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1.
Photochem Photobiol ; 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490538

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOF) are recently developed coordination porous materials, and their unique structures are very conducive to catalytic reactions. In this paper, p-benzenedicarboxylic acid (PBA)-Ni2+ MOF materials (denoted as PBA-Ni-x, where x represents the initial ratio of PBA to Ni2+ ) were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and N2 gas adsorption. H2 gas was produced using the synthesized MOF as a photocatalyst and Eosin Y as a photosensitizer. The dependence of the special surface area and thickness of the nanosheets of Ni-MOF on the initial ratio of PBA to Ni2+ (PBA/Ni2+ ) was investigated. The BET surface areas of PBA-Ni-1 PBA-Ni-2 and PBA-Ni-3 are 11.00, 24.61 and 13.04 m2  g-1 , respectively. And the thicknesses of nanosheets are approximately 600-1000, 200-500 and 300-700 nm. Among the three materials, PBA-Ni-2 has the thinnest sheet-like structure and largest surface area. Thus, it displays the highest H2 evolution rate of 20.0 µmol h-1 . The noble-metal-free hydrogen production system is valuable for the application of MOF materials in photocatalytic water splitting.

2.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127215, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505950

RESUMO

Red mud, as industrial solid waste, causes severe environmental problems such as soil alkalization and groundwater pollution. In this work, we researched and developed the red mud as a selective catalytic reduction catalyst for NOx removal with NH3 (NH3-SCR). After selective dissolution and specific heat treatment, different Ce precursors were used to modifying its physical and chemical properties. The results showed that Ce(NO3)3 and Ce(NH4)2(NO3)6 modified red mud (RMcn and RMcan) had excellent SCR performance below 300 °C. Ce(SO4)2 modified red mud (RMcs) showed relatively low NOx conversions at 200-300 °C. The redox property was improved with the Ce(NO3)3 and Ce(NH4)2(NO3)6, while depressed with the Ce(SO4)2. Agglomerates generated on the RMcs and blocked the accumulated pores due to the formation of Ce2(SO4)3. The surface acidity of RMcs enhanced with increased adsorption for ammonia. However, these new adsorbed ammonia species, highly related to the sulfate from the Ce2(SO4)3, were inert and did not react with the adsorbed or gaseous NO species at 200-300 °C. The abundant surface lattice oxygen from CeO2 microcrystals improved the catalytic oxidation capacity of the RMcn and RMcan.

3.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(6): 883-886, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505462

RESUMO

Information on SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic infection and infectivity in children is limited. In this study, we aimed to report the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a familial cluster infection including children with SARS-CoV-2. On February 1, 2020, two children(case 1 and case 2), an 8-year-old girl and a 9-year-old boy, were admitted to the isolation ward in Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei province, China, with the diagnosis of COVID-19. Before admission, they had been staying at home with their father and never contacted with any confirmed patients except their mother (case 3) who returned from Wuhan on January 22. Both case 1 and case 2 got mild symptoms. Case 3 did not develop any symptoms until February 6, 2020, with an asymptomatic period of 15 days. She was transferred to ICU and administered multiple treatment according to the disease progression and chest CT manifestations. Her nucleic acid test turned positive until Feb 21, 2020, 15 days after symptoms onset, 30 days after her return from Wuhan. Our data showed that patients with SARS-CoV-2 may have the ability to transmit during their asymptomatic period even with the negative of viral nucleic acid in pharyngeal swabs.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Família , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , Criança , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tórax/virologia
4.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 72(3): 382-390, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572435

RESUMO

Enteric nervous system (ENS) is composed of intestinal submucosal and myenteric plexuses. ENS may independently regulate intestinal digestive and absorptive function, and it is also known as "the second brain" or gut brain. ENS has significant specificity relative to central nervous system (CNS) in properties and functional activities of neurons and neural circuits. ENS is connected with CNS through the feedback pathway (brain-gut-axis) of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves and peripheral primary sensory afferent nerves to form the bidirectional brain-gut-axis, which may affect emotion, appetite and behavioral states of individuals. Gastrointestinal functional disorder (GIFD) induced by ENS dysfunction may not only cause abnormal gastrointestinal function but also has been implicated in cognitive and mood disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). GIFD would influence deeply the quality of life in patients. Nevertheless, in the worldwide, ENS has so far received much less attention as compared with CNS. The depth of research and scale of investment in ENS studies have been much lower than those in CNS studies. The situation in China is even more evident. From ENS research history, an outstanding problem is to ignore largely the unique properties of ENS and apply mechanically the hypotheses formed in CNS studies to ENS researches. In this review, the structure and function of ENS are briefly introduced, and the importance of extraordinary characteristics of ENS is illustrated by the problems encountered in our studies.

