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1.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 51(4): 470-486, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epithelium-specific ETS protein 3 (Ese-3) is a member of the ETS family that is associated with tumor progression. However, there is little knowledge about Ese-3 in skin cancer. This study was conducted to explore the effects of Ese-3 on clinical prognosis in skin cancer and the functions of HaCaT cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gene expression and clinical data were collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and three GSE datasets (GSE15605, GSE46517, and GSE114445). Comparison of data between groups was performed by Student's t-test and chi square test. Survival analysis was performed using log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models. Enrichment analysis was used to predict Ese-3 related functions. Cell proliferation assays, colony formation assays, and flow cytometry were used to assess cell proliferation, while Transwell assays analyzed cell migration and invasion. RESULTS: Compared with normal tissues, the Ese-3 mRNA in cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) patients was downregulated (P<0.0001). Ese-3 mRNA was associated with the T stage (χ 2=10.015, P=0.018), clinical stage (χ 2=4.122, P=0.042), and prognosis in CMM patients (P=0.0219) and was an independent prognostic predictor in CMM (HR=1.878, P=0.048). Enrichment analysis showed that differentially expressed proteins were associated with "protein kinase B (AKT) binding." CONCLUSION: Ese-3 inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HaCaT cells by downregulating PSIP1 and NUCKS1 expression levels to inactivate the phosphorylation of AKT.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/antagonistas & inibidores , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoproteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Idoso , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Células HaCaT , Humanos , Masculino , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
2.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113282, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314965

RESUMO

Green technology innovation is an important driving force for high-quality development in China. Recently, much attention has focused on the connotation, influencing factors and mode selection of green technology innovation, yet few studies have systematically tested the transmission paths between green technology innovation and economic performance. Green technology innovation can be divided into green process innovation and green product innovation, both of which can improve the environmental and economic performance of enterprises. Drawing on previous research, this study constructs a model of economic performance transmission for green technology innovation and upgrading, and conducts an empirical analysis based on data from 642 industrial enterprises in China. The results show that green process innovation and green product innovation can effectively improve the economic performance of enterprises. The environmental performance and market competitiveness of enterprises are important mediating variables in the paths of economic performance improvement. An enterprise's green process innovation can positively promote green product innovation, and there is also room for technological innovation upgrading. There are two main differences in the transmission paths for different types of green technology innovation: (1) Green process innovation can improve economic performance directly, whereas green product innovation can only do this indirectly; (2) In most cases, the path from green product innovation to economic performance is more important than that from green process innovation to economic performance. This study deepens understanding of the green technology innovation process and has implications for optimizing policy design for green development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Invenções , China , Indústrias , Modelos Estruturais , Tecnologia
3.
Parasitol Int ; 84: 102414, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182122

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites capable of causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. The purpose of this research was to determine the occurrence, genetic characteristics, and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in captive mammals at the Bangladesh National Zoo. A total of 200 fresh fecal samples from 32 mammalian species were collected and examined for Cryptosporidium spp. using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and G. duodenalis targeting the ß-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. The overall infection rates of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis among captive mammals in the zoo were 3.5% (7/200) and 5.5% (11/200), respectively. Five species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium (C. hominis, C. andersoni, C. muris, C. felis, and Cryptosporidium deer genotype) were identified. C. hominis was subtyped as IbA12G3 by sequence analysis of the glycoprotein 60 (gp60) gene. Multilocus genotyping of G. duodenalis revealed assemblages A, B, and D. Mixed infections of assemblages B and D and A and B were found in an Asiatic jackal and a Nilgiri langur, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence and genetic identity of the two parasites among zoo animals in Bangladesh. The results suggest that zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are maintained in and transmitted between captive mammals. Therefore, washing, cleaning, and disinfection measures should be implemented to reduce the spread of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis infections.

