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1.
J Neurol ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common disabling gait disturbance in Parkinson's disease (PD). The objectives of this study were to explore alterations in the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks in patients with PD who will develop FOG. METHODS: We recruited 20 patients with PD who developed FOG (PD-FOGt) during a 5-year follow-up period, 20 patients with PD who did not developed FOG (PD-FOGn) within the follow-up period, and 20 healthy control subjects. Using graph theory approaches, we performed a comparative analysis of the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks among the groups, and further explored their potential relationships with latency to develop FOG. RESULTS: At baseline, the global topological properties of functional brain networks in PD-FOGt and PD-FOGn showed no abnormalities. Additionally, regarding regional topological properties, compared with PD-FOGn patients, PD-FOGt patients exhibited decreased nodal centrality in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Although there were no significant differences compared with PD-FOGn patients, the PD-FOGt group exhibited the lowest nodal centrality values in the frontal cortex (left gyrus rectus), and visual cortex (bilateral inferior occipital gyrus and left fusiform gyrus), and the highest nodal centrality values in the cerebellum (vermis_6) among the three groups. However, no relationship was found between the nodal centrality in above brain regions and latency to develop FOG. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the disrupted regional topological organization might contribute to the future development of FOG in PD patients, especially associated with damage to the left MFG.

2.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 3697-3708, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465981

RESUMO

Purpose: Puerarin (PR), a Chinese medicine rich in natural components, has been reported to display anti-fibrotic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. However, the protective mechanism of PR against unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-mediated renal injury is not fully clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PR on UUO mice and its possible mechanisms. Methods: A total of 32 C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into four groups (n=8): i) sham-operated group (Sham); ii) UUO group (UUO); iii) UUO + PR 50 mg/kg/day (UUO + PRL); and iv) UUO + PR 100 mg/kg/day (UUO + PRH). Continuous gavage administration for 14 days starting one week postoperatively, while the mice in Sham and UUO groups were given equal amounts of vehicle by the same means. All mice were then sacrificed and serum, 24-hour urine and tissue specimens were collected for renal function, histopathology, Western blot, immunohistochemistry. Results: Renal function and histopathology revealed that PR improved UUO-mediated renal dysfunction and partially reversed tubular injury and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Additionally, according to the results of Western blot and immunohistochemistry, PR inhibited the expression of inflammatory factors including IL-1ß, IL-6, MCP-1 and ECM-related proteins including α-SMA, COL I and VIM. More importantly, the expression of fibrotic pathways TGF-ß1, Smad3, p-Smad3 and inflammatory pathways NF-κB p65, NF-κB p-p65, STAT3, p-STAT3 were inhibited to various extents under the PR treatment, while Smad7 was upregulated. Conclusion: These findings indicate that PR may inhibit the recruitment of inflammatory factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition through the regulation of the NF-κB p65/STAT3 and TGFß1/Smads pathways, which alleviates the UUO-induced inflammatory and fibrotic response, thereby reversing renal injury.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19169, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580331

RESUMO

Water quality is critical for egg production and animal health in commercial layer housing systems. To investigate microbial contamination in nipple drinking system in layer houses, the bacterial abundance and communities in water pipes and V-troughs on different tiers (e.g., 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th tiers) of a layer house with 8 overlapping cage tiers were determined using qRT-PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. The water bacterial abundance (i.e., genome 16S rDNA copy number, WBCN) in water pipes and V-troughs did not significantly differ among tiers, but they were 46.77 to 1905.46 times higher in V-troughs than that in water pipes (P < 0.05) for each tier. Illumina sequencing obtained 1,746,303 effective reads from 24 water samples in V-troughs of 4 tiers (six samples from each tier). Taxonomic analysis indicated that the 1st and 5th tiers were predominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, while the 3rd and 7th tiers were predominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The top four genera were Acinetobacter, Streptococcus, Rothia and Comamonas among measured tiers. The high bacterial abundance and bacterial OTUs of water in the V-troughs reflect poor water quality, which may adversely affect growth and health of laying hens. Therefore, it is suggested that water quality in the V-tough should be checked more frequently in commercial layer houses.

