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1.
Oecologia ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024959

RESUMO

Biodiversity loss, exotic plant invasion and climatic change are three important global changes that can affect litter decomposition. These effects may be interactive and these global changes thus need to be considered simultaneously. Here, we assembled herbaceous plant communities with five species richness levels (1, 2, 4, 8 or 16) and subjected them to a drought treatment (no, moderate or intensive drought) that was factorially combined with an invasion treatment (presence or absence of the non-native Symphyotrichum subulatum). We collected litter of these plant communities and let it decompose for 9 months in the plant communities from which it originated. Drought decreased litter decomposition, while invasion by S. subulatum had little impact. Increasing species richness decreased litter decomposition except under intensive drought. A structural equation model showed that drought and species richness affected litter decomposition indirectly through changes in litter nitrogen concentration rather than by altering quantity and diversity of soil meso-fauna or soil physico-chemical properties. The slowed litter decomposition under high species diversity originated from a sampling effect, specifically from low litter nitrogen concentrations in the two dominant species. We conclude that effects on litter decomposition rates that are mediated by changing concentrations of the limiting nutrient in litter need to be considered when predicting effects of global changes such as plant diversity loss.

3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 405, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795208

RESUMO

Thalidomide induces γ-globin expression in erythroid progenitor cells, but its efficacy on patients with transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia (TDT) remains unclear. In this phase 2, multi-center, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of thalidomide in TDT patients. A hundred patients of 14 years or older were randomly assigned to receive placebo or thalidomide for 12 weeks, followed by an extension phase of at least 36 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change of hemoglobin (Hb) level in the patients. The secondary endpoints included the red blood cell (RBC) units transfused and adverse effects. In the placebo-controlled period, Hb concentrations in patients treated with thalidomide achieved a median elevation of 14.0 (range, 2.5 to 37.5) g/L, whereas Hb in patients treated with placebo did not significantly change. Within the 12 weeks, the mean RBC transfusion volume for patients treated with thalidomide and placebo was 5.4 ± 5.0 U and 10.3 ± 6.4 U, respectively (P < 0.001). Adverse events of drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, pyrexia, sore throat, and rash were more common with thalidomide than placebo. In the extension phase, treatment with thalidomide for 24 weeks resulted in a sustainable increase in Hb concentrations which reached 104.9 ± 19.0 g/L, without blood transfusion. Significant increase in Hb concentration and reduction in RBC transfusions were associated with non ß0/ß0 and HBS1L-MYB (rs9399137 C/T, C/C; rs4895441 A/G, G/G) genotypes. These results demonstrated that thalidomide is effective in patients with TDT.

4.
Genomics ; 114(1): 9-22, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798282

RESUMO

Genomic knowledge of the tree of life is biased to specific groups of organisms. For example, only six full genomes are currently available in the rhizaria clade. Here, we have applied metagenomic techniques enabling the assembly of the genome of Polymyxa betae (Rhizaria, Plasmodiophorida) RES F41 isolate from unpurified zoospore holobiont and comparison with the A26-41 isolate. Furthermore, the first P. betae mitochondrial genome was assembled. The two P. betae nuclear genomes were highly similar, each with just ~10.2 k predicted protein coding genes, ~3% of which were unique to each isolate. Extending genomic comparisons revealed a greater overlap with Spongospora subterranea than with Plasmodiophora brassicae, including orthologs of the mammalian cation channel sperm-associated proteins, raising some intriguing questions about zoospore physiology. This work validates our metagenomics pipeline for eukaryote genome assembly from unpurified samples and enriches plasmodiophorid genomics; providing the first full annotation of the P. betae genome.

5.
Arch Virol ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762150

RESUMO

Negeviruses are a group of insect-specific viruses that have a wide geographic distribution and broad host range. In recent years, nege-like viruses have been discovered in aphids of various genera of the family Aphididae, including Aphis, Rhopalosiphum, Sitobion, and Indomegoura. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a nege-like virus isolated from Astegopteryx formosana aphids collected in Guangdong, China, which we have designated as "Astegopteryx formosana nege-like virus" (AFNLV). AFNLV has a genome length of 10,107 nt (excluding the polyA tail) and possesses the typical conserved domains of negeviruses. These include a viral methyltransferase, an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, a viral helicase, and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) domain in open reading frame 1 (ORF1), a DiSB-ORF2_chro domain in ORF2, and a SP24 domain in ORF3. The genome of AFNLV shares the highest nucleotide sequence identity (74.89%) with Wuhan house centipede virus, identified in a mixture of barley aphids. As clearly revealed by RdRP-based phylogenetic analysis, AFNLV, together with other negeviruses and nege-like viruses discovered in aphids, formed a distinct "unclassified clade" closely related to members of the proposed genus "Sandewavirus" and the family Kitaviridae. In addition, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) derived from AFNLV did not exhibit typical characteristics of virus-derived siRNAs processed by the host RNAi-based antiviral pathway. However, the extremely high abundance of viral transcripts (average read coverage 73,403X) strongly suggested that AFNLV might actively replicate in the aphid host. AFNLV described in this study is the first nege-like virus discovered in aphids of the genus Astegopteryx, which will contribute to future study of the co-evolution of nege/nege-like viruses and their host aphids.

