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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 517, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was largely brought under control in most regions of China during the previous century, VL cases have rebounded in western and central China in recent decades. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological features and spatial-temporal distribution of VL in mainland China from 2004 to 2019. METHODS: Incidence and mortality data for VL during the period 2004-2019 were collected from the Public Health Sciences Data Center of China and annual national epidemic reports of VL, whose data source was the National Diseases Reporting Information System. Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to explore the trends of VL. Spatial autocorrelation and spatial-temporal clustering analysis were conducted to identify the distribution and risk areas of VL transmission. RESULTS: A total of 4877 VL cases were reported in mainland China during 2004-2019, with mean annual incidence of 0.0228/100,000. VL incidence showed a decreasing trend in general during our study period (annual percentage change [APC] = -4.2564, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.0856 to -0.2677). Among mainly endemic provinces, VL was initially heavily epidemic in Gansu, Sichuan, and especially Xinjiang, but subsequently decreased considerably. In contrast, Shaanxi and Shanxi witnessed significantly increasing trends, especially in 2017-2019. The first-level spatial-temporal aggregation area covered two endemic provinces in northwestern China, including Gansu and Xinjiang, with the gathering time from 2004 to 2011 (relative risk [RR] = 13.91, log-likelihood ratio [LLR] = 3308.87, P < 0.001). The secondary aggregation area was detected in Shanxi province of central China, with the gathering time of 2019 (RR = 1.61, LLR = 4.88, P = 0.041). The epidemic peak of October to November disappeared in 2018-2019, leaving only one peak in March to May. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that VL is still an important endemic infectious disease in China. Epidemic trends in different provinces changed significantly and spatial-temporal aggregation areas shifted from northwestern to central China during our study period. Mitigation strategies, including large-scale screening, insecticide spraying, and health education encouraging behavioral change, in combination with other integrated approaches, are needed to decrease transmission risk in areas at risk, especially in Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces.

2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626066

RESUMO

Transient ischaemia and reperfusion in liver tissue induce hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) tissue injury and a profound inflammatory response in vivo. Hepatic I/R can be classified into warm I/R and cold I/R and is characterized by three main types of cell death, apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy, in rodents or patients following I/R. Warm I/R is observed in patients or animal models undergoing liver resection, haemorrhagic shock, trauma, cardiac arrest or hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome when vascular occlusion inhibits normal blood perfusion in liver tissue. Cold I/R is a condition that affects only patients who have undergone liver transplantation (LT) and is caused by donated liver graft preservation in a hypothermic environment prior to entering a warm reperfusion phase. Under stress conditions, autophagy plays a critical role in promoting cell survival and maintaining liver homeostasis by generating new adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and organelle components after the degradation of macromolecules and organelles in liver tissue. This role of autophagy may contribute to the protection of hepatic I/R-induced liver injury; however, a considerable amount of evidence has shown that autophagy inhibition also protects against hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting autophagic cell death under specific circumstances. In this review, we comprehensively discuss current strategies and underlying mechanisms of autophagy regulation that alleviates I/R injury after liver resection and LT. Directed autophagy regulation can maintain liver homeostasis and improve liver function in individuals undergoing warm or cold I/R. In this way, autophagy regulation can contribute to improving the prognosis of patients undergoing liver resection or LT.

3.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 206: 114349, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597840

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains a major public health problem globally. HBeAg seroconversion is a vital hallmark for the improvement of CHB. The plasma metabolic profile has not been clear in CHB patients and searching metabolic candidates to represent HBeAg seroconversion is also difficult currently. In this study, CHB patients were recruited, followed and divided into the HBeAg-positive (HBeAg-pos.) group (n = 29) and the HBeAg-negative (HBeAg-neg.) group (n = 29) based on HBeAg seroconversion or not. The plasma metabolic profiles were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) at 0 week (0w), 24 weeks (24w) and 48 weeks (48w) after administration. The acquired data was analyzed using orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) and the differential metabolites were further assessed by self and group comparison. No differences of age, gender and serological characteristics were observed between two groups at 0w and 48w separately. The OPLS-DA score plots depending on administration time displayed robust metabolic differences no matter HBeAg turned to be negative or not. According to VIP> 1.0, a total of 15 differential metabolites were same in the two groups, 7 differential metabolites (glycolic acid, D-talose, L-proline, L-(-)-arabitol, ethyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, L-leucine and dihydroxybutanoic acid) were derived from one group alone and considered as metabolic candidates. At 0w versus (vs.) 24w, only 3 of 7 candidates (L-proline, L-(-)-arabitol, dihydroxybutanoic acid) showed nonuniform in the two groups, while at 0w vs. 48w, all of them varied inconsistently. Conclusively the dynamic metabolic profiles assayed by GC-MS were different between CHB patients with and without HBeAg seroconversion. The 7 metabolic candidates probably had the ability to reflect the CHB progression for HBeAg seroconversion and 3 of them showed strong relationship with HbeAg seroconversion early.


