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1.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(16): 896, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111015

RESUMO

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with a very poor prognosis. The search for new IPF biomarkers is particularly urgent due to the uncertainty of the mechanisms and treatment. Studies have shown that chromatin regulators (CRs) are involved in the development of IPF and are associated with tumor immunity. However, there are no studies on immune-related CRs in IPF. Therefore, we conducted a systematic study to analyze the expression levels and immune correlation of CRs in IPF tissues and normal tissues and to explore their potential as diagnostic biomarkers. Methods: GSE53845, GSE179781 and GSE24206 datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were merged into an integrated dataset as the training set; GSE70866 was used as the validation dataset. The cr-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between normal and IPF tissues were identified using the "Limma" software package. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed using the "WGCNA" package to screen eigengenes, which were intersected with DEGs to identify hub genes. The "ggcorrplot" package was used to analyze the correlation between hub genes and immunity, and immune-related hub genes were defined as immHub. A logistic regression model was constructed using immHub as the independent variable and whether the diagnosis was IPF as the dependent variable. Results: One hundred and sixty-nine DEGs were identified between IPF and normal tissues. wGCNA identified 3 key modules in brown, green and yellow genes that were present in all 3 modules and met module membership (MM) >0.8 and gene significance (GS) >0.5 were called signature genes (n=390). Four intersecting genes were obtained by intersecting DEGs with signature genes (PADI4, IGFBP7, GADD45A, and SETBP1) all associated with immunity were defined as immHub genes Logistic regression models were constructed based on immHub genes. The area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve is used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the logistic regression model for IPF. The AUC in the ROC analysis was 0.771 for the training dataset, and 0.759 for the validation dataset. Conclusions: PADI4, IGFBP7 and GADD45A may be biomarkers for IPF, which will provide assistance in the diagnosis, treatment and prognostic assessment of IPF patients, and provide an important basis for future studies on the relationship between CRs genes and IPF.

2.
Cereb Cortex ; 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36005854

RESUMO

Difficulties in parsing the multiaspect heterogeneity of schizophrenia (SCZ) based on current nosology highlight the need to subtype SCZ using objective biomarkers. Here, utilizing a large-scale multisite SCZ dataset, we identified and validated 2 neuroanatomical subtypes with individual-level abnormal patterns of the tensor-based morphometric measurement. Remarkably, compared with subtype 1, which showed moderate deficits of some subcortical nuclei and an enlarged striatum and cerebellum, subtype 2, which showed cerebellar atrophy and more severe subcortical nuclei atrophy, had a higher subscale score of negative symptoms, which is considered to be a core aspect of SCZ and is associated with functional outcome. Moreover, with the neuroimaging-clinic association analysis, we explored the detailed relationship between the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms and the heterogeneous abnormal neuroanatomical patterns with respect to the 2 subtypes. And the neuroimaging-transcription association analysis highlighted several potential heterogeneous biological factors that may underlie the subtypes. Our work provided an effective framework for investigating the heterogeneity of SCZ from multilevel aspects and may provide new insights for precision psychiatry.

3.
Chemosphere ; 299: 134440, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364085

RESUMO

The transformation of plastic waste into valuable fuel products via catalytic pyrolysis is a promising and eco-friendly strategy. Herein, a series of Co/Ni pillared montmorillonites were developed as low-cost and effective catalysts for the pyrolysis of post-consumer film waste, which is one of the representative plastic wastes in nature. The best-performing catalyst produced 80.2% of liquid product, with a high selectivity of 43.5% of hydrocarbons at C10-C13 range, and 42.0 vol% of H2 which is nearly increased by 40-fold as compared to that in non-catalytic run. The improved results were ascribed to the pillared structure, the oxidation state of Co/Ni, and the distribution of acid sites. Particularly, the Lewis acidity (which governs the cyclization and alkanisation) coupled with high surface area and uniform dispersion of transition metallic sites, were found to promote the selectivity of condensable product. The pyrolytic mechanism towards H2 production was explored by theoretical calculations. The lattice oxygen bonded to both Ni and Co in an octahedral environment was found to promote the adsorption of the fragment of polymer in dehydrogenation. Additionally, the solid residues are potentially applied for the production of valuable carbonaceous materials since they displayed high heating value. This work is expected to provide a direction for the development of pyrolysis technology for fuel production with sustainability and economic viability.