4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109760

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a widespread opportunistic pathogen found in humans and domestic animals, including cattle that poses a public health risk. This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence, genotypic diversity, and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi among children and calves in Bangladesh. A total of 998 fecal samples were collected from children (n = 299) and calves (n = 699) and screened by nested PCR and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi infection was 6.4% in children and 7.9% in calves. ITS sequence analysis of 74 isolates revealed 10 genotypes, including eight known genotypes (A, D, Type IV, PigEBITS7, I, J, BEB4, and BEB6) and two new genotypes (BANEB1 and BANEB3). Specifically, genotypes A, D, Type IV, PigEBITS7, BANEB1, and BANEB3, and genotypes D, PigEBITS7, I, J, BEB4, and BEB6 were detected in children and calves, respectively. Among them, genotypes D and I were dominant genotypes in children and calves, respectively. The genotypes D and PigEBITS7 were found in both children and calves, with PigEBITS7 being observed for the first time in calves. In phylogenetic analysis, six genotypes (A, D, Type IV, PigEBITS7, BANEB1, and BANEB3), detected in 39.2% of the isolates, belonged to zoonotic Group 1. The remaining four genotypes I, J, BEB4, and BEB6 were clustered in Group 2 and are common members of the group with zoonotic potential. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first report of E. bieneusi infection in calves in Bangladesh and also the first molecular characterization of the parasite in children and calves in this country. Two new genotypes in children have been found, which is noteworthy. Furthermore, the presence of zoonotic genotypes indicates that cattle may serve as reservoirs for E. bieneusi, which can be a source of human microsporidiosis.

5.
Eur J Protistol ; 79: 125796, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975057

RESUMO

Blastocystis is a common enteric protist that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of approximately 1 billion people worldwide. In this study, a total of 1,070 patients from two hospitals in Zhengzhou, Central China were enrolled to know molecular characteristics of Blastocystis sp. The microorganism was identified and subtyped with a PCR amplification and sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (SSU-rDNA). The overall minimum prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in participants was 3.1% (33/1070). Although there were no significant differences on Blastocystis sp. infections among study sites, age groups, and gender, the higher infection was observed in the patients with gastrointestinal diseases (8.8%, 15/170). Sequence analysis of the 33 isolates revealed three known subtypes, such as ST1 (n = 7), ST3 (n = 23), and ST7 (n = 3). Among them, ST3 was the dominant subtype being detected in 23 isolates (69.7%), followed by ST1 (21.2%, 7/33) and ST7 (9.1%, 3/33). The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that three subtypes (ST1, ST3 and ST7) were clustered with their reference sequences with good bootstrap support. The subtype determination of Blastocystis sp. isolates by the phylogenetic analysis was well supported by online platform. The present study provides the first molecular report of Blastocystis sp. infections in hospital patients in Central China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/genética , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tipagem Molecular , Filogenia , Prevalência , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Res Vet Sci ; 136: 174-181, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676155

RESUMO

Amebiasis is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which mainly shows symptoms of acute diarrhea, dysentery, amebic colitis, and amebic liver abscesses. As the fourth leading parasitic cause of human mortality, E. histolytica mainly infect children in developing countries, transmitted by food and water contamination. In the majority of infected individuals, Entamoeba sp. asymptomatically colonizes the large intestine and self-limiting, while in others, the parasite breaches the mucosal epithelial barrier to cause amebic colitis and can disseminate to soft organs to cause abscesses. Metronidazole (MTZ) is the recommended and most widely used drug for treating the invasive amebiasis. No amebiasis vaccine has been approved for human clinical trials to date, but many recent vaccine development studies hold promise. For the prevention and control of amebiasis, improvement of water purification systems and hygiene practices could decrease disease incidence. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology, transmission, clinical signs, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of the zoonotic amebiasis.


Assuntos
Amebíase/epidemiologia , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Disenteria Amebiana/epidemiologia , Entamoeba histolytica/fisiologia , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Amebíase/diagnóstico , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Amebíase/prevenção & controle , Animais , Diarreia , Disenteria Amebiana/diagnóstico , Disenteria Amebiana/tratamento farmacológico , Disenteria Amebiana/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Zoonoses
7.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 68(2): e12839, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448088