Assuntos
Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Interferon-alfa , Metaboloma , Soroconversão , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Food Funct ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546256

RESUMO

Lactobacillus salivarius (L. salivarius) has been widely used in dietary supplements and clinical treatments. Previous studies demonstrated the protective effect of L. salivarius LI01 on liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (D-GaIN) in rats. Accumulating evidence indicates that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are highly coordinated; so in this study, we focus on the synergistic effect of L. salivarius LI01 and B. longum TC01 on the alleviation of liver injury caused by D-GaIN in rats and aim to find out the underlying interaction between the two strains. We observed reduced hepatic damage in the D-GaIN-treated rats with probiotic pre-administration, characterized by lower levels of AST and ALT (p < 0.05) and decreased HAI (Histological Activity Index) scores. Moreover, cotreatment with LI01 and TC01 more effectively decreases proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, MCP-1 and M-CSF (p < 0.05) so as to inhibit systemic inflammation. Gut barrier dysfunction was ameliorated with compound probiotic pretreatment, as evidenced by the ultrastructure integrity, decreased histological score and elevated TJP-1 expression. What's more, supplementation with LI01 and TC01 markedly alleviates gut dysbiosis in the G-DaIN-treated rats, with enrichment of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) producers Faecalibaculum and Eubacterium_xylanophilum_group, a decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio and depletion of proinflammatory microbes, such as Peptococcaeae and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-005. This study highlights the synergistic effect of dietary supplements LI01 and TC01 on the protection against liver failure, which is probably via altering gut microbiota.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 681516, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489933

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out and then became a global epidemic at the end of 2019. With the increasing number of deaths, early identification of disease severity and interpretation of pathogenesis are very important. Aiming to identify biomarkers for disease severity and progression of COVID-19, 75 COVID-19 patients, 34 healthy controls and 23 patients with pandemic influenza A(H1N1) were recruited in this study. Using liquid chip technology, 48 cytokines and chemokines were examined, among which 33 were significantly elevated in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy controls. HGF and IL-1ß were strongly associated with APACHE II score in the first week after disease onset. IP-10, HGF and IL-10 were correlated positively with virus titers. Cytokines were significantly correlated with creatinine, troponin I, international normalized ratio and procalcitonin within two weeks after disease onset. Univariate analyses were carried out, and 6 cytokines including G-CSF, HGF, IL-10, IL-18, M-CSF and SCGF-ß were found to be associated with the severity of COVID-19. 11 kinds of cytokines could predict the severity of COVID-19, among which IP-10 and M-CSF were excellent predictors for disease severity. In conclusion, the levels of cytokines in COVID-19 were significantly correlated with the severity of the disease in the early stage, and serum cytokines could be used as warning indicators of the severity and progression of COVID-19. Early stratification of disease and intervention to reduce hypercytokinaemia may improve the prognosis of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimiocinas/sangue , Quimiocinas/genética , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Influenza Humana/sangue , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Food Funct ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542110