4.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(37): 7848-7865, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586154

RESUMO

Vanadium is an important trace element in bone and is involved in bone metabolism, bone formation, and bone growth, but the roles of various vanadium ions, especially of pentavalent vanadium, in bone tissue regenerative repair have been underestimated and even misinterpreted for a long time. The main purposes of this study are to investigate the release profile of Si, Ca, P, and V ions from vanadium doped mesoporous bioactive glass (V-MBG) particles and to explore the effect of pentavalent vanadium ions on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs as well as the corresponding osteogenic signaling pathway. On the basis of preparations of V-MBG particles with different pentavalent vanadium contents, the ion release behavior from V-MBG in distilled water and simulated body fluid was systemically investigated. Furthermore, the cytocompatibility and osteogenic effect of V-MBG extracts were studied in rBMSCs, and the related molecular mechanisms were preliminarily discussed. The results of dissolution experiments showed that the V ionic concentration exhibited a burst increase and then a sustained slow increase in the two media. The resultant V ions from 1.0V-MBG, 4.0V-MBG and 10.0V-MBG at 21 days were about 1.1, 5.8, and 12.5 mg L-1 in water, respectively, and 1.6, 4.8 and 12.8 mg L-1 in SBF, respectively. The release behaviors of Si, Ca, P, and V ions were evidently affected by high contents of incorporated vanadium. The cellular results indicated that compared to the control and MBG groups, the V(V) ions in V-MBG extracts at about 19.4 µM markedly promoted the proliferation, the gene and protein expression of BMP-2 and COL-I, and the ALP activity of rBMSCs in non-osteoinductive media, but insignificantly stimulated the OCN protein synthesis. More deeply, V(V) ions at about 19.4 µM significantly upregulated the gene and protein expressions of Itga 2b, FAK, and pERK1/2, demonstrating that V(V) ions could regulate osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs through the activation of the Itga 2b-FAK-MAPK (pERK1/2) signaling pathway. The in vivo results further confirmed that V-MBG induced and promoted new bone formation in the defect area compared to the PGC and PGC/V-M0 groups. These results would contribute to modify the perception about the biocompatibility and osteogenic promotion of pentavalent vanadium at an appropriate concentration.

5.
J Dent ; : 103798, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517071

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In fixed prosthetic rehabilitations, the restorations must be designed and fabricated in a proper maxillomandibular relationship, with correct vertical dimensions of occlusion (VDO) and centric relation (CR). This short communication introduces a novel digital technique that allows to obtain the maxillomandibular record and transfer it throughout the treatment procedure. METHODS: The protocol consisted of the following steps: 1. scan-jig planning and production; 2. maxillomandibular record prior to tooth preparation; 3. sequential tooth preparation and post-operative data recording through a cut-out and re-scan protocol; 4. control of the pre- and post-operative alignment of the scans in the correct VDO and CR, design and delivery of the definitive restorations. RESULTS: There was no clinical difference in the spatial positions of the virtual models and the relationships between the arches throughout every step of the treatment. CONCLUSION: The main advantages of this technique are that it allows to maintain the therapeutic maxillomandibular relationship after its clinical evaluation, to reduce chair time and to avoid inaccuracies determined by multiple bite registrations.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1499, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a major virus outbreak in the twenty-first century, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented hazards to mental health globally. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study based on the results of an online survey. The survey was conducted 1 month after the outbreak (February 18-29, 2020) and repeated at the time of resuming activity (April 8-14, 2020). The 15-item Death Anxiety Scale (T-DAS) was used to assess the degree of death anxiety, and the Chinese version of PTSD checklist-civilian version (PCL-C), for PTSD symptom clusters. Through convenient sampling, a total of 7678 cases were collected. RESULTS: Our findings showed that even after the lockdown was lifted, the prevalence of the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and death anxiety remained significantly high in the general population affected by the outbreak. Regression model analysis showed that PTSD was significantly associated with age > 50 years, contact history/living community, poor health status of participants, past traumatic experience (PTE), and medical occupation. Moreover, death anxiety mediated the relationship between life-threatening PTE and PTSD, indicating that reducing death anxiety could buffer the negative effects of PTE on PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the lifting of the lockdown, long-term adverse psychological effects remain in the affected general population. The management of mental health after major public health events is important, and high-risk groups such as the elderly and healthcare workers should receive targeted interventions. In addition, the study suggests that methods for alleviating death anxiety must be included in plans to manage the psychological impact of public health emergencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
7.
Anim Genet ; 52(5): 656-666, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224160

