mapped nanophthalmos locus. We used combined pooled exome sequencing and strong linkage data in the large family used to map this locus to identify a canonical splice site alteration upstream of the last exon of the gene encoding myelin regulatory factor (MYRF c.3376-1G>A), a membrane bound transcription factor that undergoes autoproteolytic cleavage for nuclear localization. This variant produced a stable RNA transcript, leading to a frameshift mutation p.Gly1126Valfs*31 in the C-terminus of the protein. In addition, we identified an early truncating MYRF frameshift mutation, c.769dupC (p.S264QfsX74), in a patient with extreme axial hyperopia and syndromic features. Myrf conditional knockout mice (CKO) developed depigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and retinal degeneration supporting a role of this gene in retinal and RPE development. Furthermore, we demonstrated the reduced expression of Tmem98, another known nanophthalmos gene, in Myrf CKO mice, and the physical interaction of MYRF with TMEM98. Our study establishes MYRF as a nanophthalmos gene and uncovers a new pathway for eye growth and development.

4.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 39, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015470

RESUMO

We performed whole-genome sequencing for eight inbred rat strains commonly used in genetic mapping studies. They are the founders of the NIH heterogeneous stock (HS) outbred colony. We provide their sequences and variant calls to the rat genomics community. When analyzing the variant calls we identified regions with unusually high levels of heterozygosity. These regions are consistent across the eight inbred strains, including Brown Norway, which is the basis of the rat reference genome. These regions show higher read depths than other regions in the genome and contain higher rates of apparent tri-allelic variant sites. The evidence suggests that these regions may correspond to duplicated segments that were incorrectly overlaid as a single segment in the reference genome. We provide masks for these regions of suspected mis-assembly as a resource for the community to flag potentially false interpretations of mapping or functional results.


Assuntos
Genoma , Ratos Endogâmicos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Alelos , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Ratos
6.
Circulation ; 139(5): 620-635, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factor VIII (FVIII) and its carrier protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) are associated with risk of arterial and venous thrombosis and with hemorrhagic disorders. We aimed to identify and functionally test novel genetic associations regulating plasma FVIII and VWF. METHODS: We meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 46 354 individuals of European, African, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestry. All studies performed linear regression analysis using an additive genetic model and associated ≈35 million imputed variants with natural log-transformed phenotype levels. In vitro gene silencing in cultured endothelial cells was performed for candidate genes to provide additional evidence on association and function. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses were applied to test the causal role of FVIII and VWF plasma levels on the risk of arterial and venous thrombotic events. RESULTS: We identified 13 novel genome-wide significant ( P≤2.5×10-8) associations, 7 with FVIII levels ( FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, SOX17/RP1, LINC00583/NFIB, RAB5C-KAT2A, RPL3/TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA) and 11 with VWF levels ( PDHB/PXK/KCTD6, SLC39A8, FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, GIMAP7/GIMAP4, OR13C5/NIPSNAP, DAB2IP, C2CD4B, RAB5C-KAT2A, TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA), beyond 10 previously reported associations with these phenotypes. Functional validation provided further evidence of association for all loci on VWF except ARSA and DAB2IP. Mendelian randomization suggested causal effects of plasma FVIII activity levels on venous thrombosis and coronary artery disease risk and plasma VWF levels on ischemic stroke risk. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis identified 13 novel genetic loci regulating FVIII and VWF plasma levels, 10 of which we validated functionally. We provide some evidence for a causal role of these proteins in thrombotic events.

7.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 845, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spectrum of somatic single-nucleotide variants in cancer genomes often reflects the signatures of multiple distinct mutational processes, which can provide clinically actionable insights into cancer etiology. Existing software tools for identifying and evaluating these mutational signatures do not scale to analyze large datasets containing thousands of individuals or millions of variants. RESULTS: We introduce Helmsman, a program designed to perform mutation signature analysis on arbitrarily large sequencing datasets. Helmsman is up to 300 times faster than existing software. Helmsman's memory usage is independent of the number of variants, resulting in a small enough memory footprint to analyze datasets that would otherwise exceed the memory limitations of other programs. CONCLUSIONS: Helmsman is a computationally efficient tool that enables users to evaluate mutational signatures in massive sequencing datasets that are otherwise intractable with existing software. Helmsman is freely available at https://github.com/carjed/helmsman .

