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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476477

RESUMO

The etiology of renal artery stenosis (RAS) and abdominal aortic coarctation (AAC) causing the midaortic syndrome (MAS), often resulting in renovascular hypertension (RVH), remains ill-defined. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is frequently observed in children with RVH. Consecutive pediatric patients (N = 102) presenting with RVH secondary to RAS with and without concurrent AAC were prospectively enrolled in a clinical data base, and blood, saliva, and operative tissue when available, were collected. Among the 102 children were 13 having a concurrent clinical diagnosis of NF-1 (12.5%). Whole exome sequencing was performed for germline variant detection and RNASeq analysis of NF1, MAPK pathway genes, and MCP1 levels were undertaken in five NF-1 stenotic renal arteries, as well as control renal and mesenteric arteries from children with no known vasculopathy or NF-1. In 11 unrelated children with sequencing data, 11 NF1 genetic variants were identified, of which 10 had not been reported in gnomAD. Histologic analysis of NF-1 RAS specimens consistently revealed intimal thickening, disruption of the internal elastic lamina, and medial thinning. Analysis of transcript expression in arterial lesions documented an approximately 5-fold reduction in NF1 expression, confirming heterozygosity, MAPK pathway activation, and increased MCP1 expression. In summary, NF-1 related RVH in children is rare but often severe and progressive and as such, important to recognize. It is associated with histologic and molecular features consistent with an aggressive adverse vascular remodeling process. Further research is necessary to define the mechanisms underlying these findings.

2.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(8)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440302

RESUMO

We report four allelic variants (three novel) in three genes previously established as causal for hypopituitarism or related disorders. A novel homozygous variant in the growth hormone gene, GH1 c.171delT (p.Phe 57Leufs*43), was found in a male patient with severe isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) born to consanguineous parents. A hemizygous SOX3 allelic variant (p.Met304Ile) was found in a male patient with IGHD and hypoplastic anterior pituitary. YASARA, a tool to evaluate protein stability, suggests that p.Met304Ile destabilizes the SOX3 protein (ΔΔG = 2.49 kcal/mol). A rare, heterozygous missense variant in the TALE homeobox protein gene, TGIF1 (c.268C>T:p.Arg90Cys) was found in a patient with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), diabetes insipidus, and syndromic features of holoprosencephaly (HPE). This variant was previously reported in a patient with severe holoprosencephaly and shown to affect TGIF1 function. A novel heterozygous TGIF1 variant (c.82T>C:p.Ser28Pro) was identified in a patient with CPHD, pituitary aplasia and ectopic posterior lobe. Both TGIF1 variants have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with incomplete penetrance. In conclusion, we have found allelic variants in three genes in hypopituitarism patients. We discuss these variants and associated patient phenotypes in relation to previously reported variants in these genes, expanding our knowledge of the phenotypic spectrum in patient populations.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(8): 1526-1539, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270938

RESUMO

Pituitary hormone deficiency occurs in ∼1:4,000 live births. Approximately 3% of the cases are due to mutations in the alpha isoform of POU1F1, a pituitary-specific transcriptional activator. We found four separate heterozygous missense variants in unrelated individuals with hypopituitarism that were predicted to affect a minor isoform, POU1F1 beta, which can act as a transcriptional repressor. These variants retain repressor activity, but they shift splicing to favor the expression of the beta isoform, resulting in dominant-negative loss of function. Using a high-throughput splicing reporter assay, we tested 1,070 single-nucleotide variants in POU1F1. We identified 96 splice-disruptive variants, including 14 synonymous variants. In separate cohorts, we found two additional synonymous variants nominated by this screen that co-segregate with hypopituitarism. This study underlines the importance of evaluating the impact of variants on splicing and provides a catalog for interpretation of variants of unknown significance in POU1F1.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Hipopituitarismo/patologia , Mutação , Hormônios Hipofisários/deficiência , Splicing de RNA/genética , Fator de Transcrição Pit-1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Hipopituitarismo/etiologia , Hipopituitarismo/metabolismo , Masculino , Linhagem
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3876, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162856