6.
Insect Sci ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498803

RESUMO

Many holo- and hemimetabolous insects enhance their eggshells during embryogenesis by forming a serosal cuticle (SC). To date, scholarly understanding of the SC composition and SC-related gene functions has been limited, especially for hemimetabolous insects. In this study, we initially performed transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation and chitin staining of the SC in Nilaparvata lugens, a hemimetabolous rice pest known as the brown planthopper (BPH). We confirmed that the SC was a chitin-rich lamellar structure deposited gradually during the early embryogenesis. Parental RNA interference (RNAi) against Nilaparvata lugens chitin synthase 1 (NlCHS1) in newly emerged and matured females resulted in decreases of egg hatchability by 100% and 76%, respectively. Ultrastructural analyses revealed loss of the lamellar structure of the SC in dsNlCHS1-treated eggs. According to temporal expression profiles, five cuticle protein coding genes, NlugCpr1/2/3/8/90, were specifically or highly expressed during the SC formation period, and NlugCpr1/2/3/90 were further detected in 72 h eggshells extract by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. NlugCpr2/3/90 were likely three SC-specific cuticle proteins. TEM observations of the SC following parental RNAi against NlugCpr1/2/3/8/90 demonstrated that NlugCpr3/8/90 were essential for SC formation. The study provided an understanding of the SC formation process and SC-related cuticle proteins in BPHs, which offer potential targets for pest control in the egg stage as well.

7.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439985

RESUMO

The bean bug, Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius), is one of the most important soybean pests. It damages soybean leaves and pods with its piercing-sucking mouthparts, causing staygreen-like syndromes in the infested crops. During the feeding process, R. pedestris secretes a mixture of salivary proteins, which play critical roles in the insect-plant interactions and may be responsible for staygreen-like syndromes. The present study aimed to identify the major salivary proteins in R. pedestris saliva by transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, and to screen the proteins that potentially induced plant defense responses. Altogether, 136 salivary proteins were identified, and a majority of them were involved in hydrolase and binding. Additionally, R. pedestris saliva contained abundant bug-specific proteins with unknown function. Transient expression of salivary proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves identified that RpSP10.3, RpSP13.4, RpSP13.8, RpSP17.8, and RpSP10.2 were capable of inducing cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, and hormone signal changes, indicating the potential roles of these proteins in eliciting plant defenses. Our results will shed more light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the plant-insect interactions and are useful for pest management.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252856, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161338

RESUMO

Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a critical plant virus, has caused significant economic losses in cucurbit crops worldwide. It has not been proved that CGMMV can be transmitted by an insect vector. In this study, the physical contact transmission of CGMMV by Myzus persicae in Nicotiana benthamiana plants was confirmed under laboratory conditions. The acquisition rate increased with time, and most aphids acquired CGMMV at 72 h of the acquisition access period (AAP). Besides, the acquired CGMMV was retained in the aphids for about 12 h, which was efficiently transmitted back to the healthy N. benthamiana plants. More importantly, further experiments suggested that the transmission was mediated by physical contact rather than the specific interaction between insect vector and plant virus. The results obtained in our study contribute to the development of new control strategies for CGMMV in the field.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Tabaco/virologia , Tobamovirus/fisiologia , Viroses/transmissão , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Viroses/virologia
9.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 43, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986295