5.
Gigascience ; 9(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rumen microbiota provides essential services to its host and, through its role in ruminant production, contributes to human nutrition and food security. A thorough knowledge of the genetic potential of rumen microbes will provide opportunities for improving the sustainability of ruminant production systems. The availability of gene reference catalogs from gut microbiomes has advanced the understanding of the role of the microbiota in health and disease in humans and other mammals. In this work, we established a catalog of reference prokaryote genes from the bovine rumen. RESULTS: Using deep metagenome sequencing we identified 13,825,880 non-redundant prokaryote genes from the bovine rumen. Compared to human, pig, and mouse gut metagenome catalogs, the rumen is larger and richer in functions and microbial species associated with the degradation of plant cell wall material and production of methane. Genes encoding enzymes catalyzing the breakdown of plant polysaccharides showed a particularly high richness that is otherwise impossible to infer from available genomes or shallow metagenomics sequencing. The catalog expands the dataset of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes described in the rumen. Using an independent dataset from a group of 77 cattle fed 4 common dietary regimes, we found that only <0.1% of genes were shared by all animals, which contrast with a large overlap for functions, i.e., 63% for KEGG functions. Different diets induced differences in the relative abundance rather than the presence or absence of genes, which explains the great adaptability of cattle to rapidly adjust to dietary changes. CONCLUSIONS: These data bring new insights into functions, carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, and microbes of the rumen to complement the available information on microbial genomes. The catalog is a significant biological resource enabling deeper understanding of phenotypes and biological processes and will be expanded as new data are made available.

6.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e19577, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349962

RESUMO

Disasters and pandemics pose unique challenges to health care delivery. As health care resources continue to be stretched due to the increasing burden of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, telemedicine, including tele-education, may be an effective way to rationally allocate medical resources. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a multimodal telemedicine network in Sichuan Province in Western China was activated immediately after the first outbreak in January 2020. The network synergizes a newly established 5G service, a smartphone app, and an existing telemedicine system. Telemedicine was demonstrated to be feasible, acceptable, and effective in Western China, and allowed for significant improvements in health care outcomes. The success of telemedicine here may be a useful reference for other parts of the world.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Surtos de Doenças , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Educação a Distância , Educação em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Internet , Aplicativos Móveis , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Serviços Postais , Smartphone , Telemedicina/economia , Telemedicina/instrumentação , Telefone
7.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376702

RESUMO

Bezlotoxumab is a human monoclonal antibody against Clostridium difficile toxin B, indicated to prevent recurrence of C. difficile infection (rCDI) in high-risk adults receiving antibacterial treatment for CDI. An exploratory genome-wide association study investigated whether human genetic variation influences bezlotoxumab response. DNA from 704 participants who achieved initial clinical cure in the phase 3 MODIFY I/II trials was genotyped. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) imputation were performed using IMPUTE2 and HIBAG, respectively. A joint test of genotype and genotype-by-treatment interaction in a logistic regression model was used to screen genetic variants associated with response to bezlotoxumab. The SNP rs2516513 and the HLA alleles HLA-DRB1*07:01 and HLA-DQA1*02:01, located in the extended major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6, were associated with the reduction of rCDI in bezlotoxumab-treated participants. Carriage of a minor allele (homozygous or heterozygous) at any of the identified loci was related to a larger difference in the proportion of participants experiencing rCDI versus placebo; the effect was most prominent in the subgroup at high baseline risk for rCDI. Genotypes associated with an improved bezlotoxumab response showed no association with rCDI in the placebo cohort. These data suggest that a host-driven, immunological mechanism may impact bezlotoxumab response. Trial registration numbers are as follows: NCT01241552 (MODIFY I) and NCT01513239 (MODIFY II).IMPORTANCE Clostridium difficile infection is associated with significant clinical morbidity and mortality; antibacterial treatments are effective, but recurrence of C. difficile infection is common. In this genome-wide association study, we explored whether host genetic variability affected treatment responses to bezlotoxumab, a human monoclonal antibody that binds C. difficile toxin B and is indicated for the prevention of recurrent C. difficile infection. Using data from the MODIFY I/II phase 3 clinical trials, we identified three genetic variants associated with reduced rates of C. difficile infection recurrence in bezlotoxumab-treated participants. The effects were most pronounced in participants at high risk of C. difficile infection recurrence. All three variants are located in the extended major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6, suggesting the involvement of a host-driven immunological mechanism in the prevention of C. difficile infection recurrence.