RESUMO

Testicular development and function rely on interactions between somatic cells and the germline, but similar to other organs, regenerative capacity declines in aging and disease. Whether the adult testis maintains a reserve progenitor population remains uncertain. Here, we characterize a recently identified mouse testis interstitial population expressing the transcription factor Tcf21. We found that TCF21lin cells are bipotential somatic progenitors present in fetal testis and ovary, maintain adult testis homeostasis during aging, and act as potential reserve somatic progenitors following injury. In vitro, TCF21lin cells are multipotent mesenchymal progenitors which form multiple somatic lineages including Leydig and myoid cells. Additionally, TCF21+ cells resemble resident fibroblast populations reported in other organs having roles in tissue homeostasis, fibrosis, and regeneration. Our findings reveal that the testis, like other organs, maintains multipotent mesenchymal progenitors that can be potentially leveraged in development of future therapies for hypoandrogenism and/or infertility.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Homeostase/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Regeneração/genética , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/citologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Testículo/citologia
5.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 121-135, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950863

RESUMO

Objective: The transcription factor OTX2 is implicated in ocular, craniofacial, and pituitary development. Design: We aimed to establish the contribution of OTX2 mutations in congenital hypopituitarism patients with/without eye abnormalities, study functional consequences, and establish OTX2 expression in the human brain, with a view to investigate the mechanism of action. Methods: We screened patients from the UK (n = 103), international centres (n = 24), and Brazil (n = 282); 145 were within the septo-optic dysplasia spectrum, and 264 had no eye phenotype. Transactivation ability of OTX2 variants was analysed in murine hypothalamic GT1-7 neurons. In situ hybridization was performed on human embryonic brain sections. Genetically engineered mice were generated with a series of C-terminal OTX2 variants. Results: Two chromosomal deletions and six haploinsufficient mutations were identified in individuals with eye abnormalities; an affected relative of one patient harboured the same mutation without an ocular phenotype. OTX2 truncations led to significant transactivation reduction. A missense variant was identified in another patient without eye abnormalities; however, studies revealed it was most likely not causative. In the mouse, truncations proximal to aa219 caused anophthalmia, while distal truncations and the missense variant were tolerated. During human embryogenesis, OTX2 was expressed in the posterior pituitary, retina, ear, thalamus, choroid plexus, and partially in the hypothalamus, but not in the anterior pituitary. Conclusions: OTX2 mutations are rarely associated with hypopituitarism in isolation without eye abnormalities, and may be variably penetrant, even within the same pedigree. Our data suggest that the endocrine phenotypes in patients with OTX2 mutations are of hypothalamic origin.


Assuntos
Hipopituitarismo/fisiopatologia , Microftalmia/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição Otx/genética , Hipófise/fisiopatologia , Displasia Septo-Óptica/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Brasil , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipopituitarismo/embriologia , Hipopituitarismo/genética , Hipotálamo/citologia , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Microftalmia/embriologia , Microftalmia/genética , Mutação , Neurônios/patologia , Linhagem , Hipófise/embriologia , Hipófise/patologia , Displasia Septo-Óptica/embriologia , Displasia Septo-Óptica/genética , Reino Unido
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(2): e1008720, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630864

RESUMO

Increased availability of drug response and genomics data for many tumor cell lines has accelerated the development of pan-cancer prediction models of drug response. However, it is unclear how much between-tissue differences in drug response and molecular characteristics may contribute to pan-cancer predictions. Also unknown is whether the performance of pan-cancer models could vary by cancer type. Here, we built a series of pan-cancer models using two datasets containing 346 and 504 cell lines, each with MEK inhibitor (MEKi) response and mRNA expression, point mutation, and copy number variation data, and found that, while the tissue-level drug responses are accurately predicted (between-tissue ρ = 0.88-0.98), only 5 of 10 cancer types showed successful within-tissue prediction performance (within-tissue ρ = 0.11-0.64). Between-tissue differences make substantial contributions to the performance of pan-cancer MEKi response predictions, as exclusion of between-tissue signals leads to a decrease in Spearman's ρ from a range of 0.43-0.62 to 0.30-0.51. In practice, joint analysis of multiple cancer types usually has a larger sample size, hence greater power, than for one cancer type; and we observe that higher accuracy of pan-cancer prediction of MEKi response is almost entirely due to the sample size advantage. Success of pan-cancer prediction reveals how drug response in different cancers may invoke shared regulatory mechanisms despite tissue-specific routes of oncogenesis, yet predictions in different cancer types require flexible incorporation of between-cancer and within-cancer signals. As most datasets in genome sciences contain multiple levels of heterogeneity, careful parsing of group characteristics and within-group, individual variation is essential when making robust inference.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Dosagem de Genes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Aprendizado de Máquina , Mutação Puntual , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Regressão
8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483695