RESUMO

A large number of insect-specific viruses (ISVs) have recently been discovered, mostly from hematophagous insect vectors because of their medical importance, but little attention has been paid to important plant virus vectors such as the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which exists as a complex of cryptic species. Public SRA datasets of B. tabaci and newly generated transcriptomes of three Chinese populations are here comprehensively investigated to characterize the whitefly viromes of different cryptic species. Twenty novel ISVs were confidently identified, mostly associated with a particular cryptic species while different cryptic species harbored one or more core ISVs. Microinjection experiments showed that some ISVs might cross-infect between the two invasive whitefly cryptic species, Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), but others appeared to have a more restricted host range, reflecting the possibility of distinct long-term coevolution of these ISVs and whitefly hosts. Moreover, analysis of the profiles of virus-derived small-interfering RNAs indicated that some of the ISVs can successfully replicate in whitefly and the antiviral RNAi pathway of B. tabaci is actively involved in response to ISV infections. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of the RNA virome, the distinct relationships and cross-cryptic species infectivity of ISVs in an agriculturally important insect vector.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/virologia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/genética , Viroma , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Metagenoma , Metagenômica/métodos , Filogenia , RNA Viral
10.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 21(7): 2423-2436, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038033

RESUMO

The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) causes great economic losses of soybeans by piercing and sucking pods and seeds. Although R. pedestris has become the focus of numerous studies associated with insect-microbe interactions, plant-insect interactions, and pesticide resistance, a lack of genomic resources has limited deeper insights. Here, we report the first R. pedestris genome at the chromosomal level using PacBio, Illumina, and Hi-C technologies. The assembled genome was 1.080 Gb in size with a contig N50 of 2.882 Mb. More than 96.3% of the total genome bases were successfully anchored to six unique chromosomes. Genome resequencing of male and female individuals and chromosomic staining demonstrated that the sex chromosome system of R. pedestris is XO, and the shortest chromosome is the X chromosome. In total, 19,026 protein-coding genes were predicted, 18,745 of which were validated as being expressed. Temporospatial expression of R. pedestris genes in six tissues and 37 development stages revealed 4,657 and 7,793 genes mainly expressed in gonads and egg periods, respectively. Evolutionary analysis demonstrated that R. pedestris and Oncopeltus fasciatus formed a sister group and split ∼80 million years ago (Mya). Additionally, a 5.04 Mb complete genome of symbiotic Serratia marcescens Rip1 was assembled, and the virulence factors that account for successful colonization in the host midgut were identified. The high-quality R. pedestris genome provides a valuable resource for further research, as well as for the pest management of bug pests.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cromossomos , Feminino , Genoma , Heterópteros/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Simbiose
11.
Virol J ; 18(1): 76, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aphids are important vectors of numerous plant viruses. Besides plant viruses, a number of insect specific viruses (ISVs), such as nege/nege-like viruses, have been recently discovered in aphids of the genera Aphis, Rhopalosiphum, and Sitobion. FINDINGS: In this study, the complete genome sequence of a novel nege-like virus, tentatively named "Indomegoura nege-like virus 1" (INLV1), was identified in aphids of the genus Indomegoura. INLV1 possessed a single positive-stranded RNA genome with 8945 nucleotides, which was predicted to contain three typical open reading frames (ORFs) of negeviruses (including ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3), a 44-nt 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a 98-nt 3' UTR. Five conserved domains were predicted for INLV1, including an Alphavirus-like methyltransferase domain, a RNA virus helicase core domain, and a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain (RdRP) in ORF1, a DISB-ORF2_chro domain in ORF2, and a SP24 domain in ORF3. According to the maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on RdRP, INLV1 was grouped with barley aphid RNA virus 1 and Hubei virga-like virus 4, together with another two invertebrate viruses, which formed a distinct clade in the proposed group Centivirus. The alignment of RdRP domains for INLV1 and other nege/kita-like viruses suggested that RdRP of INLV1 contained the permuted C (GDD)- A [DX(4-5)D] -B [GX(2-3)TX(3)N] motifs, which were conserved in the Centivirus and Sandewavirus groups. Furthermore, the high abundance and typical characteristics of INLV1 derived small interfering RNAs clearly showed the active replication of INLV1 in the aphid Indomegoura. CONCLUSION: INLV1 is the first nege-like virus infecting aphids of the genus Indomegoura. As far as we know, it is also the first ISV revealed in this aphid genus.