RESUMO

Chicken plumage color, the genetic basis of which is often affected by epistasis, has long interested scientists. In the current study, a population of complex epistasis was constructed by crossing dominant White Leghorn chickens with recessive white feather chickens. Through a genome-wide association study, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms and genes significantly associated with white and colored plumage in hens at different developmental stages. Interestingly, white plumage in adulthood was associated with the recessive white feather gene (TYR), whereas white feathers at birth stage were associated with the dominant white feather gene (PMEL), indicating age-related roles for these genes. TYR was shown to exert an epistatic effect on PMEL in adult hens. Additionally, TYR had an epistatic effect on barred plumage, while barred plumage had an epistatic effect on black plumage. TYR had no epistatic effect on the yellow plumage. We confirmed that the barred plumage gene is CDKN2A, as reported in previous studies. Golgb1 and REEP3, which play important roles in the Golgi network and affect the formation of feather pigments, are important candidate genes for yellow plumage. The candidate genes for black plumage are CAMKK1 and IFT22. Further research is warranted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying these traits.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Epistasia Genética , Pigmentação/genética , Animais , Plumas , Genes Recessivos , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(15): 5101-5112, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322939

RESUMO

Patients with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-M) progress to dementia more frequently than those with normal cognition (PD-N), but the underlying neurobiology remains unclear. This study aimed to define the specific morphological brain network alterations in PD-M, and explore their potential diagnostic value. Twenty-four PD-M patients, 17 PD-N patients, and 29 healthy controls (HC) underwent a structural MRI scan. Similarity between interregional gray matter volume distributions was used to construct individual morphological brain networks. These were analyzed using graph theory and network-based statistics (NBS), and their relationship to neuropsychological tests was assessed. Support vector machine (SVM) was used to perform individual classification. Globally, compared with HC, PD-M showed increased local efficiency (p = .001) in their morphological networks, while PD-N showed decreased normalized path length (p = .008). Locally, similar nodal deficits were found in the rectus and lingual gyrus, and cerebellum of both PD groups relative to HC; additionally in PD-M nodal deficits involved several frontal and parietal regions, correlated with cognitive scores. NBS found that similar connections were involved in the default mode and cerebellar networks of both PD groups (to a greater extent in PD-M), while PD-M, but not PD-N, showed altered connections involving the frontoparietal network. Using connections identified by NBS, SVM allowed discrimination with high accuracy between PD-N and HC (90%), PD-M and HC (85%), and between the two PD groups (65%). These results suggest that default mode and cerebellar disruption characterizes PD, more so in PD-M, whereas frontoparietal disruption has diagnostic potential.

9.
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213055

RESUMO

INTRODUCTIONS: Intraoral scanner has been widely used for implant impression in partially edentulous cases; however, its accuracy in the impression of full-arch implant is still questionable. CLINICAL REPORT: This clinical report presents a technique to check the accuracy of intraoral scanning for complete-arch implant restorations using an implant index cast (The Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms 9th Edition) and a three-dimensional printed cast. A clinical case of immediate loading on a maxillary edentulous patient illustrates the application of an implant index cast in implant fixed complete dentures (IFCDs). DISCUSSION: The implant index cast was fabricated based on the immediate interim prosthesis and provides effective control of the fit of scanned files and printed models. Therefore, this approach allows a more predictable and accurate fit of the final prosthesis. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In this article, we present a technique to check the accuracy of the final prosthesis without the need for a conventional impression and final cast in a digital workflow. This proposed approach is demonstrated through a case report of a maxillary edentulous patient restored with immediate loaded IFCDs.