8.
J Clin Virol ; 127: 104377, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has spread around the world, and reports of children with COVID-19 are increasing. OBJECTIVES: To assess clinical profiles of pediatric COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis was undertaken using clinical data of sixteen children (11 months-14 years) diagnosed with COVID-19 between January 1, 2020 and March 17, 2020 at Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei province, China. RESULTS: All children had positive epidemiologic histories, 12 (12/16, 75 %) involving family units. The illnesses were either mild (5/16, 31.3 %) or ordinary (11/16, 68.8 %), presenting as follows: asymptomatic (8/16, 50 %), fever and/or cough (8/16, 50 %). Four asymptomatic patients (4/16, 25 %) in ordinary cases had chest computed tomography (CT) abnormalities. Leukocyte counts were normal in 14 cases(88 %), but 2 patients (12.5 %) had leukopenia, and 1 (6.3 %) was lymphopenic. There were 11 patients with chest CT abnormalities, some nodular, others small patchy and others ground-glass opacities. In asymptomatic children, the median time to SRAS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test(NAT) positivity once exposed to a family member with confirmed infection was 15.5 days (range, 10-26 days). The median time to first NAT-negative conversion was 5.5 days (range, 1-23 days). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 in children of Xiangyang city is often family acquired and not serious, with favorable outcomes. Asymptomatic children can be diagnosed as pneumonia because of chest CT abnormalities. It is essential to actively screen this segment of the population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Tosse/virologia , Feminino , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 8057929, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32258146

RESUMO

Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita) is an important tuberous crop used for both food and medicine. Despite a long history of cultivation, the understanding of D. opposita genetics and molecular biology remains scant, which has limited its genetic improvement. This work presents a de novo transcriptome sequencing analysis of microtuber formation in D. opposita. We assembled cDNA libraries from different stages during the process of microtuber formation, designated as initial explants (EXP), axillary bud proliferation after three weeks (BUD), and microtuber visible after four weeks (MTV). More differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathways were identified between BUD vs. EXP than in MTV vs. BUD, indicating that proliferation of the axillary bud is the key stage of microtuber induction. Gene classification and pathway enrichment analysis showed that microtuber formation is tightly coordinated with primary metabolism, such as amino acid biosynthesis, ribosomal component biosynthesis, and starch and sucrose metabolism. The formation of the microtuber is regulated by a variety of plant hormones, including ABA. Combined with analysis of physiological data, we suggest that ABA positively regulates tuberization in D. opposita. This study will serve as an empirical foundation for future molecular studies and for the propagation of D. opposita germplasm in field crops.

10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008148, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echinococcosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus spp. tapeworms with over one million people affected globally at any time. The Echinococcus spp. tapeworms in the human body release DNA to the circulatory system, which can be a biomarker for echinococcosis. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is widely used in medical research and has been applied in various clinical settings. As for echinococcosis, several PCR-based tests had been trialed to detect cell-free Echinococcus spp. DNA in plasma or serum, but the sensitivity was about 20% to 25%. Low sensitivity of PCR-based methods might be related to our limited understanding of the features of cell-free Echinococcus spp. DNA in plasma, including its concentration, fragment pattern and release source. In this study, we applied ultra-high-throughput sequencing to comprehensively investigate the characteristics of cell-free Echinococcus spp. DNA in plasma of echinococcosis patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected plasma samples from 23 echinococcosis patients. Total plasma cfDNA was extracted and sequenced with a high-throughput sequencing platform. An average of 282 million read pairs were obtained for each plasma sample. Sequencing data were analyzed with bioinformatics workflow combined with Echinococcus spp. sequence database. After identification of cell-free Echinococcus spp. reads, we found that the cell-free Echinococcus spp. reads accounted for 1.8e-5 to 4.0e-9 of the total clean reads. Comparing fragment length distribution of cfDNA between Echinococcus spp. and humans showed that cell-free Echinococcus spp. DNA of cystic echinococcosis (CE) had a broad length range, while that of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) had an obvious peak at about 135 bp. We found that most of the cell-free Echinococcus spp. DNA reads were from the nuclear genome with an even distribution, which might indicate a random release pattern of cell-free Echinococcus spp. DNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With ultra-high-throughput sequencing technology, we analyzed the concentration, fragment length, release source, and other characteristics of cell-free Echinococcus spp. DNA in the plasma of echinococcosis patients. A better understanding of the characteristics of cell-free Echinococcus spp. DNA in plasma may facilitate their future application as a biomarker for diagnosis.