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic inflammatory disease with a high incidence. Multiple factors including dietary composition contribute to its occurrence. Recently, ketogenic diet which consists of a high proportion of fat and low carbohydrates has gained great popularity. Our study is aimed to explore the effect of ketogenic diet on IBD and its potential mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were given a ketogenic diet or a control diet for a month and IBD was induced by 2% DSS in drinking water in the last week. Gut histology, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, gut microbiota and metabolism were assessed. Ketogenic diet substantially worsened colitis, in terms of higher body weight loss, DAI scores and histological scores as well as colon length shortening. Levels of serum and colon inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-17, GM-CSF and IL-10) were significantly up-regulated in mice treated with ketogenic diet and DSS. Increased intestinal permeability and decreased expressions of intestinal epithelial barrier associated genes were observed due to ketogenic diet administration. Pretreatment with ketogenic diet alters the bacterial abundance, increasing pathogenic taxa such as Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Helicobacter and Escherichia-Shigella and decreasing potential beneficial taxa such as Erysipelotrichaceae. Ketogenic diet also modified gut metabolism, increasing metabolites in the bile secretion such as ouabain, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, quinine, cholic acid and glycocholic acid, and decreasing metabolites associated with the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids including stearic acid, arachidic acid, erucic acid, and docosanoic acid. These results suggest that ketogenic diet aggravates DSS-induced colitis in mice by increasing intestinal and systemic inflammation, and disrupting the intestinal barrier, which results from modulated gut microbiota and metabolism.

7.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549810

RESUMO

Few studies have focused on the effect of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection on gut microbiota. To explore the relationship between changes in gut microbiota and inflammatory factors and viral load, we conducted a comparative study of 33 patients with acute hepatitis E (AHE) patients and 25 healthy controls (HCs) using high-throughput 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing. Shannon and Simpson's indices showed no significant differences in bacterial diversity between the AHE and HCs groups. Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae were most abundant in the AHE group, which contributed to the difference between the gut microbiota of the AHE and HCs groups, and the same difference between the HEV-RNA-positive and HEV-RNA-negative groups. Functional prediction analysis showed that ribosome, purine metabolism, and two-component system were the top three pathways. Compared with the AHE group with normal interferon (IFN)-γ, Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Xanthomonadaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae were more abundant in the high-IFN-γ group. The abundance of Gammaproteobacteria was positively correlated with the level of serum alanine transaminase and total bilirubin. The abundance of Gammaproteobacteria could discriminate AHE patients from HCs, and could better predict the severity of AHE patients. We believe that our findings will contribute toward a novel treatment strategy for AHE.

8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 679853, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368054

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of other infectious diarrhea (OID) ranked second in class C notifiable disease in China. It has posed a great threat to public health of all age groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological trends and hotspots of OID in mainland China. Materials and Methods: Incidence and mortality data for OID stratified by date, age and region from 2004 to 2017 was extracted from the data-center of China public health science. Joinpoint regression and space-time analyses were performed to explore the epidemiological trends and hotspots of OID. Results: The average annual incidence of OID was 60.64/100,000 and it showed an increased trend in the mainland China especially after 2006 (APC = 4.12, 95 CI%: 2.06-6.21). Children of 0-4 year age group accounts for 60.00% (5,820,897/11,414,247) of all cases and its incidence continuously increased though 2004-2017 (APC = 6.65, 95 CI%: 4.39-8.96). The first-level spatial and temporal aggregation areas were located in Beijing and Tianjin, with the gathering time from 2005/1/1 to 2011/12/31 (RR = 5.52, LLR = 572893.59, P < 0.001). The secondary spatial and temporal aggregation areas covered Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Guizhou from 2011/1/1 to 2017/12/31 (RR = 1.98, LLR = 242292.72, P < 0.001). OID of Tianjin and Beijing presented a decreased trend since 2006. However, the incidence of OID in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Guizhou showed increased trends through 2004-2017. Conclusion: Our study showed that OID showed a constantly increasing trend and brought considerable burden in China especially in the 0-4 age group. The high-risk periods and clusters of regions for OID were identified, which will help government develop disease-specific and location-specific interventive measures.