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Giardia duodenalis are common enteric pathogens that are capable of infecting humans and animals. Total of 1,005 fecal samples from captive pet birds were collected from seven locations in Henan Province, China. The results demonstrated that 9.9% (99/1,005) of the captive birds were infected with one of these three pathogens. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was the most prevalent species among the birds (45/1,005, 4.5%) followed by G. duodenalis (33/1,005, 3.3%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (21/1,005, 2.1%). Five Cryptosporidium species were identified, namely, C. baileyi (10), C. galli (5), C. meleagridis (4), C. andersoni (1), and C. parvum (1). Two known E. bieneusi genotypes were identified: Peru 6 (44) was identified in pigeons (34) and European turtle doves (10); whereas, the genotype PtEb I (1) was only identified in a pigeon. Only G. duodenalis assemblage E (33) was identified in some pet birds. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to undertake the molecular identification of G. duodenalis in birds in China. The identification of potentially zoonotic species/genotypes of the pathogens suggests that exposure to the excreta of these birds, either directly or via food and water, may pose a threat to human health.

8.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356158

RESUMO

Understanding the unique characteristics of plexcitons, hybridized states resulting from the strong coupling between plasmons and excitons, is vital for both fundamental studies and practical applications in nano-optics. However, the research of plexcitons from the perspective of chiral optics has been rarely reported. Here, we experimentally investigate the optical chirality of plexcitonic systems consisting of composite metal nanoparticles and chiral J-aggregates in the strong coupling regime. Mode splitting and anticrossing behavior are observed in both the circular dichroism (CD) and extinction spectra of the hybrid nanosystems. A large mode splitting (at zero detuning) of up to 136 meV/214 meV in CD/extinction measurements confirms that the systems attain the strong coupling regime. This phenomenon indicates that the formation of plexcitons modifies not only the extinction but also the optical chirality of the hybrid systems. We develop a quasistatic theory to elucidate the chiral optical responses of hybrid systems. Furthermore, we propose and justify a criterion of strong plasmon-exciton interaction: the mode splitting in the CD spectra (at zero detuning) is larger than half of that in the extinction spectra. Our findings give a chiral perspective on the study of strong plasmon-exciton coupling and have potential applications in the chiral optical field.

9.
Onco Targets Ther ; 13: 11139-11149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154653

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the tumor-associated macrophage-m2-cancer cell complex (TAM-M2-CC) on the heterostructural modification of lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: The expression of CD163+/CD68+ in macrophages in the microenvironment of 161 cases of lung adenocarcinoma was identified by dual immunohistochemistry, and the association between a TAM-M2-CC and its growth, as well as the histological changes in lung adenocarcinoma cells, was assessed. Results: The morphological change of lung adenocarcinoma was related to the number of m2 phenotypes of the macrophages in the microenvironment of lung adenocarcinoma. TAM-M2-CCs were involved in the process of cancer cell recognition, association, and reconstruction. Conclusion: The microenvironment of lung adenocarcinoma can affect the phenotypic distinction of macrophages, and the polarization recruitment, zombification, and formation of a TAM-M2-CC, which can also affect the local differentiation of lung adenocarcinoma to a certain extent. The applicable pathogenesis needs to be verified and studied further.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18140, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097769

RESUMO

Based on molecular dynamic method, densities, mechanical behavior and mechanical performance of P(BAMO/ AMMO) (Polymer 1) and two novel modified P(BAMO/AMMO) (Polymer 2: containing amino group, Polymer 3: containing nitro group), and their effects on mechanical properties of four energetic materials are investigated, the main results are as follow: Polymer 2 (1.235 g/cm3, 240 ± 5 K) and Polymer 3: 1.281 g/cm3, 181 ± 3 K) possess higher densities and lower glass transition temperatures than Polymer 1 (1.229 g/cm3, 247 ± 4 K). The modification makes Polymer 1 difficult to expand, improves its mechanical properties, but has few effect on its diffusion coefficient at same temperature and state. In addition, three binders are compatible with TNT, HMX and CL-20, and may react with DNTF. All polymers particularly improve rigidity of four energetic materials, and enhance their ductility except Polymer 2 on TNT. The ability of Polymer 2 and Polymer 3 improving rigidity (except Polymer 3 on HMX) and ductility of TNT and HMX is inferior to that of Polymer 1, but it is contrary for CL-20 and DNTF (except Polymer 2 on rigidity of DNTF). Moreover, Polymer 2-based interfacial crystals exhibit higher rigidity than Polymer 3-based interfacial crystals.