12.
Food Res Int ; 132: 108990, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331693

RESUMO

In this study, the influence of NaCl on the flocculation behavior and gel properties of egg yolk/κ-carrageenan mixed dispersions or emulsions were studied. As a result of NaCl incorporation, there was a decrease in the mean droplet size, zeta potential, degree of flocculation and viscosity of the mixed dispersions/emulsions, and the onset point of gelation was also brought forward. Increasing the concentration of NaCl led to a significant increase in gel strength and decrease in gel cohesiveness. Results from low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) confirmed that the addition of NaCl could significantly reduce the hydration ability of gel molecules and increase the content of immobilized water of hydrogels as the gel strength increased, while the water holding capacity of emulsion gels was depressed with the incorporation of oil. These findings suggested the flocculation state and gel properties of egg yolk/κ-carrageenan mixed dispersions/emulsions can be tailored by adjusting NaCl for food formulations.

13.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 147, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the development and progression of genetic technology, preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) has made it possible to block the inheritance of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) as early as possible. However, we need to know the patients' fertility intentions and their acceptance of PGT. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data on the basic demographic data, quality of life, social support, fertility willingness, and level of understanding of genetic testing for blocking the inheritance of ADPKD among patients aged 18-45 years in seven hospitals from January 2018 to December 2018. After verification, statistics were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 260 patients with ADPKD were interviewed, including 137males (52.7%) and 123 females (47.3%). The overall fertility willingness rate was low (n = 117, 45.0%). The proportion of married patients aged 25-34 years that were at the optimal reproductive age but did not yet have children was relatively high (n = 77, 67.0%). The fertility intentions of ADPKD patients were significantly influenced by age (OR: 0.101, 95% CI 0.045-0.225, P < 0.001) and education level (OR: 2.134, 95% CI 1.162-3.917, P = 0.014). Among patients who are willing to have children, 207 (79.6%) of them would choose PGT technology. Among those who were not sure whether they would choose PGT technology, the first major concern was technical safety (49.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The reproductive desire of childbearing ADPKD patients in China was low. Strengthening the health education of ADPKD genetic knowledge and reducing the cost of related technologies may improve the fertility intentions and reduce the barriers to acceptance of PGT.

14.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 20(1): 160, 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the long term surgical outcomes of cataract surgery in severe and end stage glaucoma patients with preoperative intraocular pressure less than 21 mmHg, and to detect the associated factors. METHODS: A retrospective study of primary angle closure glaucoma patients was conducted on who underwent cataract surgery or combined with goniosynechialysis from March 2015 to April 2018. Main outcome measures were visual acuity, intraocular pressure, number of glaucoma medications and complications. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (19 eyes) were included. The mean age was 64.89 ± 11.68 years and the mean followed up duration was 21.89 ± 7.85 months. The final visual acuity was significantly improved from 0.69 ± 0.55 to 0.46 ± 0.52 logMAR, within 12 (63.2%) eyes improved, 4 (21.1%) eyes kept unchanged, and 3 (15.8%) eyes reduced. Linear regression analysis indicated that higher mean deviation, higher visual field index and lower glaucoma stage associated with better final visual acuity (r = - 0.511, r = - 0.493, r = 0.537 respectively). Moreover, the final number of medications were reduced from 1.26 ± 0.99 to 0.26 ± 0.56 (p < 0.01). The mean intraocular pressure was not significantly reduced with the final IOP of 14.48 ± 3.74 mmHg (p = 0.97). While the eyes with intraocular pressure above 15 mmHg was decreased to 6 (31.6%) eyes compared to 10 (52.6%) eyes at baseline. Moreover, the number of eyes free of medications was increased from 4 (21.1%) preoperatively to 15 (78.9%) eyes postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Final visual acuity was significantly improved in the severe and end stage primary angle closure glaucoma patients and the number of eyes came off medications increased by 57.8% after cataract surgery. Preoperatively, the glaucoma stage, mean deviation and visual field index are important parameters to predict the final visual acuity after cataract surgery.

