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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(3): 626-633, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018187

RESUMO

Ferroptosis plays a key role in aggravating the progression of spinal cord injury (SCI), but the specific mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we constructed a rat model of T10 SCI using a modified Allen method. We identified 48, 44, and 27 ferroptosis genes that were differentially expressed at 1, 3, and 7 days after SCI induction. Compared with the sham group and other SCI subgroups, the subgroup at 1 day after SCI showed increased expression of the ferroptosis marker acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 and the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde in the injured spinal cord while glutathione in the injured spinal cord was lower. These findings with our bioinformatics results suggested that 1 day after SCI was the important period of ferroptosis progression. Bioinformatics analysis identified the following top ten hub ferroptosis genes in the subgroup at 1 day after SCI: STAT3, JUN, TLR4, ATF3, HMOX1, MAPK1, MAPK9, PTGS2, VEGFA, and RELA. Real-time polymerase chain reaction on rat spinal cord tissue confirmed that STAT3, JUN, TLR4, ATF3, HMOX1, PTGS2, and RELA mRNA levels were up-regulated and VEGFA, MAPK1 and MAPK9 mRNA levels were down-regulated. Ten potential compounds were predicted using the DSigDB database as potential drugs or molecules targeting ferroptosis to repair SCI. We also constructed a ferroptosis-related mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA network in SCI that included 66 lncRNAs, 10 miRNAs, and 12 genes. Our results help further the understanding of the mechanism underlying ferroptosis in SCI.

2.
Food Chem ; 398: 133868, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961171

RESUMO

Gametogenesis can significantly affect the biochemical composition of oysters, but little research on the difference between sexes. Therefore, we conducted the first in-depth study on the composition differences between males and females of three different Crassostrea sp.. The results showed that females had higher glycogen, lipid, Cu and Zn contents than males, while males had higher protein and taurine contents than females at maturity, which might be related to special meiosis pattern of eggs and less energy was required for female gametogenesis. In addition, both males and females had well-balanced essential amino acid compositions. The omega-3: omega-6 (n-3: n-6) ratio of males was significantly higher than that of females, indicating that the nutritional quality of males was higher. These results provide a reliable and refined theoretical and research basis for revealing the nutritional quality, extracting beneficial ingredients, and developing functional food of Crassostrea sp., and provide data support for the sex-regulated breeding of oysters.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Crassostrea/genética , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Masculino , Metais/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 400: 133961, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084584

RESUMO

The broad application prospect of fish gelatin makes the traceability and identification of fish gelatin imminent. High performance liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to identify fish gelatins in seven commercial cyprinid fishes, namely, black carp, grass carp, silver carp, bighead carp, common carp, crucian carp, and Wuchang bream. By comparison with theoretical mammalian collagen (bovine and porcine collagen), the common and unique theoretical peptides were found in the collagen of grass carp, silver carp, and crucian carp, respectively. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that 7 common characteristic peptides were obtained from seven cyprinid fish gelatins. Moreover, 44, 36, and 42 unique characteristic peptides were detected in the gelatins of grass carp, silver carp, and crucian carp, respectively. The combined use of common and unique characteristic peptides could improve the accuracy and authenticity of traceability and identification of fish gelatin in comparison with mammalian gelatin.


Assuntos
Carpas , Gelatina , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Colágeno , Peixes , Gelatina/química , Mamíferos , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Food Chem ; 398: 133925, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987004

RESUMO

Blanching pretreatment can improve product quality and efficiency during food processing. Effects of hot-air microwave rolling blanching (HMRB) on physiochemical properties and microstructure of turmeric were investigated under various treatment times (0-10 min). Results showed that HMRB significantly changed weight, electrolyte leakage, texture, viscoelastic properties, pectin fractions content, thermal properties and drying quality of turmeric. Meanwhile, HMRB promoted the redistribution of water in turmeric and changed the cell structure, thus shortening drying time by 6.35-34.92 %. The polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase were entirely inactivated after blanching for 8 and 10 min, respectively. Compared with unblanched dried turmeric, the curcumin content, total phenolic, DPPH and ABTS were significantly increased by 20.76 %, 5.63 %, 7.54 % and 19.05 % at the optimal blanching time (8 min). Overall, HMRB can be used as a promising pretreatment technology to enhance the drying rate and improve the quality of dried turmeric.