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mental illness with substantial common variant heritability. However, the role of rare coding variation in BD is not well established. We examined the protein-coding (exonic) sequences of 3,987 unrelated individuals with BD and 5,322 controls of predominantly European ancestry across four cohorts from the Bipolar Sequencing Consortium (BSC). We assessed the burden of rare, protein-altering, single nucleotide variants classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P-LP) both exome-wide and within several groups of genes with phenotypic or biologic plausibility in BD. While we observed an increased burden of rare coding P-LP variants within 165 genes identified as BD GWAS regions in 3,987 BD cases (meta-analysis OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.8, one-sided p = 6.0 × 10-4), this enrichment did not replicate in an additional 9,929 BD cases and 14,018 controls (OR = 0.9, one-side p = 0.70). Although BD shares common variant heritability with schizophrenia, in the BSC sample we did not observe a significant enrichment of P-LP variants in SCZ GWAS genes, in two classes of neuronal synaptic genes (RBFOX2 and FMRP) associated with SCZ or in loss-of-function intolerant genes. In this study, the largest analysis of exonic variation in BD, individuals with BD do not carry a replicable enrichment of rare P-LP variants across the exome or in any of several groups of genes with biologic plausibility. Moreover, despite a strong shared susceptibility between BD and SCZ through common genetic variation, we do not observe an association between BD risk and rare P-LP coding variants in genes known to modulate risk for SCZ.

9.
Mol Biol Cell ; 31(25): 2841-2862, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026960

RESUMO

Androgen receptor (AR) signaling in Sertoli cells is known to be important for germ-cell progression through meiosis, but the extent to which androgens indirectly regulate specific meiotic stages is not known. Here, we combine synchronization of spermatogenesis, cytological analyses and single-cell RNAseq (scRNAseq) in the Sertoli-cell androgen receptor knockout (SCARKO) mutant and control mice, and demonstrate that SCARKO mutant spermatocytes exhibited normal expression and localization of key protein markers of meiotic prophase events, indicating that initiation of meiotic prophase is not androgen dependent. However, spermatocytes from SCARKO testes failed to acquire competence for the meiotic division phase. ScRNAseq analysis of wild-type and SCARKO mutant testes revealed a molecular transcriptomic block in an early meiotic prophase state (leptotene/zygotene) in mutant germ cells, and identified several misregulated genes in SCARKO Sertoli cells, many of which have been previously implicated in male infertility. Together, our coordinated cytological and scRNAseq analyses identified germ-cell intrinsic and extrinsic genes responsive to Sertoli-cell androgen signaling that promotes cellular states permissive for the meiotic division phase.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4432, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887874

RESUMO

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a non-atherosclerotic cause of myocardial infarction (MI), typically in young women. We undertook a genome-wide association study of SCAD (Ncases = 270/Ncontrols = 5,263) and identified and replicated an association of rs12740679 at chromosome 1q21.2 (Pdiscovery+replication = 2.19 × 10-12, OR = 1.8) influencing ADAMTSL4 expression. Meta-analysis of discovery and replication samples identified associations with P < 5 × 10-8 at chromosome 6p24.1 in PHACTR1, chromosome 12q13.3 in LRP1, and in females-only, at chromosome 21q22.11 near LINC00310. A polygenic risk score for SCAD was associated with (1) higher risk of SCAD in individuals with fibromuscular dysplasia (P = 0.021, OR = 1.82 [95% CI: 1.09-3.02]) and (2) lower risk of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and MI in the UK Biobank (P = 1.28 × 10-17, HR = 0.91 [95% CI :0.89-0.93], for MI) and Million Veteran Program (P = 9.33 × 10-36, OR = 0.95 [95% CI: 0.94-0.96], for CAD; P = 3.35 × 10-6, OR = 0.96 [95% CI: 0.95-0.98] for MI). Here we report that SCAD-related MI and atherosclerotic MI exist at opposite ends of a genetic risk spectrum, inciting MI with disparate underlying vascular biology.