15.
Kidney Int ; 97(5): 829-838, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247631

RESUMO

In December 2019, a coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease outbreak occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and rapidly spread to other areas worldwide. Although diffuse alveolar damage and acute respiratory failure were the main features, the involvement of other organs needs to be explored. Since information on kidney disease in patients with COVID-19 is limited, we determined the prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with COVID-19. Further, we evaluated the association between markers of abnormal kidney function and death in patients with COVID-19. This was a prospective cohort study of 701 patients with COVID-19 admitted in a tertiary teaching hospital that also encompassed three affiliates following this major outbreak in Wuhan in 2020 of whom 113 (16.1%) died in hospital. Median age of the patients was 63 years (interquartile range, 50-71), including 367 men and 334 women. On admission, 43.9% of patients had proteinuria and 26.7% had hematuria. The prevalence of elevated serum creatinine, elevated blood urea nitrogen and estimated glomerular filtration under 60 ml/min/1.73m2 were 14.4, 13.1 and 13.1%, respectively. During the study period, AKI occurred in 5.1% patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with kidney disease had a significantly higher risk for in-hospital death. Cox proportional hazard regression confirmed that elevated baseline serum creatinine (hazard ratio: 2.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.36-3.26), elevated baseline blood urea nitrogen (3.97, 2.57-6.14), AKI stage 1 (1.90, 0.76-4.76), stage 2 (3.51, 1.49-8.26), stage 3 (4.38, 2.31-8.31), proteinuria 1+ (1.80, 0.81-4.00), 2+∼3+ (4.84, 2.00-11.70), and hematuria 1+ (2.99, 1.39-6.42), 2+∼3+ (5.56,2.58- 12.01) were independent risk factors for in-hospital death after adjusting for age, sex, disease severity, comorbidity and leukocyte count. Thus, our findings show the prevalence of kidney disease on admission and the development of AKI during hospitalization in patients with COVID-19 is high and is associated with in-hospital mortality. Hence, clinicians should increase their awareness of kidney disease in patients with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Infecções por Coronavirus , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , China , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteinúria , Fatores de Risco
16.
Int Ophthalmol ; 40(7): 1695-1705, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this was to determine the efficacy of different patterns of intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). MATERIALS AND METHOD: IPL treatment was administered in 124 eyes of 62 patients with MGD-associated dry eye disease (DED). These patients were divided randomly into two groups treated with different IPL patterns. The first group was treated with "Optimal Pulse Technology" (OPT) (n = 29) and received three consecutive treatments (10-14 J/cm2) with three weeks between treatments. The other group was treated with "Intense Regulated Pulsed Light" (IRPL) (n = 33) and received four treatments (9-13 J/cm2) on days (D)1, D15, D45, and D75. The Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), fluorescein breakup time (FTBUT), first and the average of noninvasive keratograph tear breakup times (NIKBUT), Schirmer I tests, conjunctival hyperemia, corneal fluorescent staining (CFS), tear meniscus height (TMH), MG secretion, and dropout were examined before each treatment and at one and three months after treatment. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, the clinical symptoms and signs in both groups were significantly improved at one and three months after IPL treatment. However, compared to the IRPL group, the OPT-treated group showed significant improvement in the clarity of MG secretions (P = 0.001), the number of MGs yielding clear or cloudy liquid secretions (P < 0.001), the total MG secretion score (P < 0.001) in lower eyelid, the lid margin score in upper (P < 0.001) and lower eyelids (P = 0.013), the first NIKBUT (P = 0.009), and FTBUT (P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that IPL has significant clinical value in treating patients with MGD. OPT IPL treatment was more effective in improving MG function in lower eyelids and partial tear film signs than IRPL IPL treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov, and the clinical trial accession number is NCT02481167.

17.
Neurochem Res ; 45(5): 1086-1096, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060774

RESUMO

Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption plays an important role in brain injury after acute kidney injury (AKI). However, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent evidence has revealed that proper mitochondrial function is essential for BBB permeability. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a key factor in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This study was designed to investigate the role of PGC-1α in BBB injury after AKI and its related mechanisms. Mice received recombinant adenovirus encoding murine PGC-1α (100 µl, 1.0 × 109PFU/ml) or vehicle 5 days before renal I/R or sham operation. Twenty-four hours after the operation, brain, kidney and serum samples were collected for assessments. We found that mice suffering from renal I/R injury showed decreased PGC-1α levels in both the kidney and BBB. PGC-1α transfection resulted in increased PGC-1α level and mitochondrial transcripts in BBB at 24 h after AKI. PGC-1α transfection improved renal function, systemic inflammation and BBB permeability via both the paracellular and transcellular pathways. Further study suggested that PGC-1α overexpression elevated fatty acid oxidation related gene expression. Our findings demonstrate the importance of PGC-1α in AKI-induced BBB injury and suggest that it could be a therapeutic target for BBB repair via the regulation of mitochondrial function.