Assuntos
Curcuma , Micro-Ondas , Ar , Dessecação/métodos , Temperatura Alta
5.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 176-182, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799539

RESUMO

Based on the Wallerian degeneration in the spinal cord pathways, the changes in synaptic connections, and the spinal cord-related cellular responses that alter the cellular structure of the brain, we presumed that brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters may change after spinal cord injury. However, the dynamic changes in DTI parameters remain unclear. We established a Beagle dog model of T10 spinal cord contusion and performed DTI of the injured spinal cord. We found dynamic changes in DTI parameters in the cerebral peduncle, posterior limb of the internal capsule, pre- and postcentral gyri of the brain within 12 weeks after spinal cord injury. We then performed immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of neurofilament heavy polypeptide (axonal marker), glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cell marker), and NeuN (neuronal marker). We found that these pathological changes were consistent with DTI parameter changes. These findings suggest that DTI can display brain structure changes after spinal cord injury.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 1004, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore whether collagen fiber features and collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1) are related to the stiffness of breast lesions and whether COL1A1 can predict axillary lymph node metastasis (LNM). METHODS: Ninety-four patients with breast lesions were consecutively enrolled in the study. Amongst the 94 lesions, 30 were benign, and 64 were malignant (25 were accompanied by axillary lymph node metastasis). Ultrasound (US) and shear wave elastography (SWE) were performed for each breast lesion before surgery. Sirius red and immunohistochemical staining were used to examine the shape and arrangement of collagen fibers and COL1A1 expression in the included tissue samples. We analyzed the correlation between the staining results and SWE parameters and investigated the effectiveness of COL1A1 expression levels in predicting axillary LNM. RESULTS: The optimal cut-off values for Emax, Emean, and Eratio for diagnosing the benign and malignant groups, were 58.70 kPa, 52.50 kPa, and 3.05, respectively. The optimal cutoff for predicting axillary LNM were 107.5 kPa, 85.15 kPa, and 3.90, respectively. Herein, the collagen fiber shape and arrangement features in breast lesions were classified into three categories. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that Emax, Emean, and Eratio differed between categories 0, 1, and 2 (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, elasticity parameters were positively correlated with collagen categories and COL1A1 expression. The COL1A1 expression level > 0.145 was considered the cut-off value, and its efficacy in benign and malignant breast lesions was 0.808, with a sensitivity of 66% and a specificity of 90%. Furthermore, when the COL1A1 expression level > 0.150 was considered the cut-off, its efficacy in predicting axillary LNM was 0.796, with sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 59%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The collagen fiber features and expression levels of COL1A1 positively correlated with the elastic parameters of breast lesions. The expression of COL1A1 may help diagnose benign and malignant breast lesions and predict axillary LNM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Axila , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Colágeno , Colágeno Tipo I , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia Mamária/métodos
7.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 3623141, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36133159

RESUMO

The water environment is one of the basic elements that constitute the environment. It is an important place for the survival and development of human society, and it is also the most seriously disturbed and damaged area by humans. The pollution and destruction of water environment has become one of the major environmental problems in the world today. The essence of urban water space landscape design under the concept of integrating people's ecological design is the ecological landscape design of urban water spaces, while the development of ecological landscape design in the field of urban water space landscape design is still in its infancy, and the interpretation of its concept is also different. The ecological design of the landscape reflects a new dream of human beings, a new aesthetics and value: the true cooperative and fraternal relationship between man and nature. At present, the ecological design of urban water space landscape has not put forward a more accurate concept, clear principles and standards, and a complete and systematic theoretical basis, which requires further research, discussion, and continuous practice by this generation of designers to improve it. To this end, this paper proposed a research method on the integration of water environment governance in urban and rural spaces with natural ecological landscape design. This paper mainly talked about the status quo of water environment and its network sensor algorithm research and analyzed its coverage area one by one. Then, the water quality extraction is introduced in detail. And finally, the data analysis of the Beijing river waters, the analyzer rainfall, water quality, and so on are carried out in the experimental part. It could be seen from the experimental results that there were currently 22 reclaimed water plants in six urban areas of Beijing, with a daily water treatment capacity of 4.08 million cubic meters and a sewage treatment rate of 98%. As of 2016, 440 million cubic meters of reclaimed water has been reused. With the commissioning of the new reclaimed water system, the proportion of reclaimed water in the river and lake environment will continue to increase.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Purificação da Água , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Rios , Qualidade da Água
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 854: 158505, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058339

