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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 150: 662-670, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061850

RESUMO

Alginate is a family of industrially important linear polymers consisting of ß-D-mannuronic acid (M) and its C-5 epimer α-L-guluronic acid (G). The function of alginate is closely related to the ratio of M/G. Mannuronan C-5 epimerase, which converts M to G, is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of alginate. A new mannuronan C-5 epimerase isolated from Pseudomonas mendocina. sp. DICP-70 named PmC5A was characterized in this study. From the 1H NMR analysis of the products, we have found that PmC5A possesses alginate lyase function in addition to mannuronan C-5-epimerase. The optimal pH and temperature of lyase and epimerase were found to be 8.0, 9.0 and 40 °C, 30 °C, respectively. PmC5A also shows lyase activity toward PolyMG and G-blocks.

2.
J Food Biochem ; : e13133, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903633

RESUMO

Endo-polygalacturonase II B (PgaB) from Aspergillus luchuensis was orthologous to endo-polygalacturonase from Aspergillus niger with mutant sites Thr42Ser and Glu52Ala. Mature pgaB gene was cloned from the genomic DNA of A. luchuensis and secreted expressed with over 90% purity in Pichia Pastoris and reached 1.0 g/L after 144 hr culture. The recombinant PgaB was further purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. Using polygalacturonic acid (PGA) as substrate, the optimal condition for PgaB activity was 40°C and pH 4.5, respectively. Km and Vmax of PgaB were 0.19 mmol/l and 103.58 µmol min-1  mg-1 , respectively. The relative activity of PgaB remained more than 60% and 40% of maximum activity at 50 and 60°C for 7 hr. PgaB increased the light transmittance by 85% and showed high efficiency in juice clarification. The main product was galacturonic acid oligosaccharides with degrees of polymers (DP) 1-3. The PgaB is a potential pectinolytic enzyme in food industries. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Endo-polygalacturonase II B (PgaB) was identified from Aspergillus luchuensis, a filamentous fungus widely used in food and beverage fermentation in East Asia. PgaB still kept its most activity at 60°C for 7 hr. Polygalacturonic acid (PGA) can be digested effectively by the PgaB and the main products are galacturonic acid oligosaccharides with degrees of polymers (DP) 1-3. PgaB shows high efficiency in juice clarification. The PgaB is a potential pectinolytic enzyme for the applications in food industries.

3.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122645, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887580

RESUMO

Citrus wastes disposal is a problem faced by many juice plants due to high disposal costs. However, the citrus peel wastes (CPW) biomass, as bulk bioresources from the agro-industrial waste, is a good source of pectin. Present study aimed to utilize these CPW biomass by engineered yeast strain fermentation with an inexpensive method to produce oligogalacturonides (OGs). The results showed that the engineered yeast strain fermentation can produce significant amounts of OGs with the degree of polymerization ranged from 2 to 7 from the CPW bioresources. Under the optimized conditions using the response surface methodology, the best OGs yield were 26.1%. The present work is the first to use the engineered yeast strain for direct CPW biomass fermentation produced the OGs. We thereby paved a new way to utilize the pectin-rich bioresources.


Assuntos
Citrus , Pectinas , Biomassa , Fermentação , Resíduos Industriais , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
4.
J Biol Eng ; 13: 81, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737090

RESUMO

Background: Inulinase can hydrolyze polyfructan into high-fructose syrups and fructoligosaccharides, which are widely used in food, the medical industry and the biorefinery of Jerusalem artichoke. In the present study, a recombinant exo-inulinase (rKcINU1), derived from Kluyveromyces cicerisporus CBS4857, was proven as an N-linked glycoprotein, and the removal of N-linked glycan chains led to reduced activity. Results: Five N-glycosylation sites with variable high mannose-type oligosaccharides (Man3-9GlcNAc2) were confirmed in the rKcINU1. The structural modeling showed that all five glycosylation sites (Asn-362, Asn-370, Asn-399, Asn-467 and Asn-526) were located at the C-terminus ß-sandwich domain, which has been proven to be more conducive to the occurrence of glycosylation modification than the N-terminus domain. Single-site N-glycosylation mutants with Asn substituted by Gln were obtained, and the Mut with all five N-glycosylation sites removed was constructed, which resulted in the loss of all enzyme activity. Interestingly, the N362Q led to an 18% increase in the specific activity against inulin, while a significant decrease in thermostability (2.91 °C decrease in T m ) occurred, and other single mutations resulted in the decrease in the specific activity to various extents, among which N467Q demonstrated the lowest enzyme activity. Conclusion: The increased enzyme activity in N362Q, combined with thermostability testing, 3D modeling, kinetics data and secondary structure analysis, implied that the N-linked glycan chains at the Asn-362 position functioned negatively, mainly as a type of steric hindrance toward its adjacent N-glycans to bring rigidity. Meanwhile, the N-glycosylation at the other four sites positively regulated enzyme activity caused by altered substrate affinity by means of fine-tuning the ß-sandwich domain configuration. This may have facilitated the capture and transfer of substrates to the enzyme active cavity, in a manner quite similar to that of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), i.e. the chains endowed the ß-sandwich domain with the functions of CBM. This study discovered a unique C-terminal sequence which is more favorable to glycosylation, thereby casting a novel view for glycoengineering of enzymes from fungi via redesigning the amino acid sequence at the C-terminal domain, so as to optimize the enzymatic properties.

