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1.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651373

RESUMO

No-till (NT) is a sustainable option because of its benefits on controlling erosion, saving labor, and mitigating climate change. However, a comprehensive assessment of soil pH response to NT is still lacking. Thus, a global meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effects of NT on soil pH and to identify the influential factors and possible consequences based on the analysis of 114 publications. When comparing tillage practices, the results indicated an overall significant decrease by 1.33±0.28% in soil pH under NT than that under conventional tillage (P<0.05). Soil texture, NT duration, mean annual temperature (MAT), and initial soil pH are the critical factors affecting soil pH under NT. Specifically, with significant variations among subgroups, when compared to conventional tillage, the soil under NT had lower relative changes in soil pH observed in clay loam soil (-2.44%), long-term implementation (-2.11% for more than 15 years), medium MAT (-1.87% in range of 8-16 ℃), neutral soil pH (-2.28% for 6.5< initial soil pH<7.5), mean annual precipitation (-1.95% in range of 600-1200 mm), in topsoil layers (-2.03% for 0-20 cm), with crop rotation (-1.98%), N fertilizer input (the same for NT and conventional tillage) of 100-200 kg N ha-1 (-1.83%), or crop residue retention (-1.52%). Changes in organic matter decomposition under undisturbed soil and with crop residue retention might lead to higher concentration of H+ and lower of basic cations (i.e., calcium, magnesium, and potassium), which decrease soil pH, and consequently, impact nutrient dynamics (i.e., soil phosphorus) in the surface layer under NT. Furthermore, soil acidification may be aggravated by NT within site-specific conditions and improper fertilizer and crop residue management, and consequently leading to adverse effects on soil nutrient availability. Thus, there is a need to identify strategies to ameliorate soil acidification under NT to minimize the adverse consequences.

2.
Lab Chip ; 21(20): 3924-3932, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636818

RESUMO

Screening drug combinations using tumor spheroids can play a vital role in the development of disease treatment and personalized medicine. However, current studies focus on drug gradients or combinations of two drugs in most cases, and it is difficult to find complex therapeutic combinations involving more drugs. The use of design-of-experiment (DOE) microfluidics is a potential strategy to study this area systematically. Here we develop a high-throughput, open-space multilayered PMMA microfluidic chip for combinational drug screening on tumor spheroids. This microchip is straightforward to fabricate, compatible with standard spheroid cultures, and friendly for end-users. The device consists of an inlet layer and multiple dispersing layers. In the inlet layer, different samples can be loaded into the chip simultaneously. The sample solutions flow into the dispersing layers to generate various combinations based on the specific DOE principle. We demonstrated that the chip performance is in quantitative agreement with the design, using water and doxycycline combinations as models. As a proof-of-concept study, we constructed a HeLa reporter cell line to quantify the autophagy of tumor spheroids and used the chip to identify critical factors relating to the growth of the spheroids. Specifically, we used L-glutamine, D-glucose, FBS, and cisplatin as the factors and studied the autophagy, growth curves, and spheroid sizes in response to different combinations of the four factors. We found that D-glucose can inhibit the effects of cisplatin on tumor spheroids, and cisplatin caused severe autophagy in 3D tumor spheroids compared to 2D monoculture cells. Our method has the potential to allow more drug combinations to be examined, and it can be extended to DOE approaches with seven or more inputs.

3.
Cartilage ; : 19476035211044820, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present study was to observe the effect of autophagy in tibial plateau chondrocytes on apoptosis in spontaneous knee osteoarthritis (OA) in guinea pigs. DESIGN: Fifty 2-month-old female Hartley guinea pigs were divided into a normal group (10 animals, all euthanized after 7 months) and an OA group (40 animals, 10 of which were euthanized after 10 months). Immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR and Western blotting were used to evaluate autophagy levels, intracellular glycogen accumulation and apoptosis in tibial plateau chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. The remaining 30 guinea pigs in the OA group were divided into 3 groups: a rapamycin group, a normal saline group, and a 3-methyladenine (3-MA) group. Intracellular glycogen accumulation and chondrocyte apoptosis were assessed by altering the level of autophagy in chondrocytes in vivo. RESULTS: When spontaneous OA occurred in guinea pigs, autophagy levels in tibial plateau chondrocytes decreased, while intracellular glycogen accumulation and the rate of chondrocyte apoptosis increased. After enhancing the level of autophagy in tibial plateau chondrocytes in guinea pigs with OA, intracellular glycogen accumulation and the rate of chondrocyte apoptosis decreased, while inhibiting autophagy had the opposite effects. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the function of autophagy in chondrocytes may at least partly involve the catabolism of glycogen. In guinea pigs with OA, the level of autophagy in tibial plateau chondrocytes decreased, and chondrocytes were unable to degrade intracellular glycogen into glucose, leading to less energy for chondrocytes and increased apoptosis.