11.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 73: 101550, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032191

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common species responsible for human and animals microsporidiasis. A total of 250 samples were collected weekly from 25 newborn dairy calves of a farm in Southern Xinjiang, China at one to ten weeks of age. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was identified and genotyped by nested PCR amplification and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region.The cumulative prevalence of E. bieneusi infection was 100% (25/25), and the average infection was 52.0% (130/250). The highest infection rate was recorded at six weeks of age (92.0%, 23/25), and no infection was observed at one and two weeks of age. Sequencing analysis showed nine E. bieneusi genotypes (J, EbpC, PigEBITS5, CHV4, CHC3, CS-9, KIN-1, CH5, and CAM5) were identified. The highest genetic polymorphism was observed at ten weeks of age. Genotype J was the predominant E. bieneusi genotype. Phylogenetic analysis clustered genotype J into Group 2 and other eight genotypes (EbpC, PigEBITS5, CHV4, CHC3, CS-9, KIN-1, CH5, and CAM5), detected in 22 (16.9%, 22/130) samples, into Group 1. Among the genotypes, EbpC, KIN-1, and J have been identified in humans. The highest E. bieneusi infection rate (57.9%, 124/214) was observed in fecal samples with formed feces with no diarrhea (p < 0.01), and high genetic polymorphism was observed in class I fecal samples. The presence of zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes in dairy calves suggests the possibility of transmitting zoonotic infections to humans. It provides the basic data on dynamic change of E. bieneusi in calves.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Estudos Longitudinais , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Filogenia , Prevalência
12.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962224

RESUMO

The cocrystallization of high-energy explosives has attracted great interests since it can alleviate to a certain extent the power-safety contradiction. 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaaza-isowurtzitane (CL-20), one of the most powerful explosives, has attracted much attention for researchers worldwide. However, the disadvantage of CL-20 has increased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli and cocrystallization of CL-20 with other compounds may provide a way to decrease its sensitivity. The intermolecular interaction of five types of CL-20-based cocrystal (CL-20/TNT, CL-20/HMX, CL-20/FOX-7, CL-20/TKX-50 and CL-20/DNB) by using molecular dynamic simulation was reviewed. The preparation methods and thermal decomposition properties of CL-20-based cocrystal are emphatically analyzed. Special emphasis is focused on the improved mechanical performances of CL-20-based cocrystal, which are compared with those of CL-20. The existing problems and challenges for the future work on CL-20-based cocrystal are discussed.


Assuntos
Compostos Aza/química , Substâncias Explosivas/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Azocinas/química , Cristalização , Etilenos , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Nitrocompostos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Trinitrotolueno/química
13.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3839-3844, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996049

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the cattle industry and leads to severe economic losses. Fecal samples were collected from 25 dairy calves once a week for 10 weeks for continuous longitudinal detection of Cryptosporidium spp. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected via nested PCR amplification of the ribosomal small subunit RNA gene, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with enzymes SspI and MboII to identify the species. PCR results indicated that all calves were infected with Cryptosporidium spp. at least once, with an average overall prevalence rate of 52.0% (130/250). One-week-old calves had the highest occurrences of Cryptosporidium infection (96.0%), 2-week-old calves (80.0%) had the second highest, and calves with watery diarrhea also had a higher occurrence of infection (92.3%). Four Cryptosporidium species, C. parvum, C. bovis, C. ryanae, and C. andersoni, were identified, with C. parvum being the most common. Forty-eight C. parvum isolates were further subtyped via nested PCR amplification of the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene, and all were identified as subtype IIdA15G1. The results demonstrated that C. parvum mainly infects dairy calves which are younger than 3 weeks old.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Genes de RNAr/genética , Estudos Longitudinais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição/genética , Prevalência
14.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 13: 38-45, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793415