4.
Front Oncol ; 12: 812707, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296024

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine whether the addition of metabolic parameters from fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) scans to clinical factors could improve risk prediction models for radiotherapy-related esophageal fistula (EF) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods and Materials: Anonymized data from 185 ESCC patients (20 radiotherapy-related EF-positive cases) were collected, including pre-therapy PET/CT scans and EF status. In total, 29 clinical features and 15 metabolic parameters from PET/CT were included in the analysis, and a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression model was used to construct a risk score (RS) system. The predictive capabilities of the models were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: In univariate analysis, metabolic tumor volume (MTV)_40% was a risk factor for radiotherapy (RT)-related EF, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.036 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.009-1.063, p = 0.007]. However, it was excluded from the predictive model using multivariate logistic regression. Predictive models were built based on the clinical features in the training cohort. The model included diabetes, tumor length and thickness, adjuvant chemotherapy, eosinophil count, and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio. The RS was defined as follows: 0.2832 - (7.1369 × diabetes) + (1.4304 × tumor length) + (2.1409 × tumor thickness) - [8.3967 × adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT)] - (28.7671 × eosinophils) + (8.2213 × MLR). The cutoff of RS was set at -1.415, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.977 (95% CI: 0.9536-1), a specificity of 0.929, and a sensitivity of 1. Analysis in the testing cohort showed a lower AUC of 0.795 (95% CI: 0.577-1), a specificity of 0.925, and a sensitivity of 0.714. Delong's test for two correlated ROC curves showed no significant difference between the training and testing sets (p = 0.109). Conclusions: MTV_40% was a risk factor for RT-related EF in univariate analysis and was screened out using multivariate logistic regression. A model with clinical features can predict RT-related EF.

5.
ChemSusChem ; 15(13): e202200232, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244338

RESUMO

The selective hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) has been of great interest to many scientists and researchers. However, conventional hydrogenation inevitably requires the use of gaseous hydrogen as a reducing agent, which is detrimental to its storage and transport. In this regard, other economical and environmentally friendly strategies, such as catalytic transfer hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis without external molecular H2 , become more and more attractive. This Review provides the status and insight into the current research of hydrogenating HMF to high-value chemicals, using formic acid, alcohols, polymethylhydrosiloxane, water, and sodium borohydride as hydrogen donors and explains the hydrogenation mechanisms and the related hydrogenation characteristics of different hydrogen donors in the catalytic systems.


Assuntos
Furaldeído , Furanos , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Furaldeído/química , Furanos/química , Hidrogênio/química , Hidrogenação
6.
Neuroimage ; 249: 118876, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998970

RESUMO

The human mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) is crucial for higher cognitive functions, while the fine anatomical organization of the MD and the function of each subregion remain elusive. In this study, using high-resolution data provided by the Human Connectome Project, an anatomical connectivity-based method was adopted to unveil the topographic organization of the MD. Four fine-grained subregions were identified in each hemisphere, including the medial (MDm), central (MDc), dorsal (MDd), and lateral (MDl), which recapitulated previous cytoarchitectonic boundaries from histological studies. The subsequent connectivity analysis of the subregions also demonstrated distinct anatomical and functional connectivity patterns, especially with the prefrontal cortex. To further evaluate the function of MD subregions, partial least squares analysis was performed to examine the relationship between different prefrontal-subregion connectivity and behavioral measures in 1012 subjects. The results showed subregion-specific involvement in a range of cognitive functions. Specifically, the MDm predominantly subserved emotional-cognition domains, while the MDl was involved in multiple cognitive functions especially cognitive flexibility and inhibition. The MDc and MDd were correlated with fluid intelligence, processing speed, and emotional cognition. In conclusion, our work provides new insights into the anatomical and functional organization of the MD and highlights the various roles of the prefrontal-thalamic circuitry in human cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Conectoma , Emoções/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Núcleo Mediodorsal do Tálamo/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Núcleo Mediodorsal do Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104921, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446197