Assuntos
Disenteria , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Análise Espaço-Temporal
9.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 191, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the 1-year outcome of COVID-19 is limited. The aim of this study was to follow-up and evaluate lung abnormalities on serial computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with COVID-19 after hospital discharge. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of patients with COVID-19 from the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine was conducted, with assessments of chest CT during hospitalization and at 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after hospital discharge. Risk factors of residual CT opacities and the influence of residual CT abnormalities on pulmonary functions at 1 year were also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 41 patients were followed in this study. Gradual recovery after hospital discharge was confirmed by the serial CT scores. Around 47% of the patients showed residual aberration on pulmonary CT with a median CT score of 0 (interquartile range (IQR) of 0-2) at 1 year after discharge, with ground-glass opacity (GGO) with reticular pattern as the major radiologic pattern. Patients with residual radiological abnormalities were older (p = 0.01), with higher rate in current smokers (p = 0.04), higher rate in hypertensives (p = 0.05), lower SaO2 (p = 0.004), and higher prevalence of secondary bacterial infections during acute phase (p = 0.02). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that age was a risk factor associated with residual radiological abnormalities (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.15, p = 0.02). Pulmonary functions of total lung capacity (p = 0.008) and residual volume (p < 0.001) were reduced in patients with residual CT abnormalities and were negatively correlated with CT scores. CONCLUSION: During 1-year follow-up after discharge, COVID-19 survivors showed continuous improvement on chest CT. However, residual lesions could still be observed and correlated with lung volume parameters. The risk of developing residual CT opacities increases with age.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(9): 9362-9371, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid level (HBV-DNA) ≥5.3 log10IU/mL among pregnant women was recommended as an antiviral therapeutic indicator. However, implementation of HBV-DNA testing has varying difficulties in places. In this study, we explored the implementation rate of HBV-DNA testing worldwide, and possibility of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) testing replacing HBV-DNA as an antiviral treatment indicator during pregnancy. METHODS: We searched five electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for studies published between Jan 1, 2000, and Nov 16, 2020. Studies were eligible for inclusion if HBV DNA testing implementation rate is available, or if maternal HBV DNA level could be analyzed by HBeAg status. The rates were pooled after data was made a Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42021235711. RESULTS: A total of 9,575 studies were identified, 79 were finally included in this study. The HBV-DNA testing implementation rate was 36.6% (95% CI, 28.3-45.3%) globally. The rate of HBV-DNA ≥5.3 log10IU/mL was 81.51% (95% CI, 71.68-89.74%) among HBeAg positive pregnant women, and was 4.08% (95% CI, 2.14-6.54%) in HBeAg negative pregnant women. Even if infants were immunized with hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin, the rate of mother-to-child transmission was still 4.87% (95% CI, 4.10-5.68%) among HBeAg positive mothers, and was 0 (95% CI, 0-0.07%) among HBeAg negative mothers, with a RR of 30.40 (95% CI, 11.31-81.72). CONCLUSIONS: The implementation rate of HBV DNA testing varies from region to region. Limited studies show that HBV DNA testing does not cover all pregnant women with hepatitis B. When HBV-DNA testing is not available, it is worth considering to use HBeAg positivity as an antiviral therapeutic indicator among HBV-infected pregnant women for preventing MTCT.


Assuntos
Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Gestantes
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 685315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395364

RESUMO

Background: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed an unprecedented challenge to public health in Southeast Asia, a tropical region with limited resources. This study aimed to investigate the evolutionary dynamics and spatiotemporal patterns of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the region. Materials and Methods: A total of 1491 complete SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences from 10 Southeast Asian countries were downloaded from the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data (GISAID) database on November 17, 2020. The evolutionary relationships were assessed using maximum likelihood (ML) and time-scaled Bayesian phylogenetic analyses, and the phylogenetic clustering was tested using principal component analysis (PCA). The spatial patterns of SARS-CoV-2 spread within Southeast Asia were inferred using the Bayesian stochastic search variable selection (BSSVS) model. The effective population size (Ne) trajectory was inferred using the Bayesian Skygrid model. Results: Four major clades (including one potentially endemic) were identified based on the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree. Similar clustering was yielded by PCA; the first three PCs explained 46.9% of the total genomic variations among the samples. The time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) and the evolutionary rate of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in Southeast Asia were estimated to be November 28, 2019 (September 7, 2019 to January 4, 2020) and 1.446 × 10-3 (1.292 × 10-3 to 1.613 × 10-3) substitutions per site per year, respectively. Singapore and Thailand were the two most probable root positions, with posterior probabilities of 0.549 and 0.413, respectively. There were high-support transmission links (Bayes factors exceeding 1,000) in Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia; Malaysia involved the highest number (7) of inferred transmission links within the region. A twice-accelerated viral population expansion, followed by a temporary setback, was inferred during the early stages of the pandemic in Southeast Asia. Conclusions: With available genomic data, we illustrate the phylogeography and phylodynamics of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in Southeast Asia. Continuous genomic surveillance and enhanced strategic collaboration should be listed as priorities to curb the pandemic, especially for regional communities dominated by developing countries.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Filogenia
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 713647, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367180