8.
Hum Genet ; 137(11-12): 921-939, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450527

RESUMO

Juvenile segmental progeroid syndromes are rare, heterogeneous disorders characterized by signs of premature aging affecting more than one tissue or organ starting in childhood. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), caused by a recurrent de novo synonymous LMNA mutation resulting in aberrant splicing and generation of a mutant product called progerin, is a prototypical example of such disorders. Here, we performed a joint collaborative study using massively parallel sequencing and targeted Sanger sequencing, aimed at delineating the underlying genetic cause of 14 previously undiagnosed, clinically heterogeneous, non-LMNA-associated juvenile progeroid patients. The molecular diagnosis was achieved in 11 of 14 cases (~ 79%). Furthermore, we firmly establish biallelic mutations in POLR3A as the genetic cause of a recognizable, neonatal, Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch-like progeroid syndrome. Thus, we suggest that POLR3A mutations are causal for a portion of under-diagnosed early-onset segmental progeroid syndromes. We additionally expand the clinical spectrum associated with PYCR1 mutations by showing that they can somewhat resemble HGPS in the first year of life. Moreover, our results lead to clinical reclassification in one single case. Our data emphasize the complex genetic and clinical heterogeneity underlying progeroid disorders.

9.
Cell ; 175(3): 848-858.e6, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318150

RESUMO

In familial searching in forensic genetics, a query DNA profile is tested against a database to determine whether it represents a relative of a database entrant. We examine the potential for using linkage disequilibrium to identify pairs of profiles as belonging to relatives when the query and database rely on nonoverlapping genetic markers. Considering data on individuals genotyped with both microsatellites used in forensic applications and genome-wide SNPs, we find that ∼30%-32% of parent-offspring pairs and ∼35%-36% of sib pairs can be identified from the SNPs of one member of the pair and the microsatellites of the other. The method suggests the possibility of performing familial searches of microsatellite databases using query SNP profiles, or vice versa. It also reveals that privacy concerns arising from computations across multiple databases that share no genetic markers in common entail risks, not only for database entrants, but for their close relatives as well.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3753, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218074

RESUMO

A detailed understanding of the genome-wide variability of single-nucleotide germline mutation rates is essential to studying human genome evolution. Here, we use ~36 million singleton variants from 3560 whole-genome sequences to infer fine-scale patterns of mutation rate heterogeneity. Mutability is jointly affected by adjacent nucleotide context and diverse genomic features of the surrounding region, including histone modifications, replication timing, and recombination rate, sometimes suggesting specific mutagenic mechanisms. Remarkably, GC content, DNase hypersensitivity, CpG islands, and H3K36 trimethylation are associated with both increased and decreased mutation rates depending on nucleotide context. We validate these estimated effects in an independent dataset of ~46,000 de novo mutations, and confirm our estimates are more accurate than previously published results based on ancestrally older variants without considering genomic features. Our results thus provide the most refined portrait to date of the factors contributing to genome-wide variability of the human germline mutation rate.

11.
Dev Cell ; 46(5): 651-667.e10, 2018 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146481

RESUMO

Spermatogenesis requires intricate interactions between the germline and somatic cells. Within a given cross section of a seminiferous tubule, multiple germ and somatic cell types co-occur. This cellular heterogeneity has made it difficult to profile distinct cell types at different stages of development. To address this challenge, we collected single-cell RNA sequencing data from ∼35,000 cells from the adult mouse testis and identified all known germ and somatic cells, as well as two unexpected somatic cell types. Our analysis revealed a continuous developmental trajectory of germ cells from spermatogonia to spermatids and identified candidate transcriptional regulators at several transition points during differentiation. Focused analyses delineated four subtypes of spermatogonia and nine subtypes of Sertoli cells; the latter linked to histologically defined developmental stages over the seminiferous epithelial cycle. Overall, this high-resolution cellular atlas represents a community resource and foundation of knowledge to study germ cell development and in vivo gametogenesis.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Células de Sertoli/citologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Espermatogênese , Testículo/citologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200003, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016334