12.
J Proteomics ; 239: 104184, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711487

RESUMO

Persistent plant viruses multiply and circulate inside insect vectors following the route of midgut-hemolymph-salivary gland. Currently, how viruses interact with insect vectors after they are released into hemolymph is not entirely clear. In this study, we found that the hemolymph and fat body (HF) contained the highest Rice stripe virus (RSV) levels. Proteomic analysis on RSV-free and RSV-infected HF identified 156 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), with the majority of them participating in metabolism, transportation, and detoxification. The RNA binding protein esf2 was the most downregulated protein. Knocking down the expression of esf2 did not influence the RSV burden, but caused the lethal effect to L. striatellus. In contrast, the mRNA decay protein ZFP36L1 was 69% more abundant upon RSV infection, and suppression of ZFP36L1 significantly increased the RSV burden. Our results reveal the potential role of ZFP36L1 in restricting the viral proliferation, and provide valuable clues for unravelling the interaction between RSV and L. striatellus in HF. SIGNIFICANCE: More than 76% of plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors. For persistent propagative transmission, plant viruses multiply and circulate inside insects following the route of midgut-hemolymph-salivary gland. However, how viruses interact with vector insects after they are released into hemolymph is not entirely clear. Our study investigated the influence of rice stripe virus (RSV) on insect hemolymph and fat body by iTRAQ labeling method. Among the 156 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) identified, two proteins associated with mRNA metabolism were selected for function analysis. We found that the mRNA decay activator protein ZFP36L1 influenced the RSV proliferation, and RNA binding protein esf2 caused the lethal effect to L. striatellus. Our results provide valuable clues for unveiling the interaction between RSV and L. striatellus, and might be useful in pest management.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Oryza , Tenuivirus , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Insetos Vetores , Proteômica
13.
Exp Hematol Oncol ; 10(1): 10, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic trioxide [ATO, inorganic arsenite (iAsIII) in solution] plays an important role in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the long-term adverse effects (AEs) and the retention of arsenic among APL patients are rarely reported. In this study, we focused on arsenic methylation metabolism and its relationship with chronic hepatic toxicity, as we previously reported, among APL patients who had finished the treatment of ATO. METHODS: A total of 112 de novo APL patients who had completed the ATO-containing treatment were enrolled in the study. Arsenic species [iAsIII, inorganic arsenate (iAsV), and their organic metabolites, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] in patients' plasma, urine, hair and nails were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the arsenic (+ 3 oxidative state) methylation transferase (AS3MT) gene, which was known as the main catalyzer for arsenic methylation, were tested with the polymerase chain reaction method. RESULTS: The study showed the metabolic pattern of arsenic in APL patients undergoing and after the treatment of ATO, in terms of total arsenic (TAs) and four species of arsenic. TAs decreased to normal after 6 months since cessation of ATO. But the arsenic speciation demonstrated significantly higher portion of iAsIII in patient's urine (40.08% vs. 1.94%, P < 0.001), hair (29.25% vs. 13.29%, P = 0.002) and nails (30.21% vs. 13.64%, P = 0.003) than the healthy controls', indicating a decreased capacity of arsenic methylation metabolism after the treatment of ATO. Urine primary methylation index (PMI) was significantly lower in patients with both chronic liver dysfunction (0.14 vs. 0.28, P = 0.047) and hepatic steatosis (0.19 vs. 0.3, P = 0.027), suggesting that insufficient methylation of arsenic might be related to chronic liver disorders. Two SNPs (A9749G and A27215G) of the AS3MT gene were associated with impaired urine secondary methylation index (SMI). CONCLUSIONS: The long-term follow-up of arsenic speciation indicated a decreased arsenic methylation metabolism and a probable relationship with chronic hepatic disorders among APL patients after the cessation of ATO. Urine PMI could be a monitoring index for chronic AEs of ATO, and the SNPs of AS3MT gene should be considered when determining the dosage of ATO.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(6)2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495363

RESUMO

As all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) are widely accepted in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), deescalating toxicity becomes a research hotspot. Here, we evaluated whether chemotherapy could be replaced or reduced by ATO in APL patients at different risks. After achieving complete remission with ATRA-ATO-based induction therapy, patients were randomized (1:1) into ATO and non-ATO groups for consolidation: ATRA-ATO versus ATRA-anthracycline for low-/intermediate-risk patients, or ATRA-ATO-anthracycline versus ATRA-anthracycline-cytarabine for high-risk patients. The primary end point was to assess disease-free survival (DFS) at 3 y by a noninferiority margin of -5%; 855 patients were enrolled with a median follow-up of 54.9 mo, and 658 of 755 patients could be evaluated at 3 y. In the ATO group, 96.1% (319/332) achieved 3-y DFS, compared to 92.6% (302/326) in the non-ATO group. The difference was 3.45% (95% CI -0.07 to 6.97), confirming noninferiority (P < 0.001). Using the Kaplan-Meier method, the estimated 7-y DFS was 95.7% (95% CI 93.6 to 97.9) in ATO and 92.6% (95% CI 89.8 to 95.4) in non-ATO groups (P = 0.066). Concerning secondary end points, the 7-y cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) was significantly lower in ATO (2.2% [95% CI 1.1 to 4.2]) than in non-ATO group (6.1% [95% CI 3.9 to 9.5], P = 0.011). In addition, grade 3 to 4 hematological toxicities were significantly reduced in the ATO group during consolidation. Hence, ATRA-ATO in both chemotherapy-replacing and -reducing settings in consolidation is not inferior to ATRA-chemotherapy (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT01987297).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Trióxido de Arsênio/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Tretinoína/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Trióxido de Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia de Consolidação/efeitos adversos , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Citarabina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento , Tretinoína/efeitos adversos
15.
Insect Sci ; 28(5): 1369-1381, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757245