RESUMO

Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are the targets of diamide insecticides, which have been identified and characterized in a dozen insect pests of Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera and Coleoptera, but limited attention has been paid to the RyR in parasitoid natural enemies. Without this knowledge, it will hinder our effective and efficient application using both parasitoid natural enemies and diamide insecticides simultaneously in the integrated pest management (IPM). In this study, the full-length cDNA of RyR was cloned from Encarsia formosa (EfRyR), a parasitic wasp used worldwide for the biological control of whitefly. Its expression profile was examined in various tissues of E. formosa adults. The toxicities of four diamide insecticides to E. formosa were measured, and then the expression profile of EfRyR after 12 h and 24 h exposure to the LC50 dosages of diamide insecticides was investigated. The results showed that the full-length cDNA of EfRyR was 16, 778 bp including a 15, 345 bp open reading frame, and two alternative splice (AS) sites. Comparing to its expression in the abdomen, EfRyR was highly expressed in the head (11.9-fold) and the thorax (3.7-fold). The toxicities of four dimide insecticides against E. formosa from low to high were chlorantraniliprole (LC50 = 367.84 mg L-1), cyantraniliprole (221.72 mg L-1), cyclaniliprole (51.77 mg L-1), and tetrachlorantraniliprole (8.35 mg L-1). The expressions of EfRyR and its variants with AS were significantly increased after E. formosa adults were exposed to different diamide insecticides. This study improves our understanding of the RyR in parasitoid wasps and provides useful information on IPM by using E. formosa.


Assuntos
Diamida , Inseticidas , Animais , Diamida/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Rianodina , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/genética , Taiwan
8.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 436, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: N-hexane, with its metabolite 2,5-hexanedine (HD), is an industrial hazardous material. Chronic hexane exposure causes segmental demyelination in the peripheral nerves, and high-dose intoxication may also affect central nervous system. Demyelinating conditions are difficult to treat and stem cell therapy using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is a promising novel strategy. Our previous study found that BMSCs promoted motor function recovery in rats modeling hexane neurotoxicity. This work aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms and focused on the changes in spinal cord. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were intoxicated with HD (400 mg/kg/day, i.p, for 5 weeks). A bolus of BMSCs (5 × 107 cells/kg) was injected via tail vein. Demyelination and remyelination of the spinal cord before and after BMSC treatment were examined microscopically. Cultured oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) were incubated with HD ± BMSC-derived conditional medium (BMSC-CM). OPC differentiation was studied by immunostaining and morphometric analysis. The expressional changes of Hes1, a transcription factor negatively regulating OPC-differentiation, were studied. The upstream Notch1 and TNFα/RelB pathways were studied, and some key signaling molecules were measured. The correlation between neurotrophin NGF and TNFα was also investigated. Statistical significance was evaluated using one-way ANOVA and performed using SPSS 13.0. RESULTS: The demyelinating damage by HD and remyelination by BMSCs were evidenced by electron microscopy, LFB staining and NG2/MBP immunohistochemistry. In vitro cultured OPCs showed more differentiation after incubation with BMSC-CM. Hes1 expression was found to be significantly increased by HD and decreased by BMSC or BMSC-CM. The change of Hes1 was found, however, independent of Notch1 activation, but dependent on TNFα/RelB signaling. HD was found to increase TNFα, RelB and Hes1 expression, and BMSCs were found to have the opposite effect. Addition of recombinant TNFα to OPCs or RelB overexpression similarly caused upregulation of Hes1 expression. The secretion of NGF by BMSC and activation of NGF receptor was found important for suppression of TNFα production in OPCs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that BMSCs promote remyelination in the spinal cord of HD-exposed rats via TNFα/RelB-Hes1 pathway, providing novel insights for evaluating and further exploring the therapeutical effect of BMSCs on demyelinating neurodegenerative disease.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Células Precursoras de Oligodendrócitos , Remielinização , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Hexanonas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medula Espinal , Fatores de Transcrição HES-1/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
9.
Res Vet Sci ; 139: 152-158, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332417