RESUMO

Psychiatric illness is unlikely to arise from pathology occurring uniformly across all cell types in affected brain regions. Despite this, transcriptomic analyses of the human brain have typically been conducted using macro-dissected tissue due to the difficulty of performing single-cell type analyses with donated post-mortem brains. To address this issue statistically, we compiled a database of several thousand transcripts that were specifically-enriched in one of 10 primary cortical cell types in previous publications. Using this database, we predicted the relative cell type content for 833 human cortical samples using microarray or RNA-Seq data from the Pritzker Consortium (GSE92538) or publicly-available databases (GSE53987, GSE21935, GSE21138, CommonMind Consortium). These predictions were generated by averaging normalized expression levels across transcripts specific to each cell type using our R-package BrainInABlender (validated and publicly-released on github). Using this method, we found that the principal components of variation in the datasets strongly correlated with the predicted neuronal/glial content of the samples. This variability was not simply due to dissection-the relative balance of brain cell types appeared to be influenced by a variety of demographic, pre- and post-mortem variables. Prolonged hypoxia around the time of death predicted increased astrocytic and endothelial gene expression, illustrating vascular upregulation. Aging was associated with decreased neuronal gene expression. Red blood cell gene expression was reduced in individuals who died following systemic blood loss. Subjects with Major Depressive Disorder had decreased astrocytic gene expression, mirroring previous morphometric observations. Subjects with Schizophrenia had reduced red blood cell gene expression, resembling the hypofrontality detected in fMRI experiments. Finally, in datasets containing samples with especially variable cell content, we found that controlling for predicted sample cell content while evaluating differential expression improved the detection of previously-identified psychiatric effects. We conclude that accounting for cell type can greatly improve the interpretability of transcriptomic data.

13.
Ann Neurol ; 83(6): 1075-1088, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify novel causes of recessive ataxias, including spinocerebellar ataxia with saccadic intrusions, spastic ataxias, and spastic paraplegia. METHODS: In an international collaboration, we independently performed exome sequencing in 7 families with recessive ataxia and/or spastic paraplegia. To evaluate the role of VPS13D mutations, we evaluated a Drosophila knockout model and investigated mitochondrial function in patient-derived fibroblast cultures. RESULTS: Exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous mutations in VPS13D on chromosome 1p36 in all 7 families. This included a large family with 5 affected siblings with spinocerebellar ataxia with saccadic intrusions (SCASI), or spinocerebellar ataxia, recessive, type 4 (SCAR4). Linkage to chromosome 1p36 was found in this family with a logarithm of odds score of 3.1. The phenotypic spectrum in our 12 patients was broad. Although most presented with ataxia, additional or predominant spasticity was present in 5 patients. Disease onset ranged from infancy to 39 years, and symptoms were slowly progressive and included loss of independent ambulation in 5. All but 2 patients carried a loss-of-function (nonsense or splice site) mutation on one and a missense mutation on the other allele. Knockdown or removal of Vps13D in Drosophila neurons led to changes in mitochondrial morphology and impairment in mitochondrial distribution along axons. Patient fibroblasts showed altered morphology and functionality including reduced energy production. INTERPRETATION: Our study demonstrates that compound heterozygous mutations in VPS13D cause movement disorders along the ataxia-spasticity spectrum, making VPS13D the fourth VPS13 paralog involved in neurological disorders. Ann Neurol 2018.

14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(6): 633-636, Dec. 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887602

RESUMO

SUMMARY Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is the most common pituitary hormone deficiency and, clinically, patients have delayed bone age. High sequence similarity between CYP21A2 gene and CYP21A1P pseudogene poses difficulties for exome sequencing interpretation. A 7.5 year-old boy born to second-degree cousins presented with severe short stature (height SDS −3.7) and bone age of 6 years. Clonidine and combined pituitary stimulation tests revealed GH deficiency. Pituitary MRI was normal. The patient was successfully treated with rGH. Surprisingly, at 10.8 years, his bone age had advanced to 13 years, but physical exam, LH and testosterone levels remained prepubertal. An ACTH stimulation test disclosed a non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency explaining the bone age advancement and, therefore, treatment with cortisone acetate was added. The genetic diagnosis of a homozygous mutation in GHRHR (p.Leu144His), a homozygous CYP21A2 mutation (p.Val282Leu) and CYP21A1P pseudogene duplication was established by Sanger sequencing, MLPA and whole-exome sequencing. We report the unusual clinical presentation of a patient born to consanguineous parents with two recessive endocrine diseases: non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia modifying the classical GH deficiency phenotype. We used a method of paired read mapping aided by neighbouring mis-matches to overcome the challenges of exome-sequencing in the presence of a pseudogene.