4.
J Pharm Sci ; 2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469750

RESUMO

Two oxidative degradation impurities of sugammadex sodium have been successfully synthesized under stress conditions and isolated by preparative high performance liquid chromatography, which would be extremely difficult to prepare stochiometrically by conventional methods due to their structural complexity. Characteristic fragmentation pattern observed by mass spectrometry for sugammadex series compounds helped distinguish the two regioisomeric di-sulfoxide impurities. Confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, Impurity I was identified as ortho-disulfoxide sugammadex and Impurity II as meta-disulfoxide sugammadex. It is the first time detailed structures of these two impurities are reported. Additionally, HPLC analysis also indicated the observance of these two impurities in long-term stored sugammadex sodium finished pharmaceutical product but absence in three pilot batches of sugammadex sodium drug substance which met ICH requirements. The compounded analysis technique has proven to be successful and reliable, and we hope that it could be well applied to structure identification for other sugammadex impurities and will be beneficial for other researchers focusing on this field.

5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 8905578, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512872

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contribute to postischemic myocardial damage, but the upstream regulatory mechanisms have not been identified. In this study, we analyzed the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) in the regulation of mitochondrial function and ER stress in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Our results show that MKP-1 overexpression sustains viability and reduces hypoxia-induced apoptosis among H9C2 cardiomyocytes. MKP-1 overexpression attenuates ER stress and expression of ER stress genes and improves mitochondrial function in hypoxia-treated H9C2 cells. MKP-1 overexpression also increases ATP production and mitochondrial respiration and attenuates mitochondrial oxidative damage in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Moreover, our results demonstrate that ERK and JNK are the downstream signaling targets of MKP-1 and that MKP-1 overexpression activates ERK, while it inhibits JNK. Inhibition of ERK reduces the ability of MKP-1 to preserve mitochondrial function and ER homeostasis in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. These results show that MKP-1 plays an essential role in the regulation of mitochondrial function and ER stress in hypoxic H9C2 cardiomyocytes through normalization of the ERK pathway and suggest that MKP-1 may serve as a novel target for the treatment of postischemic myocardial injury.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563631

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Light therapy is a non-pharmacological therapy that is currently being studied in cancer-related symptoms and is certificated as a low-risk intervention by FDA. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most common symptom reported by cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of light therapy for CRF in cancer patients through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of 4 electronic databases targeted randomized clinical trials evaluating light therapy for CRF (CRD42020215446), from inception to May 2021. The primary outcome was changes of CRF scores; secondary outcomes included depression, sleep, and quality of life (QoL). We quantitatively pooled outcomes using meta-analysis with random-effects models and assessed methodological bias. RESULTS: We identified thirteen RCTs representing 551 cancer patients, encompassing breast (n=5), ovarian or endometrial (n=1), multiple myeloma (n=1), lung (n=1), or combined (n=5) cancers. The comparison groups included dim light (n=12) and waiting list (n=1). Duration of intervention ranged from 1 to 12 weeks. Light intensities ranged from 417.9 to 12,000 lux. Light therapy was associated with a significant improvement in CRF (SMD = 0.45, p = 0.007), depression (SMD = -0.26, p = 0.03) and sleep difficulty (SMD = -2.46, p = 0.0006); a statistically non-significant trend was observed for QoL (SMD = 0.33, p = 0.09). Funnel plots for CRF suggest not significant publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: Light therapy could be a feasible and effective option for improving CRF in cancer patients. Larger sample, rigor trials design and a standard protocol of intervention are needed to draw more conclusive conclusions.

7.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(5)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476500

RESUMO

Cisplatin (DDP) resistance in patients suffering from ovarian cancer is a considerable hurdle to successful treatment. The present study aimed to identify a possible long non­coding RNA (lncRNA)­microRNA (miRNA)­mRNA axis participating in ovarian cancer DDP­resistance based on the critical roles of non­coding RNAs, including lncRNAs and miRNAs, in carcinogenesis. According to online data and experimental results, lncRNA HAND2­AS1 expression was significantly downregulated within ovarian carcinoma, especially within recurrent and DDP­resistant ovarian carcinoma. The expression of HAND2­AS1 was also shown to be markedly inhibited in SKOV3/DDP (DDP) cells with resistance to DDP. In SKOV3/DDP cells, HAND2­AS1 overexpression inhibited cell viability and promoted cell apoptosis upon DDP treatment through the Bcl­2/caspase­3 apoptotic signaling. It was hypothesized that PTEN mRNA expression was also markedly inhibited in SKOV3/DDP ovarian cancer cells, while HAND2­AS1 overexpression rescued PTEN proteins and blocked PI3K/AKT signaling activation. Moreover, miR­106a was found to bind directly to PTEN 3' UTR and HAND2­AS1. Upon DDP treatment, miR­106a overexpression in SKOV3/DDP cells promoted cell viability. It inhibited cell apoptosis through the Bcl­2/caspase­3 apoptotic signaling pathway and downregulated the protein levels of PTEN and upregulated PI3K/AKT signaling activity. Furthermore, miR­106a overexpression partially reversed the effect of HAND2­AS1 overexpression upon PTEN proteins and SKOV3/DDP cell proliferation upon DDP treatment. In conclusion, a lncRNA HAND2­AS1/miR­106a/PTEN axis that re­sensitizes DDP­resistant SKOV3/DDP cells to DDP treatment has been established.