5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 139: 879-885, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381910

RESUMO

Enzymatic digestion of sodium alginate to produce specific oligosaccharides has attracted great attention. However, commercial enzymes that efficiently produce specific oligosaccharides are still unavailable. In the present study, a novel gene encoding an alginate lyase (designated alg7A) was cloned from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. W13 and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant Alg7A shows high activities toward alginate, poly-α-l-guluronate (polyG), poly-ß-d-mannuronate (polyM) and polyMG, and more preferred to polyMG. Moreover, the enzyme contains a highly conserved domain of the Polysaccharide Lyase (PL) 7 family (R*E*R, Q*H and Y*KAG*Y*Q), which indicates that it belongs to PL7. Furthermore, the thin layer chromatography and ESI-MS analysis showed that Alg7A mainly releases trisaccharides from alginate. These results demonstrated that Alg7A has a great potential to be used to produce oligosaccharides from alginate.

6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 139: 570-576, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381927

RESUMO

Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) have attracted vast attention because of their unique mechanism of oxidative degradation of carbohydrate polymers and the potential application in biorefineries. This study characterized a novel LPMO from Myceliophthora thermophila, denoted MtLPMO9L. The structure model of the enzyme indicated that it belongs to the C1-oxidizing LPMO, which has neither an extra helix in the L3 loop nor extra loop region in the L2 loop. This was confirmed subsequently by the enzymatic assays since MtLPMO9L only acts on cellulose and generates C1-oxidized cello-oligosaccharides. Moreover, synergetic experiments showed that MtLPMO9L significantly improves the efficiency of cellobiohydrolase (CBH) II. In contrast, the inhibitory rather than synergetic effect was observed when combining used MtLPMO9L and CBHI. Changing the incubation time and concentration ratio of MtLPMO9L and CBHI could attenuate the inhibitory effects. This discovery suggests a different synergy detail between MtLPMO9L and two CBHs, which implies that the composition of cellulase cocktails may need reconsideration.

7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 201: 122-130, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241803

RESUMO

Curdlan is a water-insoluble microbial exo-polysaccharide that is hardly degraded. The gene CcGluE encoding an endo-ß-1→3-glucanase consisting of 412 amino acids (44 kDa) from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans E4-5 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant CcGluE hydrolysed curdlan powder effectively. CcGluE shows high endo-ß-1→3 glucanase activity and low ß-1,4 and ß-1,6 glucanase activities with broad substrate specificity for glucan, including curdlan, laminarin and ß-1→3/1→6-glucan, and the highest catalytic activity for curdlan. Moreover, the hydrolytic products of curdlan were glucan oligosaccharides with degrees of polymerisation of 2-13, and the main products were glucobiose and glucotriose. Degradation mode analysis indicated that CcGluE is more likely to hydrolyse glucopentaose and revealed that CcGluE was an endo-glucanase. Furthermore, upon combination with a homogenising pre-treatment method with curdlan, the degradation efficiency of CcGluE for curdlan powder was greatly improved 7.1-fold, which laid a good foundation for the utilisation of curdlan.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Celulase/química , beta-Glucanas/química , Actinobacteria/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Catálise , Celulase/genética , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
8.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1504, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013563

RESUMO

Colon cancer (CC) is the third common neoplasm worldwide, and it is still a big challenge for exploring new effective medicine for treating CC. Natural product promoting human health has become a hot topic and attracted many researchers recently. Pectin, a complex polysaccharide in plant cell wall, mainly consists of four major types of polysaccharides: homogalacturonan, xylogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan I and II, all of which can be degraded into various pectin oligosaccharides (POS) and may provide abundant resource for exploring potential anticancer drugs. POS have been regarded as a novel class of potential functional food with multiple health-promoting properties. POS have antibacterial activities against some aggressive and recurrent bacterial infection and exert beneficial immunomodulation for controlling CC risk. However, the molecular functional role of POS in the prevention of CC risk and progression remains doubtful. The review focuses on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles of POS for promoting human health by regulating some potential oxidative and inflammation-activated pathways, such as ATP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. The activation of these signaling pathways increases the antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities, which will result in the apoptosis of CC cells or in the prevention of CC risk and progression. Thus, POS may inhibit CC development by affecting antioxidant and antiinflammatory signaling pathways AMPK, Nrf2, and NF-κB. However, POS also can activate signal transduction and transcriptional activator 1 and 3 signaling pathway, which will reduce antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and promote CC progression. Specific structural and structurally modified POS may be associated with their functions and should be deeply explored in the future. The present review paper lacks the important information for the linkage between the specific structure of POS and its function. To further explore the effects of prebiotic potential of POS and their derivatives on human immunomodulation in the prevention of CC, the specific POS with a certain degree of polymerization or purified polymers are highly demanded to be performed in clinical practice.

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