15.
Oncotarget ; 8(41): 69610-69621, 2017 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29050228

RESUMO

Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) in the esophagus is an infrequent but highly malignant cancer with few known genomic alterations. We conducted whole-exome sequencing and whole-genome SNP genotyping for 4-6 tumor subregions and 5-6 adjacent normal tissue sites and 1-3 lymph node metastases in two esophageal MANECs to detect somatic mutations and copy number alterations, and to explore their spatial heterogeneity and underlying clonal structure. TP53 mutation, RB1 deletion or LOH, and PIK3CA, PTEN, KRAS, SOX2, DVL3, TP63 amplification appeared in all regions in both tumors. Mutations falling in known cancer genes tended to show higher variant allele frequencies than those not falling in these genes in at least one of the cases. Phylogenetic analyses of the samples and underlying subclones suggested extensive migration across different tumor regions and from some regions to the lymph nodes. Lymph node metastases appeared to have been seeded by both early founder cells as well as subsequent, locally emerging daughter clones. A phenotypically normal tissue site carried most of the mutations found in neighboring tumor samples, implying field cancerization. Understanding such complex genetic heterogeneity within each patient will be important for guiding clinical decisions.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(36): 9659-9664, 2017 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28827327

RESUMO

Factor V Leiden (F5L ) is a common genetic risk factor for venous thromboembolism in humans. We conducted a sensitized N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen for dominant thrombosuppressor genes based on perinatal lethal thrombosis in mice homozygous for F5L (F5L/L ) and haploinsufficient for tissue factor pathway inhibitor (Tfpi+/- ). F8 deficiency enhanced the survival of F5L/LTfpi+/- mice, demonstrating that F5L/LTfpi+/- lethality is genetically suppressible. ENU-mutagenized F5L/L males and F5L/+Tfpi+/- females were crossed to generate 6,729 progeny, with 98 F5L/LTfpi+/- offspring surviving until weaning. Sixteen lines, referred to as "modifier of Factor 5 Leiden (MF5L1-16)," exhibited transmission of a putative thrombosuppressor to subsequent generations. Linkage analysis in MF5L6 identified a chromosome 3 locus containing the tissue factor gene (F3). Although no ENU-induced F3 mutation was identified, haploinsufficiency for F3 (F3+/- ) suppressed F5L/LTfpi+/- lethality. Whole-exome sequencing in MF5L12 identified an Actr2 gene point mutation (p.R258G) as the sole candidate. Inheritance of this variant is associated with suppression of F5L/LTfpi+/- lethality (P = 1.7 × 10-6), suggesting that Actr2p.R258G is thrombosuppressive. CRISPR/Cas9 experiments to generate an independent Actr2 knockin/knockout demonstrated that Actr2 haploinsufficiency is lethal, supporting a hypomorphic or gain-of-function mechanism of action for Actr2p.R258G Our findings identify F8 and the Tfpi/F3 axis as key regulators in determining thrombosis balance in the setting of F5L and also suggest a role for Actr2 in this process.


Assuntos
Fator V/genética , Trombose/genética , Proteína 2 Relacionada a Actina/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etilnitrosoureia , Fator VIII/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Haploinsuficiência , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/deficiência , Lipoproteínas/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Mutantes , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutagênese , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 72, 2017 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders are multigenic diseases with complex etiology that contribute significantly to human morbidity and mortality. Although clinically distinct, several disorders share many symptoms, suggesting common underlying molecular changes exist that may implicate important regulators of pathogenesis and provide new therapeutic targets. METHODS: We performed RNA sequencing on tissue from the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens from three groups of 24 patients each diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder, and from 24 control subjects. We identified differentially expressed genes and validated the results in an independent cohort. Anterior cingulate cortex samples were also subjected to metabolomic analysis. ChIP-seq data were used to characterize binding of the transcription factor EGR1. RESULTS: We compared molecular signatures across the three brain regions and disorders in the transcriptomes of post-mortem human brain samples. The most significant disease-related differences were in the anterior cingulate cortex of schizophrenia samples compared to controls. Transcriptional changes were assessed in an independent cohort, revealing the transcription factor EGR1 as significantly down-regulated in both cohorts and as a potential regulator of broader transcription changes observed in schizophrenia patients. Additionally, broad down-regulation of genes specific to neurons and concordant up-regulation of genes specific to astrocytes was observed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients relative to controls. Metabolomic profiling identified disruption of GABA levels in schizophrenia patients. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a comprehensive post-mortem transcriptome profile of three psychiatric disorders across three brain regions. We highlight a high-confidence set of independently validated genes differentially expressed between schizophrenia and control patients in the anterior cingulate cortex and integrate transcriptional changes with untargeted metabolite profiling.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Transcriptoma , Autopsia , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(22): 5671-5676, 2017 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28507140