RESUMO

Carbonaceous substances in industrial emissions are harmful to human health, air quality, and climate change. Owing to the existence of various fuel types and different technological processes, the characterization of carbonaceous substances from industrial emissions varies significantly, which causes a large uncertainty in source apportionment. Therefore, nine typical industrial sources were selected and separated into two types: stationary combustion and industrial process sources. The emission factors based on different units and profiles of carbonaceous substances, including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), subgroups of OC and EC, EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs), methyl PAHs (MPAHs), and n-alkanes emitted from nine industrial sources were obtained. The results showed that the difference in dust removal efficiency or emission of other auxiliary materials in the industrial process could cause different emission factors for carbonaceous substances. Furthermore, the emission factors of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), OC, and EC for coal-fired plant were significantly lower than those of residential coal combustion. For profiles of carbonaceous substances in different industrial sources, the relative fractions of OC subgroups emitted from stationary combustion sources were lower than those from industrial process sources, whereas the proportions of EC were higher. The source profiles of nonpolar organic matter emitted from industrial process sources were clearly different from those of industrial stationary source emissions. For the four industrial process sources, the proportion of n-alkanes was significantly higher than that of PAHs, whereas the source profiles for different industrial stationary sources were extremely different. Finally, the concentrations of carbonaceous substances obtained in this study were lower than those reported in previous studies, indicating that marked reduction results were achieved by implementing reduction measures.

9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 112: 109200, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063687

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is known to induce chronic and persistent bovine mammary infection, which affects milk quality and leads to premature culling. The ability of S. aureus to invade mammalian cells protects it from clearance by the immune system. Mitophagy is important in cell homeostasis, and can be utilized by pathogens for immune escape. However, mitophagy's role in S. aureus-associated bovine mastitis remains unclear. Here, S. aureus infection induced mitophagy and enhanced mitochondrial translocation of parkin in MAC-T cells. After mitophagy inhibition by Mdivi-1 treatment or PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) silencing in MAC-T cells infected with S. aureus, NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and p65 and IκBα phosphorylation were increased. Meanwhile, PINK1 overexpression had the opposite effects. In addition, NLRP3 inflammasome overactivation and enhanced p65 and IκBα phosphorylation caused by PINK1 silencing were reversed by MitoTEMPO. Furthermore, PINK1/parkin-mediated mitophagy promoted S. aureus survival and contributed to persistent S. aureus infection. These findings provide new insights into S. aureus invasion in bovine mastitis.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 853: 158627, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087671

RESUMO

The intolerance of high CO2 in the exhaust gas is the "bottleneck" limiting the wide application of microalgae for CO2 biosequestration. Around this topic, we selected high-CO2-tolerant (LAMB 33 and 31) and nontolerant (LAMB 122) Chlorella strains to study their different energy metabolisms and cytoplasmic pH regulations in response to high CO2. Under 40 % CO2, LAMB 33 and 31 both showed elevated ATP synthesis, accelerated ATP consumption and fast cytoplasmic pH regulation while exhibiting different acclimating strategies therein: chloroplast acclimations were reflected by high chlorophyll contents in 33 but photosystem transitions in 31; faster mitochondrial acclimations occurred in 33 than in 31; cellular organic carbon mainly flowed to monosaccharide synthesis for 33 but to monosaccharide and protein synthesis for 31; and cytoplasmic pH regulation was attributed to V-ATPase in 31 but not in 33. All the above metabolic processes gradually collapsed in 122, leading to growth inhibition. Our study identified different metabolic acclimation strategies among Chlorella strains to high CO2 and provided new traits for breeding microalgae for CO2 biosequestration.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 854: 158794, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116640