RESUMO

We examined several aspects of African hedgehog adenovirus (AhAdv-1) that was isolated from an African pygmy hedgehog, including: replication kinetics of, virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE), activation status of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, and possible roles of these signaling pathways in virus replication and virus-induced CPE in MDCK cells. AhAdv-1 efficiently replicated and induced CPE in infected cells and caused accumulation of cleaved caspase-3 at 24 h post-infection (p.i.), suggesting apoptosis induction. Analysis of several intracellular signal transduction pathways, which are involved in apoptosis, showed activation of p38 MAPK, Akt and ERK1/2 pathways at 3 h p.i., and upregulation of phosphorylated SAPK/JNK at 24 h p.i. Although p38 MAPK inhibitor and SAPK/JNK inhibitor suppressed activation of the respective pathways in infected cells, they did not inhibit virus-induced CPE. Treatment of infected cells with inhibitor of the Akt pathway, the p38 pathway, the SAPK/JNK pathway or the ERK pathway revealed that inhibitors of p38 pathway inhibited viral replication by real-time PCR and TCID50 assay in infected MDCK cells, suggesting that AhAdv-1 uses p38 pathway for multiplication in infected cells.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Replicação Viral , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Cães , Ouriços/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
10.
PeerJ ; 9: e11379, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroticism and stress are important vulnerability factors in the development and outcome of anxiety symptoms. However, as neuroticism is a heterogeneity trait, it is still unclear how different neuroticism factors contribute to anxiety symptoms independently or in conjunction with stress. Thus, different factors of neuroticism were extracted in the present longitudinal study using the bi-factor model. The prediction effect of these different factors on anxiety symptoms and their combined effects with stress in both adolescent and adult samples were examined. METHOD: Participants (592 adolescents and 638 young adults) in Hunan China were included. In the initial assessment in our longitudinal study, participants were asked to complete measurements that assessed neuroticism, stress, and anxiety symptoms. Next, a monthly assessment of stress and anxiety symptoms was completed for the subsequent 6 months. The bi-factor model was used to extract different factors of neuroticism. The hierarchical linear model was used to analyze longitudinal multi-wave data. RESULT: Several model fit indices were used to evaluate the bi-factor model fit for neuroticism (adolescent: Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.957, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.973, RMSEA = 0.040, Chi-Square = 80.471; early adults: TLI = 0.957, CFI = 0.973, RMSEA = 0.042, Chi-Square = 88.465). The results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that the general factor of neuroticism possessed a predictive effect on anxiety symptoms (adolescents: F = 36.77, p < 0.0001, early adults: F = 30.44, p < 0.0001); The negative effect factor only had the prediction effect on anxiety symptoms in early adults (adolescents: F = 0.65, p > 0.05; early adults: F = 4.84, p < 0.05); No prediction of self-reproach factor was found on anxiety symptoms (adolescents: F = 3.79, p > 0.05; early adults: F = 0.02, p > 0.05); the interactive effects of the general factor and stress on anxiety symptoms were only found in early adulthood (adolescents: F = 0.13, p > 0.05; early adults: F = 11.55, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that the bi-factor model achieved a satisfactory fit for neuroticism measurement and supported that the anxiety symptoms were induced by the main effects of the general factor in both age samples and the negative factor only in adults. The general factor of neuroticism, but not the negative factor could make an additive effect for anxiety symptoms in face of stress, which meant that the homogeneity of neuroticism played a more significant role in further anxiety symptoms than heterogeneity when coping with stress.