RESUMO

The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a rare species with a small global population size, and lives in the wild in only a few fragmented mountain ranges of Southwest China. Parasitic infections are among the important causes of death of giant pandas that hamper their group development. We reviewed the parasitic infections prevailing in giant pandas, and the parasitic diversity, diseases and their impact on conservation of this animal. A total of 35 parasitic species were documented in giant pandas, belonging to nematode (n = 6), trematode (n = 1), cestode (n = 2), protozoa (n = 9), and ectozoa (n = 17 (tick = 13, mite = 2, and flea = 2)). Among them, Baylisascaris schroederi had the highest prevalence and was the leading cause of death for giant pandas. Some parasites caused asymptomatic infections in giant pandas, and their health implications for the pandas remain unknown. As a whole, parasites are reported to be an important threat to the conservation of the giant pandas. Regular deworming and environmental disinfection appear to be effective ways to prevent captive giant pandas from parasitoses. In wild panda populations, parasitic control measures are suggested to include detailed examination of the ecology of the host-parasite assembly, with particular attention to density-dependent transmission. The parasitic pathogenesis and detection methods together with their biology, epidemiology, treatment, prevention and control need to be further studied for better protection of giant pandas from parasitoses.

15.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 380, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727529

RESUMO

Diarrheal diseases caused by intestinal protozoan parasites are a major food-borne public health problem across the world. Vegetables and fruits provide important nutrients and minerals, but are also common sources of some food-borne human pathogenic microorganisms. The contamination of raw vegetables and fruits with human pathogenic parasites are now a global public health threat, despite the health benefits of these foods in non-pharmacological prophylaxes against diseases. A large number of reports have documented the contamination of vegetables or fruits with human pathogenic microorganisms. In this paper, we reviewed the contamination and detection methods of human pathogenic intestinal protozoans that are frequently recovered from raw vegetables and fruits. The protozoan parasites include Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Entamoeba spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Balantioides coli, Blastocystis sp., Cystoisospora belli and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. The risk factors involved in the contamination of vegetables and fruits with parasites are also assessed.


Assuntos
Frutas , Enteropatias Parasitárias/transmissão , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Verduras , Animais , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cyclospora/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Saúde Global , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação
16.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 12: 181-184, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612927

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is a ubiquitous protozoan in human and animals. To investigate the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in China, 484 fecal samples from alpacas were collected at nine sites, and Cryptosporidium spp. were screened with PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosome RNA (SSU rRNA) locus. Cryptosporidium spp. infected 2.9% (14/484) of the alpacas. Of the nine collection sites, two were positive for Cryptosporidium, Wensu (3.0%, 3/100) and Qinghe (31.4%, 11/35). Three Cryptosporidium species were identified: C. parvum (n = 2), C. ubiquitum (n = 1), and C. occultus (n = 11). Cryptosporidium parvum and C. ubiquitum were further subtyped with the 60-kDa glycoprotein locus (gp60). The two C. parvum isolates were subtype IIdA15G1, but the one C. ubiquitum isolate was not subtyped successfully. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Cryptosporidium isolates clustered with previously identified species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Cryptosporidium infections in alpacas in China and provides baseline data for the study of Cryptosporidium in alpacas in China.

17.
Acta Trop ; 209: 105551, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473987

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. are distributed ubiquitously worldwide, and pigs are considered as one of the main reservoir hosts. Eight hundred one porcine fecal specimens were collected from seven intensive pig farms in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Cryptosporidium spp. were screened via PCR amplification of the small ribosomal subunit RNA gene, and 143 specimens (17.9%, 143/801) from all seven farms tested positive for Cryptosporidium spp. Cryptosporidium prevalence in the pigs differed significantly among farms (p < 0.01). The highest Cryptosporidium spp. prevalence in post-weaned pigs was 39.5% (111/281), followed by fattening pigs (23.2%, 30/129), pre-weaned pigs (1.2%, 2/169), and sows (0/222). Significant differences were observed between age groups (p < 0.01). C. suis was the predominantly identified species (62.9%, 90/143), followed by C. scrofarum (35.7%, 51/143), and C. parvum (1.4%, 2/143). Two C. parvum specimens were subtyped by analyzing the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene sequences and were identified as IIdA14G1 and IIdA15G1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. parvum infection in pigs in China. The identification of three Cryptosporidium species, including zoonotic C. parvum in pigs in Xinjiang raises concern for the health of both swine animals and personnel in the pig industry.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Suínos/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Feminino , Prevalência , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
18.
Parasite ; 27: 35, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410727