Assuntos
Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/genética , Genes Neoplásicos , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Doenças Vasculares/congênito , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Feminino , Displasia Fibromuscular/complicações , Displasia Fibromuscular/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Vasculares/genética
11.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(11): 2686-2699, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While rare variants in the COL5A1 gene have been associated with classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and rarely with arterial dissections, recurrent variants in COL5A1 underlying a systemic arteriopathy have not been described. Monogenic forms of multifocal fibromuscular dysplasia (mFMD) have not been previously defined. Approach and Results: We studied 4 independent probands with the COL5A1 pathogenic variant c.1540G>A, p.(Gly514Ser) who presented with arterial aneurysms, dissections, tortuosity, and mFMD affecting multiple arteries. Arterial medial fibroplasia and smooth muscle cell disorganization were confirmed histologically. The COL5A1 c.1540G>A variant is predicted to be pathogenic in silico and absent in gnomAD. The c.1540G>A variant is on a shared 160.1 kb haplotype with 0.4% frequency in Europeans. Furthermore, exome sequencing data from a cohort of 264 individuals with mFMD were examined for COL5A1 variants. In this mFMD cohort, COL5A1 c.1540G>A and 6 additional relatively rare COL5A1 variants predicted to be deleterious in silico were identified and were associated with arterial dissections (P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: COL5A1 c.1540G>A is the first recurring variant recognized to be associated with arterial dissections and mFMD. This variant presents with a phenotype reminiscent of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. A shared haplotype among probands supports the existence of a common founder. Relatively rare COL5A1 genetic variants predicted to be deleterious by in silico analysis were identified in ≈2.7% of mFMD cases, and as they were enriched in patients with arterial dissections, may act as disease modifiers. Molecular testing for COL5A1 should be considered in patients with a phenotype overlapping with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and mFMD.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/genética , Artérias/patologia , Colágeno Tipo V/genética , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/genética , Displasia Fibromuscular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Dissecante/patologia , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/patologia , Feminino , Displasia Fibromuscular/diagnóstico por imagem , Displasia Fibromuscular/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3669, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699356

RESUMO

Recent characterization of spatiotemporal genomic architecture of IDH-wild-type multifocal glioblastomas (M-GBMs) suggests a clinically unobserved common-ancestor (CA) with a less aggressive phenotype, generating highly genetically divergent malignant gliomas/GBMs in distant brain regions. Using serial MRI/3D-reconstruction, whole-genome sequencing and spectral karyotyping-based single-cell phylogenetic tree building, we show two distinct types of tumor evolution in p53-mutant driven mouse models. Malignant gliomas/GBMs grow as a single mass (Type 1) and multifocal masses (Type 2), respectively, despite both exhibiting loss of Pten/chromosome 19 (chr19) and PI3K/Akt activation with sub-tetraploid/4N genomes. Analysis of early biopsied and multi-segment tumor tissues reveals no evidence of less proliferative diploid/2N lesions in Type 1 tumors. Strikingly, CA-derived relatively quiescent tumor precursors with ancestral diploid/2N genomes and normal Pten/chr19 are observed in the subventricular zone (SVZ), but are distantly segregated from multi focal Type 2 tumors. Importantly, PI3K/Akt inhibition by Rictor/mTORC2 deletion blocks distant dispersal, restricting glioma growth in the SVZ.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Evolução Clonal , Evolução Molecular , Glioblastoma/genética , Animais , Biópsia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Cariotipagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteína Companheira de mTOR Insensível à Rapamicina/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
Dev Cell ; 54(4): 529-547.e12, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504559