RESUMO

Despite being an effective and attractive functional strategy for aqueous phosphorus (P) removal, the use of zero valent iron (ZVI) biochar composites has been severely impeded by rapid self-erosion. We describe a new approach for extending the lifespan of Fe-rich sludge-derived ZVI biochar composites via CaCl2 modification. Preliminary results showed that composites obtained at 900 °C without modification (MBC900) and at 900 °C with 100 g Cl/kg addition (MBC900100) had the highest P removal efficiency. In subsequent batch experiments, MBC900100 exhibited more stable P adsorption capacities than MBC900 over a wide pH range (4-10) and at various dosages, which was enhanced by the presence of HCO3-. The theoretical maximum P adsorption capacities of MBC900 and MBC900100 were 227.14 and 224.15 mg g-1, respectively. Kinetic analysis indicated that chemisorption dominated the removal process. Continuous experimental data using the Yoon-Nelson model indicated that MBC900100 had a considerably longer half-penetration time. The primary mechanism of P removal by MBC900 was Fe/C micro-electrolysis. As the embedded CaO formed a dissolvable Ca(OH)2 shell in situ on the surface of MBC900100, the phosphate formed a precipitate with free Ca2+ before being removed via micro-electrolysis. Overall, CaCl2 modification successfully enhanced the longevity of the ZVI biochar composites.

12.
Nanotoxicology ; : 1-13, 2022 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151876

RESUMO

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are currently widely used and are expected to be used as drug carriers and contrast agents in clinical practice. Previous studies mainly focused on their lung toxicity; therefore, their effects on the vascular endothelium are unclear. In this study, a human angiogenesis array was used to determine the effect of MWCNTs on the expression profile of angiogenic factors in endothelial cells and to clarify the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in MWCNT-induced endothelial cell injury at the cellular and animal levels. The results indicated that MWCNTs (20-30 nm and 30-50 nm) could enter endothelial cells and disrupt human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. MWCNTs disrupted the tube formation ability and cell migration function of HUVECs. The results from a Matrigel Plug experiment in mice showed that angiogenesis in the MWCNT experimental group was significantly reduced. The results of a protein chip analysis indicated that VEGF expression in the MWCNT treatment group was decreased, a finding that was validated by ELISA results. The protein expression levels of AKT and eNOS in the MWCNT treatment group were significantly decreased; the administration of recombinant VEGF significantly alleviated the migration ability and tube formation ability of endothelial cells injured by MWCNTs, upregulated the protein expression of AKT and eNOS, and increased the number of neovascularization in mice in the MWCNT treatment group. This study demonstrated that MWCNTs affect angiogenesis via the VEGF-Akt-eNOS axis which can be rescued by VEGF endothelial treatment.

13.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36140649

RESUMO

(1) Background: The need to elucidate the microbial patterns in preservation fluid and explore their relationship with early infection-related events post kidney transplant and investigate antimicrobial resistance and the effects of preemptive antibiotic therapy. (2) Methods: This retrospective study analyzed the clinical data of 514 kidney transplant donors and 808 recipients from April 2015 to October 2020. Clinical data of donor and recipient characteristics, preservation fluid microbes, early infections (≤30 days), probable donor-derived infections (P-DDIs), antimicrobial resistance and preemptive antibiotic therapy was collected. (3) Results: The incidence of bloodstream (10.3% versus 5.2%, p = 0.006) and graft-site infections (9.7% versus 4.6%, p = 0.004) was significantly higher in recipients with culture-positive preservation fluid. In addition, recipients with ESKAPE pathogens or Candida species had a notably higher rate of bloodstream infections (14.1% versus 6.9%, p = 0.033) and graft-site infections (16.7% versus 3.5%, p < 0.01) than those with other positive pathogens. Preemptive antibiotic therapy decreased the bloodstream infection rate (11.8% versus 35.7%, p = 0.047) when preservation fluid was positive for ESKAPE pathogens. (4) Conclusions: Culture-positive preservation fluid has potential implications for kidney transplant recipients. ESKAPE pathogens or Candida species in preservation fluid as well as their antimicrobial resistance properties and non-preemptive antibiotic therapy could pose a risk of early infection-related events.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 129(10): 100603, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112431

RESUMO

Indefinite causal order (ICO) is playing a key role in recent quantum technologies. Here, we experimentally study quantum thermodynamics driven by ICO on nuclear spins using the nuclear magnetic resonance system. We realize the ICO of two thermalizing channels to exhibit how the mechanism works, and show that the working substance can be cooled or heated albeit it undergoes thermal contacts with reservoirs of the same temperature. Moreover, we construct a single cycle of the ICO refrigerator based on the Maxwell's demon mechanism, and evaluate its performance by measuring the work consumption and the heat energy extracted from the low-temperature reservoir. Unlike classical refrigerators in which the coefficient of performance (COP) is perversely higher the closer the temperature of the high-temperature and low-temperature reservoirs are to each other, the ICO refrigerator's COP is always bounded to small values due to the nonunit success probability in projecting the ancillary qubit to the preferable subspace. To enhance the COP, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a general framework based on the density matrix exponentiation (DME) approach, as an extension to the ICO refrigeration. The COP is observed to be enhanced by more than 3 times with the DME approach. Our Letter demonstrates a new way for nonclassical heat exchange, and paves the way towards construction of quantum refrigerators on a quantum system.