10.
Anal Chem ; 93(30): 10697-10703, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282896

RESUMO

Quantitative detection of multiple biological small molecules is critical for health evaluation and disease diagnosis. In this study, a microarray chip featuring a bienzyme-immobilized polyaniline nanowire forest on fluorine-doped tin oxide (bienzyme-PANI/FTO) is developed for this purpose. On such a chip, the target molecules are oxidized under the catalysis of their attached oxidases to produce hydrogen peroxide, which further induces the partial oxidation of local PANI nanowires in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme. The redox state change of PANI nanowires is monitored by the oblique incident reflectivity difference (OIRD) technique in a real-time and wireless manner, thus allowing for quantitative analysis of the target molecules. As typical model targets, hydrogen peroxide, glucose, lactic acid, and cholesterol are successfully detected with low detection limits, excellent specificities, and broad detection ranges, all of which fully meet the requirements for clinical analysis of human serum samples. Simultaneous detection of multiple targets on an individual chip is further demonstrated using the OIRD scanning mode. Meanwhile, by simple electrochemical reduction of the PANI nanowires, the chip is reusable for more than eight detection cycles without evident decay in its performance. The detection principle of this chip is also universal to other small molecules, and thus, it shows great promise as a valuable device to analyze biological small molecules.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanofios , Compostos de Anilina , Florestas , Humanos
12.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 1063-1075, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187292

RESUMO

It is well known that the progression of hyperuricemia disease often contributes to renal dysfunction. However, there have been few studies on uric acid nephropathy (UAN), especially its relationship with gut microbiota. UAN is usually accompanied by disordered intestinal flora, and damaged gut barrier, which are closely related to tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and systemic inflammation. In previous studies, it has been confirmed that curcumin could alleviate tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and improve renal function through its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory efficacies. However, the effects curcumin exerts on intestinal flora in uric acid nephropathy are still unknown. Therefore, we used next-generation sequencing technology to investigate the effects of curcumin on gut microbiota in a rat model of UAN induced by adenine and potassium oxonate, and rats were randomly divided into control, model or curcumin treatment groups. The results demonstrated that, compared to the model group, the treatment group showed decreased serum uric acid (156.80 ± 11.90 µmol/L vs. 325.60 ± 18.65 µmol/L, p < 0.001), serum creatinine (66.20 ± 11.88 µmol/L vs. 182.20 ± 8.87 µmol/L, p < 0.001) and BUN level (13.33 ± 3.16 mmol/L vs. 36.04 ± 6.60 mmol/L, p < 0.001). The treatment group also displayed attenuated renal pathological lesions and metabolic endotoxemia (25.60 ± 5.90 ng/mL vs. 38.40 ± 4.98 ng/mL, p < 0.01), and improved tightly linked proteins expression. Besides, curcumin altered the gut microbiota structure in UAN rats. More specifically, curcumin treatment protected against the overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens in UAN, including Escherichia-Shigella and Bacteroides, and increased the relative abundance of bacteria producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as Lactobacillus and Ruminococcaceae. These results suggest that curcumin could modulate gut microbiota, fortify the intestinal barrier, attenuate metabolic endotoxemia, and consequently protect the renal function in UAN rats.

14.
Phytopathology ; 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100304

RESUMO

Here, we present the complete genome sequence and annotation of Ralstonia syzygii subsp. indonesiensis strain LLRS-1, which caused bacterial wilt on flue-cured tobacco in Yunnan province, southwest China. Strain LLRS-1 is the first R. syzygii strain identified to be pathogenic to tobacco in China. The completely assembled genome of strain LLRS-1 consists of a 3648314-bp circular chromosome and a 2046405-bp megaplasmid with 5190 protein-coding genes, 55 tRNAs, 28 sRNAs, 3 structural RNAs ( 5S, 16S, and 23S), and has a G+C content of 67.05%.

15.
Neurosci Lett ; 759: 135970, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common and debilitating gait disturbance in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but the potential mechanisms are still unclear. This study aimed to explore alterations in the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks in PD patients with FOG. METHODS: We recruited 75 patients with PD, 37 patients with FOG and 38 patients without FOG, to undergo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The whole-brain functional networks were constructed, and the topological properties at three (global, nodal, and connectional) levels were analyzed using graph theory approaches. RESULTS: Compared with patients without FOG, patients with FOG exhibited altered global topological properties (a significant decrease in the normalized clustering coefficient and small-worldness), implying a shift toward randomization in their functional brain networks. At the node and connectional levels, patients with FOG showed increased nodal centralities and functional connectivity in the sensorimotor network, frontoparietal network, visual network, subcortical and limbic regions, and decreased nodal centralities in the frontoparietal network and the cerebellum. Furthermore, the altered nodal centralities in the right hippocampus (HIP) were positively correlated with FOG severity. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that FOG in PD is associated with disrupted topological organization of whole-brain functional networks, involving dysfunction of the multiple networks.