RESUMO

Spermatogenesis is a highly regulated process that produces sperm to transmit genetic information to the next generation. Although extensively studied in mice, our current understanding of primate spermatogenesis is limited to populations defined by state-specific markers from rodent data. As between-species differences have been reported in the duration and differentiation hierarchy of this process, it remains unclear how molecular markers and cell states are conserved or have diverged from mice to man. To address this challenge, we employ single-cell RNA sequencing to identify transcriptional signatures of major germ and somatic cell types of the testes in human, macaque, and mice. This approach reveals similarities and differences in expression throughout spermatogenesis, including the stem/progenitor pool of spermatogonia, markers of differentiation, potential regulators of meiosis, RNA turnover during spermatid differentiation, and germ cell-soma communication. These datasets provide a rich foundation for future targeted mechanistic studies of primate germ cell development and in vitro gametogenesis.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Espermatogênese/genética , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Macaca/genética , Macaca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Meiose/genética , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Espermatogônias/citologia , Testículo/metabolismo
14.
Blood ; 136(5): 533-541, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457982

RESUMO

Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively defined as venous thromboembolism (VTE), are the third leading cause of cardiovascular death in the United States. Common genetic variants conferring increased varying degrees of VTE risk have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Rare mutations in the anticoagulant genes PROC, PROS1 and SERPINC1 result in perinatal lethal thrombosis in homozygotes and markedly increased VTE risk in heterozygotes. However, currently described VTE variants account for an insufficient portion of risk to be routinely used for clinical decision making. To identify new rare VTE risk variants, we performed a whole-exome study of 393 individuals with unprovoked VTE and 6114 controls. This study identified 4 genes harboring an excess number of rare damaging variants in patients with VTE: PROS1, STAB2, PROC, and SERPINC1. At STAB2, 7.8% of VTE cases and 2.4% of controls had a qualifying rare variant. In cell culture, VTE-associated variants of STAB2 had a reduced surface expression compared with reference STAB2. Common variants in STAB2 have been previously associated with plasma von Willebrand factor and coagulation factor VIII levels in GWAS, suggesting that haploinsufficiency of stabilin-2 may increase VTE risk through elevated levels of these procoagulants. In an independent cohort, we found higher von Willebrand factor levels and equivalent propeptide levels in individuals with rare STAB2 variants compared with controls. Taken together, this study demonstrates the utility of gene-based collapsing analyses to identify loci harboring an excess of rare variants with functional connections to a complex thrombotic disease.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo
15.
Mol Cell ; 75(3): 644-660.e5, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398325

RESUMO

Cell-cell communication via ligand-receptor signaling is a fundamental feature of complex organs. Despite this, the global landscape of intercellular signaling in mammalian liver has not been elucidated. Here we perform single-cell RNA sequencing on non-parenchymal cells isolated from healthy and NASH mouse livers. Secretome gene analysis revealed a highly connected network of intrahepatic signaling and disruption of vascular signaling in NASH. We uncovered the emergence of NASH-associated macrophages (NAMs), which are marked by high expression of triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells 2 (Trem2), as a feature of mouse and human NASH that is linked to disease severity and highly responsive to pharmacological and dietary interventions. Finally, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) serve as a hub of intrahepatic signaling via HSC-derived stellakines and their responsiveness to vasoactive hormones. These results provide unprecedented insights into the landscape of intercellular crosstalk and reprogramming of liver cells in health and disease.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Animais , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Humanos , Ligantes , Fígado/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Análise de Célula Única
16.
Br J Haematol ; 186(4): 574-579, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119735

RESUMO

Hereditary thrombocytopenias can be subclassified based on mode of inheritance and platelet size. Here we report a family with autosomal dominant (AD) thrombocytopenia with normal platelet size. Linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing identified the R1026W substitution in ITGA2B as the causative defect. The same mutation has been previously reported in 7 Japanese families/patients with AD thrombocytopenia, but all of these patients had macrothrombocytopenia. This is the first report of a family with AD thrombocytopenia with normal platelet size resulting from mutation in ITGA2B. ITGA2B mutations should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of this latter disorder.