RESUMO

The role of host-microbiota interactions in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) has received increased attention. However, the impact of PBC on the oral microbiota and contribution of the oral microbiota to PBC are unclear. In this study, thirty-nine PBC patients without other diseases and 37 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled and tested for liver functions and haematological variables. Saliva specimens were collected before and after brushing, microbiota was determined using 16S rDNA sequencing, metabolomics was profiled using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS), 80 cytokines were assayed using biochips, and inflammation inducibility was evaluated using OKF6 keratinocytes and THP-1 macrophages. Finally, the effect of ultrasonic scaling on PBC was estimated. Compared with HCs, PBC saliva had enriched taxa such as Bacteroidetes, Campylobacter, Prevotella and Veillonella and depleted taxa such as Enterococcaceae, Granulicatella, Rothia and Streptococcus. PBC saliva also had enriched sCD163, enriched metabolites such as 2-aminomalonic acid and 1-dodecanol, and depleted metabolites such as dodecanoic acid and propylene glycol. sCD163, 4-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid and 2-aminomalonic acid were significantly correlated with salivary cytokines, bacteria and metabolites. Salivary Veillonellaceae members, 2-aminomalonic acid, and sCD163 were positively correlated with liver function indicators such as serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). PBC salivary microbes induced more soluble interleukin (IL)-6 receptor α (sIL-6Rα), sIL-6Rß and tumour necrosis factor ligand superfamily (TNFSF)13B from OKF6 keratinocytes, and PBC salivary supernatant induced more IL-6, IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)13, C-X-C motif chemokine (CXC)L1 and CXCL16 from THP-1 macrophages. Toothbrushing significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ß, IL-8 and TNF-α and harmful metabolites such as cadaverine and putrescine in PBC but not HC saliva after P-value correction. The levels of ALP and bilirubin in PBC serum were decreased after ultrasonic scaling. Together, PBC patients show significant alterations in their salivary microbiota, likely representing one cause and treatment target of oral inflammation and worsening liver functions.

13.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439862

RESUMO

The relationship between aseptic systemic inflammation and postoperative bacterial infection is unclear. We investigated the correlation of systemic inflammation biomarkers with 30-day clinically significant bacterial infections (CSI) after liver transplantation (LT). This retrospective study enrolled 940 patients who received LT and were followed for 30 days. The primary end point was 30-day CSI events. The cohort was divided into exploratory (n = 508) and validation (n = 432) sets according to different centers. Area under the receiver operated characteristic (AUROC) and Cox regression models were fitted to study the association between baseline systemic inflammation levels and CSI after LT. A total of 255 bacterial infectious events in 209 recipients occurred. Among systemic inflammation parameters, baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) was independently associated with 30-day CSI in the exploratory group. The combination of CRP and organ failure number showed a good discrimination for 30-day CSI (AUROC = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.76-0.84) and the results were confirmed in an external verification group. Additionally, CRP levels were correlated with bacterial product lipopolysaccharide. In conclusion, our study suggests that pre-transplantation CRP is independent of other prognostic factors for 30-day CSI post-LT, and can be integrated into tools for assessing the risk of bacterial infection post-LT or as a component of prognostic models.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-18, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323634

RESUMO

With the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and molecular analysis technologies, next-generation probiotics (NGPs) are increasingly gaining attention as live bacterial therapeutics for treatment of diseases. However, compared to traditional probiotics, NGPs are much more vulnerable to the harsh conditions in the human gastrointestinal tract, and their functional mechanisms in the gut are more complex. Prebiotics have been confirmed to play a critical role in improving the function and viability of traditional probiotics. Defined as substrates that are selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit, prebiotics are also important for NGPs. This review summarizes potential prebiotics for use with NGPs and clarifies their characteristics and functional mechanisms. Then we particularly focus on illustrating the protective effects of various prebiotics by enhancing the antioxidant capacity and their resistance to digestive fluids. We also elucidate the role of prebiotics in regulating anti-bacterial effects, intestinal barrier maintenance, and cross-feeding mechanisms of NPGs. With the expanding range of candidate NGPs and prebiotic substrates, more studies need to be conducted to comprehensively elucidate the interactions between prebiotics and NGPs outside and inside hosts, in order to boost their nutritional and healthcare applications.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232898