RESUMO

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a notorious agricultural pest of many crops worldwide. Although it is thought that B. tabaci secretes saliva into the host plant to counter plant defenses, knowledge on the whitefly salivary proteome is limited. Here, we characterized the gene/protein repertoires of B. tabaci salivary glands and secreted saliva by transcriptomic and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy analyses. A total of 698 salivary gland-enriched unigenes and 171 salivary proteins were identified. Comparative analysis between the B. tabaci salivary proteins and those of different arthropod species revealed numerous similarities in proteins associated with binding, hydrolysis, and oxidation-reduction, which demonstrates a degree of conservation across herbivorous saliva. There were 74 proteins only identified in B. tabaci saliva, of which 34 were B. tabaci-specific. In addition, 13 salivary proteins, of which 11 were B. tabaci-specific, were differentially regulated when B. tabaci fed on different hosts. Our results provide a good resource for future functional studies of whitefly salivary effectors, and might be useful in pest management.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Hemípteros/genética , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transcriptoma
16.
Arch Virol ; 166(1): 309-312, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108486

RESUMO

The leaf beetle Aulacophora lewisii (family Chrysomelidae, order Coleoptera) is a common insect pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables. In this study, the complete genome sequence of a novel virus from a single leaf beetle was determined using metagenomic sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. A homology search and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the new virus belongs to the genus Iflavirus, family Iflaviridae, and it was tentatively named "Aulacophora lewisii iflavirus 1" (ALIV1). ALIV1 has a single positive-stranded RNA genome of 9655 nucleotides in length (excluding the polyA tail) that is predicted to encode typical conserved domains of iflaviruses, including two picornavirus-like capsid protein domains, a helicase domain, and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain. Sequence comparisons showed that the full genome sequence of ALIV1 is most similar to that of Brevicoryne brassicae picorna-like virus, with 42.4% sequence identity, and it shares 60% sequence identity in the coat protein region with its closest homolog, Watson virus. The average coverage of the ALIV1 sequence was approximately 5000X, suggesting that it might actively replicate in the host. Phylogenetic analysis based on deduced amino acid sequences suggested that ALIV1 is closely related to Dinocampus coccinellae paralysis virus. To the best of our knowledge, ALIV1 is the first virus discovered in A. lewisii and is also the first iflavirus identified in a member of the genus Aulacophora.


Assuntos
Besouros/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus de RNA/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Hemípteros/virologia , Metagenômica/métodos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência/métodos , Proteínas Virais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
17.
Viruses ; 12(7)2020 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604989

RESUMO

Negeviruses are a proposed group of insect-specific viruses that can be separated into two distinct phylogenetic clades, Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus. Negeviruses are well-known for their wide geographic distribution and broad host range among hematophagous insects. In this study, the full genomes of two novel negeviruses from each of these clades were identified by RNA extraction and sequencing from a single dungfly (Scathophaga furcata) collected from the Arctic Yellow River Station, where these genomes are the first negeviruses from cold zone regions to be discovered. Nelorpivirus dungfly1 (NVD1) and Sandewavirus dungfly1 (SVD1) have the typical negevirus genome organization and there was a very high coverage of viral transcripts. Small interfering RNAs derived from both viruses were readily detected in S. furcata, clearly showing that negeviruses are targeted by the host antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. These results and subsequent in silico analysis (studies) of public database and published virome data showed that the hosts of nege-like viruses include insects belonging to many orders as well as various non-insects in addition to the hematophagous insects previously reported. Phylogenetic analysis reveals at least three further groups of negeviruses, as well as several poorly resolved solitary branches, filling in the gaps within the two sub-groups of negeviruses and plant-associated viruses in the Kitaviridae. The results of this study will contribute to a better understanding of the geographic distribution, host range, evolution and host antiviral immune responses of negeviruses.