RESUMO

Combining genotypes across datasets is central in facilitating advances in genetics. Data aggregation efforts often face the challenge of record matching-the identification of dataset entries that represent the same individual. We show that records can be matched across genotype datasets that have no shared markers based on linkage disequilibrium between loci appearing in different datasets. Using two datasets for the same 872 people-one with 642,563 genome-wide SNPs and the other with 13 short tandem repeats (STRs) used in forensic applications-we find that 90-98% of forensic STR records can be connected to corresponding SNP records and vice versa. Accuracy increases to 99-100% when ∼30 STRs are used. Our method expands the potential of data aggregation, but it also suggests privacy risks intrinsic in maintenance of databases containing even small numbers of markers-including databases of forensic significance.


Assuntos
Genética Forense/métodos , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genômica/métodos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Coleta de Dados , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(1): 51-63, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28017375

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified loci for erythrocyte traits in primarily European ancestry populations. We conducted GWAS meta-analyses of six erythrocyte traits in 71,638 individuals from European, East Asian, and African ancestries using a Bayesian approach to account for heterogeneity in allelic effects and variation in the structure of linkage disequilibrium between ethnicities. We identified seven loci for erythrocyte traits including a locus (RBPMS/GTF2E2) associated with mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume. Statistical fine-mapping at this locus pointed to RBPMS at this locus and excluded nearby GTF2E2. Using zebrafish morpholino to evaluate loss of function, we observed a strong in vivo erythropoietic effect for RBPMS but not for GTF2E2, supporting the statistical fine-mapping at this locus and demonstrating that RBPMS is a regulator of erythropoiesis. Our findings show the utility of trans-ethnic GWASs for discovery and characterization of genetic loci influencing hematologic traits.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritropoese/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , África/etnologia , Alelos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Extremo Oriente/etnologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Peixe-Zebra/genética
20.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 61(6): 633-636, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29412390

RESUMO

Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is the most common pituitary hormone deficiency and, clinically, patients have delayed bone age. High sequence similarity between CYP21A2 gene and CYP21A1P pseudogene poses difficulties for exome sequencing interpretation. A 7.5 year-old boy born to second-degree cousins presented with severe short stature (height SDS -3.7) and bone age of 6 years. Clonidine and combined pituitary stimulation tests revealed GH deficiency. Pituitary MRI was normal. The patient was successfully treated with rGH. Surprisingly, at 10.8 years, his bone age had advanced to 13 years, but physical exam, LH and testosterone levels remained prepubertal. An ACTH stimulation test disclosed a non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency explaining the bone age advancement and, therefore, treatment with cortisone acetate was added. The genetic diagnosis of a homozygous mutation in GHRHR (p.Leu144His), a homozygous CYP21A2 mutation (p.Val282Leu) and CYP21A1P pseudogene duplication was established by Sanger sequencing, MLPA and whole-exome sequencing. We report the unusual clinical presentation of a patient born to consanguineous parents with two recessive endocrine diseases: non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia modifying the classical GH deficiency phenotype. We used a method of paired read mapping aided by neighbouring mis-matches to overcome the challenges of exome-sequencing in the presence of a pseudogene.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Nanismo Hipofisário/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/genética , Receptores de Hormônios Reguladores de Hormônio Hipofisário/genética , Esteroide 21-Hidroxilase/genética , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/complicações , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/etiologia , Criança , Consanguinidade , Nanismo Hipofisário/complicações , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo
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