RESUMO

Bone age assessment (BAA) is clinically important as it can be used to diagnose endocrine and metabolic disorders during child development. Existing deep learning based methods for classifying bone age use the global image as input, or exploit local information by annotating extra bounding boxes or key points. However, training with the global image underutilizes discriminative local information, while providing extra annotations is expensive and subjective. In this paper, we propose an attention-guided approach to automatically localize the discriminative regions for BAA without any extra annotations. Specifically, we first train a classification model to learn the attention maps of the discriminative regions, finding the hand region, the most discriminative region (the carpal bones), and the next most discriminative region (the metacarpal bones). Guided by those attention maps, we then crop the informative local regions from the original image and aggregate different regions for BAA. Instead of taking BAA as a general regression task, which is suboptimal due to the label ambiguity problem in the age label space, we propose using joint age distribution learning and expectation regression, which makes use of the ordinal relationship among hand images with different individual ages and leads to more robust age estimation. Extensive experiments are conducted on the RSNA pediatric bone age data set. {\color{red} Without using extra manual} annotations, our method achieves competitive results compared with existing state-of-the-art deep learning-based methods that require manual annotation. Code is available at \url{https://github.com/chenchao666/Bone-Age-Assessment}.

16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 650672, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277536

RESUMO

Reemergent local outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have occurred in China, yet few Chinese response strategies and its evaluation have been reported. This study presents a preliminary assessment of Chinese strategy in controlling reemergent local outbreaks of COVID-19. Time course of accumulative and daily new cases and time-varying reproductive numbers (Rt) of outbreak areas were presented. The asymptomatic rate, days required to control the outbreaks, seeding time (ST), and doubling time (DT) of areas with over 96 reemergent cases were calculated. National and local year-on-year growth rates of gross domestic product (GDP) were presented. Accumulative numbers of 30, 8, 11, 430, 15, 139, 1,067, 382, 42, and 94 confirmed reemergent COVID-19 cases were diagnosed in Hulun Buir, Shanghai, Tianjin, Kashgar, Qingdao, Dalian, Urumchi, Beijing, Jilin, and Harbin, respectively. Among them, maximum rate of asymptomatic infections was 81.9%. Time required to control the local outbreaks in the areas given above varied from 29 to 51 days. After activation of outbreak responses, the late-stage DTs of Kashgar, Urumchi, Beijing, and Dalian were apparently lengthened compared to the early-stage DTs. Although the year-on-year GDP growth rate of Urumchi was slightly affected, the GDP growth rate of Dalian, Beijing, Jilin, and Harbin kept rising during the reemergence. Moreover, the year-on-year GDP growth rate of Mainland China turned positive regardless of the reemergent local outbreaks. In general, the Chinese strategy to maintain the status of no or minimal transmission was effective in balancing the control of COVID-19 reemergent local outbreak and the recovery of economy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pequim , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 204: 114247, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252821

RESUMO

Irradiated blood is a new type of blood product used to prevent transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. However, the effects of irradiation on the metabolism of plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are largely unknown. We developed a workflow for testing metabolic changes in whole blood to determine the impact of irradiation by chemical isotope labeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (CIL LC-MS). Blood parameters, PBMC proliferation and apoptosis were examined before and after irradiation. Next, the amine/phenol metabolites in the blood components were assayed by 12C- and13C-dansylation labeling LC-MS. We identified 1654, 1730, and 1666 peak pairs in plasma, RBCs, and PBMCs, respectively. We screened out 367, 177, and 219 significant metabolites in plasma, RBCs, and PBMCs, respectively, by principle component analyses, volcano plots, and Venn plots. Metabolic pathway analyses showed that irradiation modulated taurine and hypotaurine metabolism in plasma and purine metabolism in RBCs and PBMCs. Changes in potential biomarkers, including an increase in hypoxanthine level and a decrease in adenine level, may be related to the dysfunction of DNA synthesis in PBMCs. The decreased AMP level in RBCs may interfere with RBC storage lesions. Our research provides a more comprehensive perspective on blood metabolism associated with irradiation.