16.
ACS Nano ; 15(5): 8225-8243, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938728

RESUMO

The intensive application of nanomaterials in the food industry has raised concerns about their potential risks to human health. However, limited data are available on the biological safety of nanomaterials in food, especially at the epigenetic level. This study examined the implications of two types of synthetic amorphous silica (SAS), food-grade precipitated silica (S200) and fumed silica Aerosil 200F (A200F), which are nanorange food additives. After 28-day continuous and intermittent subacute exposure to these SAS via diet, whole-genome methylation levels in mouse peripheral leukocytes and liver were significantly altered in a dose- and SAS type-dependent manner, with minimal toxicity detected by conventional toxicological assessments, especially at a human-relevant dose (HRD). The 84-day continuous subchronic exposure to all doses of S200 and A200F induced liver steatosis where S200 accumulated in the liver even at HRD. Genome-wide DNA methylation sequencing revealed that the differentially methylated regions induced by both SAS were mainly located in the intron, intergenic, and promoter regions after 84-day high-dose continuous exposure. Bioinformatics analysis of differentially methylated genes indicated that exposure to S200 or A200F may lead to lipid metabolism disorders and cancer development. Pathway validation experiments indicated both SAS types as potentially carcinogenic. While S200 inhibited the p53-mediated apoptotic pathway in mouse liver, A200F activated the HRAS-mediated MAPK signaling pathway, which is a key driver of hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, caution must be paid to the risk of long-term exposure to food-grade SAS, and epigenetic parameters should be included as end points during the risk assessment of food-grade nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Nanoestruturas , Animais , Aditivos Alimentares/toxicidade , Camundongos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade
17.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248207, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861749

RESUMO

Salinity is among the major abiotic stresses negatively affecting the growth and productivity of crop plants. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) -an external nitric oxide (NO) donor- has been found effective to impart salinity tolerance to plants. Soybean (Glycine max L.) is widely cultivated around the world; however, salinity stress hampers its growth and productivity. Therefore, the current study evaluated the role of SNP in improving morphological, physiological and biochemical attributes of soybean under salinity stress. Data relating to biomass, chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, activities of various antioxidant enzymes, ion content and ultrastructural analysis were collected. The SNP application ameliorated the negative effects of salinity stress to significant extent by regulating antioxidant mechanism. Root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll contents, activities of various antioxidant enzymes, i.e., catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were improved with SNP application under salinity stress compared to control treatment. Similarly, plants treated with SNP observed less damage to cell organelles of roots and leaves under salinity stress. The results revealed pivotal functions of SNP in salinity tolerance of soybean, including cell wall repair, sequestration of sodium ion in the vacuole and maintenance of normal chloroplasts with no swelling of thylakoids. Minor distortions of cell membrane and large number of starch grains indicates an increase in the photosynthetic activity. Therefore, SNP can be used as a regulator to improve the salinity tolerance of soybean in salt affected soils.


Assuntos
Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Soja/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nitroprussiato/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Salinidade , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 13(4): 239-258, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914074

RESUMO

Evolution has enabled living cells to adopt their structural and functional complexity by organizing intricate cellular compartments, such as membrane-bound and membraneless organelles (MLOs), for spatiotemporal catalysis of physiochemical reactions essential for cell plasticity control. Emerging evidence and view support the notion that MLOs are built by multivalent interactions of biomolecules via phase separation and transition mechanisms. In healthy cells, dynamic chemical modifications regulate MLO plasticity, and reversible phase separation is essential for cell homeostasis. Emerging evidence revealed that aberrant phase separation results in numerous neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and other diseases. In this review, we provide molecular underpinnings on (i) mechanistic understanding of phase separation, (ii) unifying structural and mechanistic principles that underlie this phenomenon, (iii) various mechanisms that are used by cells for the regulation of phase separation, and (iv) emerging therapeutic and other applications.