11.
Neuroscience ; 461: 36-43, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691143

RESUMO

As a textbook manifestation of an aggressive attitude, hostility can pose a serious threat to both an individual's life and the security of society at large. Past evidence suggests that some anxiety-related traits may be more prone to giving rise to hostility. However, many aspects of hostility, such as, determining the susceptible temperament for hostility, the neural basis of hostility, and the underlying mechanisms through which having a susceptible temperament generates hostility in a healthy brain, remain unclear. In this study, we sought to delve into these questions by assessing temperament and brain white matter integrity using self-report questionnaires and diffusion tensor imaging in a sizable sample of healthy adults (n = 357). First, we investigated the relationship between hostility and the four temperaments of the Cloninger model. Then, we investigated which white matter tracts were significantly correlated with hostility using a whole-brain analysis. Finally, we used a mediation analysis to explore the tripartite relationship between vulnerability temperament, the fractional anisotropy (FA) value of the white matter, and hostility. Our results suggest that a harm avoidance temperament may be susceptible to hostility and that the cingulum may be a key white matter region responsible for hostility. Based on these results, we developed a temperament-brain-attitude pathway showing how harm avoidance temperament could affect the brain and ultimately lead to hostility.


Assuntos
Substância Branca , Adulto , Anisotropia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Hostilidade , Humanos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Virus Genes ; 57(2): 228-232, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559836

RESUMO

A walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) born in an aquarium and hand-reared in Japan died at the age of 11 months. The affected animal showed fever and anorexia and had high levels of AST and ALT. Necropsy showed multiple necroses in the liver and adrenal glands and histological examination revealed necrotic lesions of the liver and adrenal cortex, both of which contained intranuclear inclusions. Electron microscopic analysis of the liver sample showed herpesvirus-like particles. High-throughput sequencing analysis of the liver sample and phylogenetic analysis of herpesvirus polymerase genes identified a new virus, Walrus alphaherpesvirus 1 (WaHV-1), which belonged to the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae and had high homology with Phocid alphaherpesvirus 1. Phylogenetic analysis of the UL30 gene encoding glycoprotein B revealed that WaHV-1 was closely related to a cluster of phocid herpesviruses, including one that caused high mortality rates in harbor seals during past outbreaks. The mother walrus of the dead animal showed evidence of herpesvirus infection in the past and potentially harbored WaHV-1. As a result of hand-rearing, the dead animal might have acquired WaHV-1 from its infected mother and succumbed to WaHV-1 due to lack of maternal IgG, including those that could neutralize WaHV-1.


Assuntos
Alphaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Fígado/virologia , Morsas/virologia , Alphaherpesvirinae/classificação , Alphaherpesvirinae/genética , Alphaherpesvirinae/ultraestrutura , Animais , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Filogenia
13.
Front Genet ; 12: 798608, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058971

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a causal agent for most cervical cancers. The physical status of the HPV genome in these cancers could be episomal, integrated, or both. HPV integration could serve as a biomarker for clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Although whole-genome sequencing by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, such as the Illumina sequencing platform, have been used for detecting integrated HPV genome in cervical cancer, it faces challenges of analyzing long repeats and translocated sequences. In contrast, Oxford nanopore sequencing technology can generate ultra-long reads, which could be a very useful tool for determining HPV genome sequence and its physical status in cervical cancer. As a proof of concept, in this study, we completed whole genome sequencing from a cervical cancer tissue and a CaSki cell line with Oxford Nanopore Technologies. From the cervical cancer tissue, a 7,894 bp-long HPV35 genomic sequence was assembled from 678 reads at 97-fold coverage of HPV genome, sharing 99.96% identity with the HPV sequence obtained by Sanger sequencing. A 7904 bp-long HPV16 genomic sequence was assembled from data generated from the CaSki cell line at 3857-fold coverage, sharing 99.99% identity with the reference genome (NCBI: U89348). Intriguingly, long reads generated by nanopore sequencing directly revealed chimeric cellular-viral sequences and concatemeric genomic sequences, leading to the discovery of 448 unique integration breakpoints in the CaSki cell line and 60 breakpoints in the cervical cancer sample. Taken together, nanopore sequencing is a unique tool to identify HPV sequences and would shed light on the physical status of HPV genome in its associated cancers.