Assuntos
Ligação Genética , Integrina alfa2/genética , Mutação , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico , Trombocitopenia/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Linhagem , Contagem de Plaquetas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
PLoS Genet ; 15(5): e1008130, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048900

RESUMO

Nanophthalmos is a rare, potentially devastating eye condition characterized by small eyes with relatively normal anatomy, a high hyperopic refractive error, and frequent association with angle closure glaucoma and vision loss. The condition constitutes the extreme of hyperopia or farsightedness, a common refractive error that is associated with strabismus and amblyopia in children. NNO1 was the first mapped nanophthalmos locus. We used combined pooled exome sequencing and strong linkage data in the large family used to map this locus to identify a canonical splice site alteration upstream of the last exon of the gene encoding myelin regulatory factor (MYRF c.3376-1G>A), a membrane bound transcription factor that undergoes autoproteolytic cleavage for nuclear localization. This variant produced a stable RNA transcript, leading to a frameshift mutation p.Gly1126Valfs*31 in the C-terminus of the protein. In addition, we identified an early truncating MYRF frameshift mutation, c.769dupC (p.S264QfsX74), in a patient with extreme axial hyperopia and syndromic features. Myrf conditional knockout mice (CKO) developed depigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and retinal degeneration supporting a role of this gene in retinal and RPE development. Furthermore, we demonstrated the reduced expression of Tmem98, another known nanophthalmos gene, in Myrf CKO mice, and the physical interaction of MYRF with TMEM98. Our study establishes MYRF as a nanophthalmos gene and uncovers a new pathway for eye growth and development.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/genética , Hiperopia/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Microftalmia/genética , Degeneração Retiniana/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Éxons , Família , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperopia/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Microftalmia/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Erros de Refração/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 39, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015470

RESUMO

We performed whole-genome sequencing for eight inbred rat strains commonly used in genetic mapping studies. They are the founders of the NIH heterogeneous stock (HS) outbred colony. We provide their sequences and variant calls to the rat genomics community. When analyzing the variant calls we identified regions with unusually high levels of heterozygosity. These regions are consistent across the eight inbred strains, including Brown Norway, which is the basis of the rat reference genome. These regions show higher read depths than other regions in the genome and contain higher rates of apparent tri-allelic variant sites. The evidence suggests that these regions may correspond to duplicated segments that were incorrectly overlaid as a single segment in the reference genome. We provide masks for these regions of suspected mis-assembly as a resource for the community to flag potentially false interpretations of mapping or functional results.


Assuntos
Genoma , Ratos Endogâmicos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Alelos , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Ratos
20.
Circulation ; 139(5): 620-635, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factor VIII (FVIII) and its carrier protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) are associated with risk of arterial and venous thrombosis and with hemorrhagic disorders. We aimed to identify and functionally test novel genetic associations regulating plasma FVIII and VWF. METHODS: We meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 46 354 individuals of European, African, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestry. All studies performed linear regression analysis using an additive genetic model and associated ≈35 million imputed variants with natural log-transformed phenotype levels. In vitro gene silencing in cultured endothelial cells was performed for candidate genes to provide additional evidence on association and function. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses were applied to test the causal role of FVIII and VWF plasma levels on the risk of arterial and venous thrombotic events. RESULTS: We identified 13 novel genome-wide significant ( P≤2.5×10-8) associations, 7 with FVIII levels ( FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, SOX17/RP1, LINC00583/NFIB, RAB5C-KAT2A, RPL3/TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA) and 11 with VWF levels ( PDHB/PXK/KCTD6, SLC39A8, FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, GIMAP7/GIMAP4, OR13C5/NIPSNAP, DAB2IP, C2CD4B, RAB5C-KAT2A, TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA), beyond 10 previously reported associations with these phenotypes. Functional validation provided further evidence of association for all loci on VWF except ARSA and DAB2IP. Mendelian randomization suggested causal effects of plasma FVIII activity levels on venous thrombosis and coronary artery disease risk and plasma VWF levels on ischemic stroke risk. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis identified 13 novel genetic loci regulating FVIII and VWF plasma levels, 10 of which we validated functionally. We provide some evidence for a causal role of these proteins in thrombotic events.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/genética , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Fator VIII/análise , Loci Gênicos , Trombose Venosa/genética , Fator de von Willebrand/análise , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/sangue , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etnologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/etnologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/etnologia
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