Assuntos
Leucócitos Mononucleares , Metaboloma , Isótopos de Carbono , Cromatografia Líquida , Marcação por Isótopo , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica
18.
J Infect ; 83(3): 298-305, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324940

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has many extrahepatic manifestations as well as liver symptoms. Multiple studies have shown that HEV infection has symptoms related to the nervous system, kidneys, cryoglobulinemia, hematological system, reproductive system, autoimmunity and pancreas. Hence, HEV infection should be considered as a systemic disease, rather than solely a liver disease. The extrahepatic manifestations induced by different genotypes of HEV vary. The severity of these diseases does not necessarily correlate with the severity of HEV infection, and even asymptomatic HEV infection may trigger and cause systemic diseases. Patients with systemic manifestations of HEV infection should have priority for antiviral therapy, which could alleviate or improve the extrahepatic manifestations related to HEV infection. However, the extrahepatic manifestations caused by different genotypes of HEV and their corresponding mechanisms have not been clearly identified. This review discusses the extrahepatic manifestations related to HEV infection and their triggering mechanisms.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Genótipo , Hepatite E/complicações , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Rim
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) has a high short-term mortality. However, the treatment progression for HBV-ACLF in China in the past decade has not been well characterized. The present study aimed to determine whether the HBV-ACLF treatment has significantly improved during the past decade. METHODS: This study retrospectively compared short-term (28/56 days) survival rates of two different nationwide cohorts (cohort I: 2008-2011 and cohort II: 2012-2015). Eligible HBV-ACLF patients were enrolled retrospectively. Patients in the cohorts I and II were assigned either to the standard medical therapy (SMT) group (cohort I-SMT, cohort II-SMT) or artificial liver support system (ALSS) group (cohort I-ALSS, cohort II-ALSS). Propensity score matching analysis was conducted to eliminate baseline differences, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the independent factors for 28-day survival. RESULTS: Short-term (28/56 days) survival rates were significantly higher in the ALSS group than those in the SMT group (P < 0.05) and were higher in the cohort II than those in the cohort I (P < 0.001). After propensity score matching, short-term (28/56 days) survival rates were higher in the cohort II than those in the cohort I for both SMT (60.7% vs. 53.0%, 50.0% vs. 39.8%, P < 0.05) and ALSS (66.1% vs. 56.5%, 53.0% vs. 44.4%, P < 0.05) treatments. The 28-day survival rate was higher in patients treated with nucleos(t)ide analogs than in patients without such treatments (P = 0.046). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that ALSS (OR = 0.962, 95% CI: 0.951-0.973, P = 0.038), nucleos(t)ide analogs (OR = 0.927, 95% CI: 0.871-0.983, P = 0.046), old age (OR = 1.028, 95% CI: 1.015-1.041, P < 0.001), total bilirubin (OR = 1.002, 95% CI: 1.001-1.003, P = 0.004), INR (OR = 1.569, 95% CI: 1.044-2.358, P < 0.001), COSSH-ACLF grade (OR = 2.683, 95% CI: 1.792-4.017, P < 0.001), and albumin (OR = 0.952, 95% CI: 0.924-0.982, P = 0.002) were independent factors for 28-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment for patients with HBV-ACLF has improved in the past decade.

20.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 58, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244520

RESUMO

The low viability during gastrointestinal transit and poor mucoadhesion considerably limits the effectiveness of Ligilactobacillus salivarius Li01 (Li01) in regulating gut microbiota and alleviating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, a delivery system was designed through layer-by-layer (LbL) encapsulating a single Li01cell with chitosan and alginate. The layers were strengthened by cross-linking to form a firm and mucoadhesive shell (~10 nm thickness) covering the bacterial cell. The LbL Li01 displayed improved viability under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and mucoadhesive function. Almost no cells could be detected among the free Li01 after 2 h incubation in digestive fluids, while for LbL Li01, the total reduction was around 3 log CFU/mL and the viable number of cells remained above 6 log CFU/mL. Besides, a 5-fold increase in the value of rupture length and a two-fold increase in the number of peaks were found in the (bacteria-mucin) adhesion curves of LbL Li01, compared to those of free Li01. Oral administration with LbL Li01 on colitis mice facilitated intestinal barrier recovery and restoration of the gut microbiota. The improved functionality of Li01 by LbL encapsulation could increase the potential for the probiotic to be used in clinical applications to treat IBD; this should be explored in future studies.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular , Colite/etiologia , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
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