Assuntos
Dípteros/virologia , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Genoma Viral , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Vírus de Insetos/classificação , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia
18.
Blood ; 135(17): 1472-1483, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315388

RESUMO

Internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations within the FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) can be found in up to 25% to 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and confer a poor prognosis. Although FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown clinical responses, they cannot eliminate primitive FLT3-ITD+ AML cells, which are potential sources of relapse. Therefore, elucidating the mechanisms underlying FLT3-ITD+ AML maintenance and drug resistance is essential to develop novel effective treatment strategies. Here, we demonstrate that FLT3 inhibition induces histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) upregulation through FOXO1- and FOXO3-mediated transactivation in FLT3-ITD+ AML cells. Upregulated HDAC8 deacetylates and inactivates p53, leading to leukemia maintenance and drug resistance upon TKI treatment. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of HDAC8 reactivates p53, abrogates leukemia maintenance, and significantly enhances TKI-mediated elimination of FLT3-ITD+ AML cells. Importantly, in FLT3-ITD+ AML patient-derived xenograft models, the combination of FLT3 TKI (AC220) and an HDAC8 inhibitor (22d) significantly inhibits leukemia progression and effectively reduces primitive FLT3-ITD+ AML cells. Moreover, we extend these findings to an AML subtype harboring another tyrosine kinase-activating mutation. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that HDAC8 upregulation is an important mechanism to resist TKIs and promote leukemia maintenance and suggests that combining HDAC8 inhibition with TKI treatment could be a promising strategy to treat FLT3-ITD+ AML and other tyrosine kinase mutation-harboring leukemias.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Mutação , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Regulação para Cima , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 124(1): 146-155, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431739

RESUMO

Heritable epigenetic modifications may occur in response to environmental variation, further altering phenotypes through gene regulation, without genome sequence changes. However, epigenetic variation in wild plant populations and their correlations with genetic and phenotypic variation remain largely unknown, especially for clonal plants. We investigated genetic, epigenetic and phenotypic variation of ten populations of an introduced clonal herb Hydrocotyle vulgaris in China. Populations of H. vulgaris exhibited extremely low genetic diversity with one genotype exclusively dominant, but significantly higher epigenetic diversity. Both intra- and inter-population epigenetic variation were related to genetic variation. But there was no correlation between intra-/inter-population genetic variation and phenotypic variation. When genetic variation was controlled, intra-population epigenetic diversity was related to petiole length, specific leaf area, and leaf area variation, while inter-population epigenetic distance was correlated with leaf area differentiation. Our study provides empirical evidence that even though epigenetic variation is partly under genetic control, it could also independently play a role in shaping plant phenotypes, possibly serving as a pathway to accelerate evolution of clonal plant populations.


Assuntos
Centella/genética , Epigênese Genética , Genética Populacional , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , China , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo
20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 613957, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33488623

RESUMO

The Toll pathway plays an important role in defense against infection of various pathogenic microorganisms, including viruses. However, current understanding of Toll pathway was mainly restricted in mammal and some model insects such as Drosophila and mosquitoes. Whether plant viruses can also activate the Toll signaling pathway in vector insects is still unknown. In this study, using rice stripe virus (RSV) and its insect vector (small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus) as a model, we found that the Toll pathway was activated upon RSV infection. In comparison of viruliferous and non-viruliferous planthoppers, we found that four Toll pathway core genes (Toll, Tube, MyD88, and Dorsal) were upregulated in viruliferous planthoppers. When the planthoppers infected with RSV, the expressions of Toll and MyD88 were rapidly upregulated at the early stage (1 and 3 days post-infection), whereas Dorsal was upregulated at the late stage (9 days post-infection). Furthermore, induction of Toll pathway was initiated by interaction between a Toll receptor and RSV nucleocapsid protein (NP). Knockdown of Toll increased the proliferation of RSV in vector insect, and the dsToll-treated insects exhibited higher mortality than that of dsGFP-treated ones. Our results provide the first evidence that the Toll signaling pathway of an insect vector is potentially activated through the direct interaction between Toll receptor and a protein encoded by a plant virus, indicating that Toll immune pathway is an important strategy against plant virus infection in an insect vector.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Vírus de Plantas/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/imunologia
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