14.
Foods ; 9(12)2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348706

RESUMO

The preparation of powdered microcapsules of flavor substances should not only protect these substances from volatilization during storage but also improve their diffusion during use. This study aimed to investigate the effects of maltodextrin (MD) with different dextrose equivalent (DE) values on retention of flavor substances during storage, and the dynamic release of flavor substances during dissolution. MDs with three different DE values and whey protein isolate were mixed in a ratio of 4:1 as wall materials to encapsulate ethyl acetate, and powdered microcapsules were prepared by spray drying. It was proved that MD could reduce the diffusion of flavor substances under different relative humidity conditions through the interaction between core material and wall material. During dissolution, MD released flavor substances quickly owing to its superior solubility. The reconstituted emulsion formed after the powder dissolved in water recaptured flavor substances and made the system reach equilibrium. This study explored the mechanism of flavor release during the storage and dissolution of powder microcapsules and should help us understand the application of powder microcapsules in food systems.

15.
Front Oncol ; 10: 596822, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224892

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore risk factors for severe acute oral mucositis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving chemo-radiotherapy, build predictive models and determine preventive measures. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two hundred and seventy NPC patients receiving radical chemo-radiotherapy were included. Oral mucosa structure was contoured by oral cavity contour (OCC) and mucosa surface contour (MSC) methods. Oral mucositis during treatment was prospectively evaluated and divided into severe mucositis group (grade ≥ 3) and non-severe mucositis group (grade < 3) according to RTOG Acute Reaction Scoring System. Nineteen clinical features and nineteen dosimetric parameters were included in analysis, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression model was used to construct a risk score (RS) system. RESULTS: Two predictive models were built based on the two delineation methods. MSC based model is more simplified one, it includes body mass index (BMI) classification before radiation, retropharyngeal lymph node (RLN) area irradiation status and MSC V55%, RS = -1.480 + (0.021 × BMI classification before RT) + (0.126 × RLN irradiation) + (0.052 × MSC V55%). The cut-off of MSC based RS is -1.011, with an area under curve (AUC) of 0.737 (95%CI: 0.672-0.801), a specificity of 0.595 and a sensitivity of 0.786. OCC based model involved more variables, RS= -4.805+ (0.152 × BMI classification before RT) + (0.080 × RT Technique) + (0.097 × Concurrent Nimotuzumab) + (0.163 × RLN irradiation) + (0.028 × OCC V15%) + (0.120 × OCC V60%). The cut-off of OCC based RS is -0.950, with an AUC of 0.767 (95%CI: 0.702-0.831), a specificity of 0.602 and a sensitivity of 0.819. Analysis in testing set shown higher AUC of MSC based model than that of OCC based model (AUC: 0.782 vs 0.553). Analysis in entire set shown AUC in these two method-based models were close (AUC: 0.744 vs 0.717). CONCLUSION: We constructed two risk score predictive models for severe oral mucositis based on clinical features and dosimetric parameters of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving chemo-radiotherapy. These models might help to discriminate high risk population in clinical practice that susceptible to severe oral mucositis and individualize treatment plan to prevent it.

16.
Neuroscience ; 446: 14-27, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858143

RESUMO

Schizophrenia has prominent functional dysconnectivity, especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, it is unclear whether in the same group of patients with schizophrenia, PFC functional dysconnectivity appears in an organized manner or is stochastically located in different subregions. By investigating the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of each PFC subregion from the Brainnetome atlas in 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 healthy subjects, we found 24 altered connections in schizophrenia, and the connections were divided into four categories by a clustering analysis: increased connections within the PFC, increased connections between the inferior PFC and the thalamus/striatum, reduced connections between the PFC and the motor control areas, and reduced connections between the orbital PFC and the emotional perception regions. In addition, the four categories of rsFC showed distinct cognitive engagement patterns. Our findings suggest that PFC subregions have specific functional dysconnectivity patterns in schizophrenia and may reflect heterogeneous symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo
17.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(8)2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467359