15.
Clin Nutr ; 41(10): 2333-2344, 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113229

RESUMO

The mammalian gastrointestinal tract is colonized with a majority of gut microbes, affecting host metabolism and homeostasis. Gut microbiota plays a vital role in nutrient exchange, signaling transduction between intestinal epithelial cells, and resistance to pathogen invasion. Gut microbiota is divided into mucus layer bacteria and intestinal lumen bacteria based on the colonization distribution. Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) prefers to colonize in the intestinal mucus layer, and specifically degrades mucins to produce short-chain fatty acids, providing energy for the host and promoting colonization of the bacterium itself. Degradation of mucins prompts the host to compensate for the production of more mucins, thereby maintaining the dynamics of these proteins. In the intestinal micro-ecosystem, A. muciniphila is non-pathogenic, and its colonization with suitable abundance contributes to the development of immune system, thus promoting intestinal health. The mechanisms by which A. muciniphila bears a protective role in the host intestine are currently unclear. In this review, we summarize the microenvironment for the colonization of A. muciniphila, physiological characteristics and pathophysiological impact of A. muciniphila on intestinal diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases, and intestinal tumors. We also provided updates for current studies on signals that A. muciniphila enhances intestinal barrier integrity and regulates immune response. Together, we conclude that A. muciniphila is a promising probiotic, which could be a microbial target for the treatment of multiple intestinal diseases.

16.
Clin Exp Med ; 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121505

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are malignant clonal diseases of the hematopoietic system with an unsatisfactory overall prognosis. The main obstacle is the increased resistance of AML and ALL cells to chemotherapy. The development and validation of new therapeutic strategies for acute leukemia require preclinical models that accurately recapitulate the genetic, pathological, and clinical features of acute leukemia. A patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model is established using surgical orthotopic implantation. They closely resemble human tumor progression and microenvironment and are more reliable translational research tools than subcutaneous-transplant models. In this study, we established PDOX models by direct intrafemoral injection of bone marrow and peripheral blood cells from AML and ALL patients, characterized their pathology, cytology, and genetics, and compared the model's characteristics and drug responsiveness with those of the corresponding patients.

17.
Schizophr Res ; 248: 173-179, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075127

RESUMO

A recent Chinese genome-wide association study found evidence for 58 out of the 128 schizophrenia-associated variants previously discovered in Western samples by the Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). However, the functional impact of these trans-ancestry genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is not clear. In the current study, we examined the roles of trans-ancestry SNPs in cognitive and neural plasticity. We first performed a behavioral study of 547 healthy volunteers, who received month-long working memory training, and working memory capability assessment both before and after the training. A separate sample of 101 subjects received the same training and received fMRI scans during a working memory task, both before and after the training. The behavioral study found a significant association between the polygenic risk score (PRS) and behavioral plasticity, with higher schizophrenia risk scores being linked to less plasticity. At the SNP level, rs36068923 showed a significant signal, with the risk allele being associated with less plasticity. The fMRI study further found that the PRS and rs36068923 polymorphism were associated with training-induced changes in striatal activation, with higher PRS and the risk allele of rs36068923 being linked to less brain plasticity. In sum, this study found that a high genetic risk for schizophrenia was associated with less plasticity at both behavioral and neural levels. These results provide new insights into the neural and cognitive mechanisms linking genes to schizophrenia.

18.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 629(Pt A): 805-812, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099848

RESUMO

Direct electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate (NO3-) is an efficient route to simultaneously synthesize ammonia (NH3) and remove NO3- pollutants under ambient conditions, however, it is hindered by the lack of efficient and stable catalysts. Herein, a self-supported spinel-type MnCo2O4 nanowire array is demonstrated for exclusively catalyzing the conversion of NO3- to NH3, achieving a high Faradic efficiency of 97.1% and a large NH3 yield of 0.67 mmol h-1 cm-2. Furthermore, density functional analysis reveals that MnCo2O4 (220) surface has high activity for NO3- reduction with a low energy barrier of 0.46 eV for *NO to *NOH.