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp. is a ubiquitous protist that has been frequently reported in humans and animals worldwide. A total of 355 fecal samples of experimental rats were collected from four laboratory rearing facilities in China, and Blastocystis sp. was detected by PCR amplification of the partial small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Twenty-nine (8.2%, 29/355) samples were positive for Blastocystis sp., with the highest infection rate (20.7%, 24/116) in rats of the Zhengzhou1, followed by that in the Zhengzhou2 (5.0%, 2/40), Shenyang (3.0%, 3/100) and Wuhan (0) rearing facilities. Among the three rat strains, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats had higher infection rates (11.3%, 17/151) compared to Wistar rats (8.7%, 9/104) and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats (3.0%, 3/100). Two Blastocystis sp. subtypes (ST4 and ST7) were identified. ST4 was the predominant subtype detected in 26 samples (89.7%). A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the sequences of ST4 and ST7 obtained in this study were clustered with their reference subtypes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Blastocystis sp. in experimental rats in China. Pathogen infections in laboratory animals need to be monitored due to fecal-oral transmission.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório/parasitologia , Blastocystis/classificação , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Animais , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , China , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar
19.
Parasitol Int ; 77: 102127, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334095

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are ubiquitous protozoan parasites that infect a broad range of hosts. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis was detected in 355 fecal samples of laboratory experimental rats from four experimental rat rearing facilities in China by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The G. duodenalis positive samples were further characterized in the ß-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. The overall infection rates of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were 0.6% (2/355) and 9.3% (33/355), respectively, with no co-infection. Among the four facilities, only the rats in Zhengzhou1 were found positive for the two pathogens. Undetermined Cryptosporidium genotype was observed in one sample and C. ubiquitum in another sample. Assemblage G was identified in all the 33 G. duodenalis positive isolates at SSU rRNA gene, out of which 19, 20, and 21 isolates were also subtyped as assemblage G at tpi, gdh and bg gens, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis infections in laboratory experimental rats in China. The infections of these pathogens in laboratory animals should be monitored routinely since they may interfere the biological experiments in these animals.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Animais , China , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/patogenicidade , Feminino , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/patogenicidade , Giardíase/parasitologia , Ratos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117814

RESUMO

Cyclosporiasis is caused by the coccidian parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis and is associated with large and complex food-borne outbreaks worldwide. Associated symptoms include severe watery diarrhea, particularly in infants, and immune dysfunction. With the globalization of human food supply, the occurrence of cyclosporiasis has been increasing in both food growing and importing countries. As well as being a burden on the health of individual humans, cyclosporiasis is a global public health concern. Currently, no vaccine is available but early detection and treatment could result in a favorable clinical outcome. Clinical diagnosis is based on cardinal clinical symptoms and conventional laboratory methods, which usually involve microscopic examination of wet smears, staining tests, fluorescence microscopy, serological testing, or DNA testing for oocysts in the stool. Detection in the vehicle of infection, which can be fresh produce, water, or soil is helpful for case-linkage and source-tracking during cyclosporiasis outbreaks. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) can evidently cure C. cayetanensis infection. However, TMP-SMX is not suitable for patients having sulfonamide intolerance. In such case ciprofloxacin, although less effective than TMP-SMX, is a good option. Another drug of choice is nitazoxanide that can be used in the cases of sulfonamide intolerance and ciprofloxacin resistance. More epidemiological research investigating cyclosporiasis in humans should be conducted worldwide, to achieve a better understanding of its characteristics in this regard. It is also necessary to establish in vitro and/or in vivo protocols for cultivating C. cayetanensis, to facilitate the development of rapid, convenient, precise, and economical detection methods for diagnosis, as well as more effective tracing methods. This review focuses on the advances in clinical features, diagnosis, and therapeutic intervention of cyclosporiasis.


Assuntos
Cyclospora , Ciclosporíase , Animais , Ciclosporíase/diagnóstico , Ciclosporíase/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclosporíase/epidemiologia , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças , Fezes , Humanos , Lactente , Oocistos
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