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread across the world and was characterized as a pandemic. To protect medical laboratory personnel from infection, most laboratories inactivate the virus causing COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in clinical samples before testing. However, the effect of inactivation on the detection results remains unknown. Here, we used a digital PCR assay to determine the absolute SARS-CoV-2 RNA copy number in 63 nasopharyngeal swab samples and assess the effect of inactivation methods on viral RNA copy number. Viral inactivation was performed by three different methods: (i) incubation with the TRIzol LS reagent for 10 min at room temperature, (ii) heating in a water bath at 56°C for 30 min, and (iii) high-temperature treatment, including autoclaving at 121°C for 20 min, boiling at 100°C for 20 min, and heating at 80°C for 20 min. Compared to the amount of RNA in the original sample, TRIzol treatment destroyed 47.54% of the nucleocapsid protein (N) gene and 39.85% of open reading frame (ORF) 1ab. For samples treated at 56°C for 30 min, the copy number of the N gene and ORF 1ab was reduced by 48.55% and 56.40%, respectively. The viral RNA copy number dropped by 50 to 66% after heating at 80°C for 20 min. Nearly no viral RNA was detected after autoclaving at 121°C or boiling at 100°C for 20 min. These results indicate that inactivation reduced the quantity of detectable viral RNA and may cause false-negative results, especially in weakly positive cases. Thus, use of the TRIzol reagent rather than heat inactivation is recommended for sample inactivation, as the TRIzol reagent had the least effect on the RNA copy number among the tested methods.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/efeitos da radiação , Desinfecção/métodos , RNA Viral/análise , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos da radiação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desinfetantes , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 384: 121367, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629589

RESUMO

Generally, the efficiency of water purification can be greatly increased by a high-flux membrane separation technology. One major challenge in the application of this technology is to achieve high removal efficacy of target pollutants with elevated water flux. Here we report a novel self-assembled composite by depositing two-dimensional MXene nanosheets on a commercialized mixed cellulose ester filter (as designated as MCM). Morphology study reveals that MCM exhibits an ultrathin flaked structure with uniform nanochannels which is stapled on a porous support. The tailored membrane has been successfully applied in the methylene blue solution treatment and 100% ± 0.1% removal rate is achieved while the feed concentration of dye solution is up to 90 mg·L-1. Concurrently, stable and comparatively elevated water flux was achieved, i.e., 28.94 ± 0.74 L·m-2·h-1, which is 1.88-fold of that of the commercialized UTC60 membrane. Further investigations on the separation mechanism are performed to get more insights into separation performance exhibited by MCM. It is found that the size-selective sieving, electrostatic repulsion of MXene and the high porosity of substrate play the synergistic effect on the fast and efficient dye removal behavior. Taken together, the composite membrane fabricated in present work provides an alternatively high-efficiency approach for dye treatment, and unflagging efforts will be further invested on the development and large-scale application of MXene-based membrane.

19.
Amino Acids ; 52(1): 87-102, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875259

RESUMO

Type 2 Diabetes causes learning and memory deficits that might be mediated by hippocampus neuron apoptosis. Studies found that taurine might improve cognitive deficits under diabetic condition because of its ability to prevent hippocampus neuron apoptosis. However, the effect and mechanism is not clear. In this study, we explore the effect and mechanism of taurine on inhibiting hippocampus neuron apoptosis. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, T2D, taurine treatment (giving 0.5%, 1%, and 2% taurine in drinking water) groups. Streptozotocin was used to establish the diabetes model. HT-22 cell (hippocampus neurons line) was used for in vitro experiments. Morris Water Maze test was used to check the learning and memory ability, TUNEL assay was used to measure apoptosis and nerve growth factor (NGF); Akt/Bad pathway relevant protein was detected by western blot. Taurine improved learning and memory ability and significantly decreased apoptosis of the hippocampus neurons in T2D rats. Moreover, taurine supplement also inhibited high glucose-induced apoptosis in HT-22 cell in vitro. Mechanistically, taurine increased the expression of NGF, phosphorylation of Trka, Akt, and Bad, as well as reduced cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol. However, beneficial effects of taurine were blocked in the presence of anti-NGF antibody or Akt inhibitor. Taurine could inhibit hippocampus neuron apoptosis via NGF-Akt/Bad pathway. These results provide some clues that taurine might be efficient and feasible candidate for improvement of learning and memory ability in T2D rats.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Neural/genética , Receptor trkA/genética , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína de Morte Celular Associada a bcl/genética
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: C1, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605371

RESUMO

Affiliations of authors Muhammad Shahbaz and Shahid Alam were incorrect in the published book. This has now been corrected as below.

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