19.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrips pests cause increasing damage to crops around the world. Widespread usage of some insecticides against thrips has now led to the evolution of resistance to several active ingredients, and new insecticides are required. This study examined the toxicity of the novel insecticide broflanilide to multiple populations of several thrips pests. RESULTS: Bioassays showed that thrips populations had LC50 values ranging from 0.5 to almost 300 mg·L-1 . A population of Frankliniella occidentalis had the highest LC50 value at 290.63 mg·L-1 , while a population of Echinothrips americanus had the lowest LC50 value at 0.51 mg L-1 . LC50 values among seven populations of Thrips palmi ranged from 2.5689 to 23.6754 mg·L-1 , indicating intraspecific variation in toxicity. In this species, the toxicity of broflanilide was relatively higher in adults than in larvae. More than 90% of eggs of T. palmi could not develop into larvae when treated with 5-50 mg L-1 broflanilide. Compared to five commonly used insecticides, broflanilide showed relatively high toxicity to T. palmi. Field control tests with T. palmi showed that control efficacy (from 90.44% to 93.14%) was maintained from day three to day 14 after treatment with 22.5 and 45 ga.i hm-1 broflanilide. CONCLUSION: Broflanilide is potentially a useful insecticide for controlling Thrips hawaiiensis, Frankliniella intonsa, Megalurothrips usitatus. E. americanus, and some populations of T. palmi. However, the variation in toxicity of this insecticide to different species, populations, and developmental stages indicates that target species and life stages may need to be carefully considered. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

20.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103205

RESUMO

Importance: The emerging genetic basis of spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has been defined as both partially complex and monogenic in some patients, involving variants predominantly in genes known to underlie vascular connective tissue diseases (CTDs). The effect of these genetic influences has not been defined in high-risk SCAD phenotypes, and the identification of a high-risk subgroup of individuals may help to guide clinical genetic evaluations of SCAD. Objective: To identify and quantify the burden of rare genetic variation in individuals with SCAD with high-risk clinical features. Design, Setting, and Participants: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed for subsequent case-control association analyses and individual variant annotation among individuals with high-risk SCAD. Genetic variants were annotated for pathogenicity by in-silico analysis of genes previously defined by sequencing for vascular CTDs and/or SCAD, as well as genes prioritized by genome-wide association study (GWAS) and colocalization of arterial expression quantitative trait loci. Unbiased genome-wide association analysis of the WES data was performed by comparing aggregated variants in individuals with SCAD to healthy matched controls or the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD). This study was conducted at a tertiary care center. Individuals in the Canadian SCAD Registry genetics study with a high-risk SCAD phenotype were selected and defined as peripartum SCAD, recurrent SCAD, or SCAD in an individual with family history of arteriopathy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Burden of genetic variants defined by DNA sequencing in individuals with high-risk SCAD. Results: This study included a total of 336 participants (mean [SD] age, 53.0 [9.5] years; 301 female participants [90%]). Variants in vascular CTD genes were identified in 17.0% of individuals (16 of 94) with high-risk SCAD and were enriched (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-4.2; P = 7.8 × 10-4) as compared with gnomAD, with leading significant signals in COL3A1 (OR, 13.4; 95% CI, 4.9-36.2; P = 2.8 × 10-4) and Loeys-Dietz syndrome genes (OR, 7.9; 95% CI, 2.9-21.2; P = 2.0 × 10-3). Variants in GWAS-prioritized genes, observed in 6.4% of individuals (6 of 94) with high-risk SCAD, were also enriched (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.6-8.2; P = 7.4 × 10-3). Variants annotated as likely pathogenic or pathogenic occurred in 4 individuals, in the COL3A1, TGFBR2, and ADAMTSL4 genes. Genome-wide aggregated variant testing identified novel associations with peripartum SCAD. Conclusions and Relevance: In this genetic study, approximately 1 in 5 individuals with a high-risk SCAD phenotype harbored a rare genetic variant in genes currently implicated for SCAD. Genetic screening in this subgroup of individuals presenting with SCAD may be considered.

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