19.
J Prosthodont ; 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904640

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of static computer-assisted implant surgery (sCAIS) for tooth-supported free-end dental implantation with the aid/and without the aid of fixation pins to secure the surgical template through comparison between planned, 3D printed guide position and placement implant position. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two duplicated maxillary resin models were used in the present in vitro study. Digital planning was performed and fabrication of a surgical template that allowed implant placement on the distal extension edentulous site of the model (maxillary left side). A first optical scan was performed after fitting the surgical template on the model to assess the deviation at the surgical guide level. After placing implants in the model using the surgical guide, scan bodies were attached to the implants, and a second scan was performed to record the position of placed implants. The digital representations were later superimposed to the pre-operative scan and measurements of implant deviations were performed. Global (coronal and apical), horizontal (coronal and apical), depth and angular deviations were recorded between planned implant position, guide position, and placement implant position. Three-way ANOVA was used to compare implant location (#13, 14, and 15), fixation pin (with or without pin), and guide comparison (planned, guided, and placement). RESULTS: Final implant placement based on the digital plan and based on the 3D printed guide were very similar except for depth deviation. Use of fixation pin had a statistically significant effect on the depth and angular deviation. Overall, without fixation pins and based on guide versus placement, mean global coronal (0.88 ± 0.36 mm), horizontal coronal (0.55 ± 0.32 mm), and apical (1.44 ± 0.75 mm), and angular deviations (4.28 ± 2.01°) were similar to deviations with fixation pins: mean global coronal (0.88 ± 0.36 mm); horizontal coronal (0.67 ± 0.22 mm) and apical (1.60 ± 0.69 mm); and angular deviations (4.53 ± 2.04°). Horizontal apical without pins (1.63 ± 0.69 mm) and with fixation pins (1.72 ± 0.70 mm) was statistically significant (p = 0.044). Depth deviation without pins (-0.5 ± 0.5 mm) and with fixation pins (-0.16 ± 0.62 mm) was also statistically significant (p = 0.005). Further analysis demonstrated that the final sleeve position on the 3D printed guide was on average 0.5 mm more coronal than the digital plan. CONCLUSIONS: The use of surgical guides with or without fixation pins can provide clinically acceptable outcomes in terms of accuracy in implant position. There was a statistically significant difference in the accuracy of implant position when utilizing fixation pins only for horizontal apical and depth deviation. Additionally, a statistically significant difference between the planned and the 3D printed surgical guide when considering the sleeve position was detected.

20.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807718

RESUMO

One of the most important factors that determine feed utilization by chickens is the feed form. Although it is generally believed that pellet diets have a positive effect on chicken growth, there are some studies that have indicated no difference between pellet and mash on chickens performance. This study was conducted to assess the effects of feed form on production performance, egg quality, nutrient metabolism and intestinal morphology in two breed laying hens. Two hundred and sixteen 25-week-old Hy-Line brown (n = 108) and Hy-Line grey (n = 108) hens were selected. Each breed was randomly allocated into two treatments with 6 replications (9 birds in each replication), which were fed mash and pellet diets, respectively. Production performances were recorded daily and egg quality traits were measured every two weeks. At 42 weeks of age, one bird per replication from each experimental group was selected for metabolism determination and intestine morphology observation. Compared with mash diets, pellet diets improved laying rate (p < 0.05), ADFI (average daily feed intake, p < 0.05), egg weight, shell strength, yolk proportion and Haugh unit (p < 0.05) in both breeds and reduced the FCR (feed conversion ratio, p < 0.05) in Hy-Line grey. The apparent digestibility of DM% (dry matter) and CP% (crude protein) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in both breed laying hens fed pellet than those fed mash. The apparent digestibility of P% (phosphorus) and Ca% (calcium) was higher in Hy-Line grey fed pellet and was higher in Hy-Line brown fed mash. Compared to mash diets, pellet diets increased the VH (villus height), CD (crypt depth) and VCR (ratio of villus height to crypt depth) of the small intestine of Hy-Line grey, and increased the VH and CD of duodenum and ileum of Hy-Line brown. Overall, pellet diets improved production performance and nutrition metabolism through positive changes in the laying rate, feed intake, egg albumen quality and apparent digestibility of laying hens. The current findings provided support for the advantages of feeding pellets during the peak egg laying period for the two popular laying hen strains, Hy-Line brown and Hy-Line grey.

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