18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(7): 2873-2879, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liquid eggs have the advantages of high hygiene security, easy use, and convenient transportation, but their shelf life is only limited to 2~3 weeks. The microbial, physiochemical, and functional properties of pasteurized LWE were investigated in this study to evaluate the quality of pasteurized liquid whole egg (LWE) during refrigerated storage. RESULTS: The tested shelf life of the pasteurized LWE was 16 days when stored at 4 °C. During refrigerated storage, Pseudomonas gradually became the dominant bacterium in LWE following lactic acid bacteria, although the initial number of Pseudomonas after pasteurization was relatively limited (< 10 CFU mL-1 ). A total of 23 strains, including six Pseudomonas strains, were obtained. The pH of pasteurized LWE decreased with the growth of microorganisms, while the content of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) increased curvilinearly. The average particle size increased almost continuously until the sample reached its shelf life. The functional properties of pasteurized LWE were also reduced after a week of refrigerated storage at 4 °C when the microorganisms in pasteurized LWE entered an exponential growth period and the TVB-N content of pasteurized LWE reached its first peak. CONCLUSION: During refrigerated storage, Pseudomonas was the dominant bacterium in LWE next to lactic acid bacteria. After a week of refrigerated storage at 4 °C, the particle size of LWE increased, while the functional properties of LWE reduced. This study provides a basis for extending the shelf life of liquid egg products in future research. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

19.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(2): 148-155, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different concentrations of muscone on the ketamine requirement for hypnosis and analgesia and possible mechanism in mice. METHODS: In the hypnotic response experiment, muscone (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg/kg) was administered 15 minutes before ketamine by intraperitoneal injection. The hypnotic response was evaluated by loss of righting reflex (LORR). In the analgesia experiment, muscone (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg) was administered 15 minutes before 50 mg/kg ketamine injection. Pain threshold was assessed by measuring the tail-flick latency induced by heat radiation. Twenty minutes after ketamine injection, the mRNA expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NR) subunits, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors subunits, opioid receptors subunits, and some Na and Ca channels were detected by qPCR in the hippocampus of mice. RESULTS: The 50% effective dose (ED50) with 95% confidence interval of ketamine-induced LORR was 49.2 (43.4-56.4) mg/kg. About 4.0 or 8.0 mg/kg muscone increased ED50 of ketamine-induced hypnosis, which was 82.7 (70.0-98.4) mg/kg or 72.0 (65.4-85.7) mg/kg, respectively. In the analgesic experiment, ketamine alone caused an obvious analgesic effect, whereas different dose of muscone decreased pain threshold in the presence of ketamine; 4.0 mg/kg muscone up-regulated the mRNA expression of NR1 and inhibited ketamine-induced increase of δ-opioid receptor mRNA level. Muscone also inhibited Cav2.1 mRNA expression in the presence of ketamine. CONCLUSION: Muscone reduced the hypnotic and analgesic effect of ketamine in dose-independent manner in mice, which may be related to the changes of NR1 and δ-opioid receptor.

20.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng ; 28(3): 730-739, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011259

RESUMO

An exoskeleton is utilized to effectively restore the motor function of amputees' limbs and is frequently employed in motor rehabilitation training during convalescence. Understanding of exoskeleton impact on the brain is required in order to better and more efficiently use the exoskeleton. Almost all previous studies investigated the exoskeleton effect on the brain in a situation with constraints such as predefined walking speed, which could lead to findings differed from that obtained in an unconstrained situation. We, therefore, performed an experiment of unconstrained walking with and without an exoskeleton. Both individual connections and graph metrics were explored and compared among walking conditions. We found that low-order functional connections and associated high-order functional connections mainly between the left centroparietal region and right frontal region were significantly different among walking conditions. Generally speaking, connective strength was enhanced in LOFC and was decreased in aHOFC when assistant force was provided by the exoskeleton. Further, we proposed connection length investigation and revealed the large majority of these connections were long-distance connectivity. Graph metric investigation discovered higher connectivity clustering in the walking with low exoskeleton-aided force compared to the walking without the exoskeleton. This study expanded the existing knowledge of the effect of exoskeleton on the brain and is of implications on new exoskeleton development and exoskeleton-aided rehabilitation training.

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