8.
J Org Chem ; 86(17): 12460-12466, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382805

RESUMO

Free radical-initiated cascade cyclization of unactivated alkenes with chloralkanes, which undergoes selective activation of the α-C(sp3)-H bond of chloralkanes, provides a protocol for the synthesis of chlorinated heterocycles or polycyclic compounds. A series of radical inhibition experiments, radical capture operations, and radical clock tests were studied in this system.

9.
Cancer Nurs ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients have an increasing survival rate but experience psychological distress and circadian rhythm dysregulation. Little is known about the effect of circadian rhythm on psychological distress. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the type of circadian rhythm in Chinese AYA cancer survivors and examine the associations among chronotype, demographic characteristics, psychological distress, anxiety and depression, character strengths, and medical coping in this group. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 800 AYA cancer participants, 728 of whom completed the Chinese version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Distress Thermometer, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Three-Dimensional Inventory of Character Strengths, and the Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire. RESULTS: Evening- and morning-type participants accounted for 35.0% and 19.1%, respectively, among participants, which was significantly higher than those found in the general population. The prevalence of psychological distress was 84.9% among AYA cancer participants. Exercise, Distress Thermometer, and depression were important predictive factors for the circadian rhythm. CONCLUSIONS: Circadian rhythm disorder and psychological distress were common among AYA cancer survivors. Evening-type participants performed worse on character strength, confrontation, and avoidance of medical coping. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Healthcare professionals need to understand the circadian rhythm and psychological health of AYA cancer survivors. Psychological rehabilitation guidance, especially within the 6 months after diagnosis, may benefit AYA survivors according to their chronotype. Character strengths can also be used during rehabilitation to properly guide AYA survivors.

10.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 38(8): 768-770, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To carry out genetic testing for a pregnant woman with mild mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, and a history of adverse pregnancies and provide prenatal diagnosis for her. METHODS: Routine G-banded karyotyping and single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP-array) analysis were performed on the couple and amniotic fluid sample. RESULTS: No karyotypic abnormality was found with the couple and amniotic fluid sample. SNP-array analysis showed that the woman has carried a 7.801 Mb microdeletion in 10q22.3q23.2, which involved 18 OMIM genes including CDHR1, BMPR1A, NRG3, GRID1 and LDB3, which are associated with facial abnormalities, developmental retardation, mental retardation and autism. The fetus also carried a 7.819 Mb deletion in the same region, while the father showed no abnormality. CONCLUSION: Both the pregnant woman and her fetus have carried a 10q22.3q23.2 microdeletion, which has provided guidance for her subsequent pregnancy.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Caderinas , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Deleção Cromossômica , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Gravidez
11.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(7)2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356454

RESUMO

The development of oil and gas resources is gradually transferring to the deep sea, and the hydrate plugging of submarine pipelines at high pressures and low temperatures is becoming an important problem to ensure the safety of pipeline operations. The swirl flow is a new method to expand the boundary of hydrate safe flow. Numerical simulation of the hydrate slurry flow characteristics in a horizontal pipeline by twisted band has been carried out, and the flow of CO2 hydrate slurry in low concentration has been simulated by the RSM and DPM models. The results show that the heat transfer efficiency is also related to Re and particle concentration. The velocity distribution has the form of symmetrical double peaks, and the peaks finally merge at the center of the pipeline. Vortexes firstly appear on both sides of the edge of the twisted band, and then move to the middle part of the twisted band. Finally, the vortex center almost coincides with the velocity center. The rotation direction of hydrate particles is the same as the twisted direction of the twisted band, twist rate (Y) is smaller, Re is larger, and the symmetric vortex lines merge farther away. The initial swirl number is mainly related to Y, but not Re. The swirl flow attenuates exponentially, and its attenuation rate is mainly related to Re, but not Y. Compared with ordinary pipelines, the swirl flow can obviously improve the transportation distance of hydrate slurry.

12.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 432, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone tissue engineering is a new concept bringing hope for the repair of large bone defects, which remains a major clinical challenge. The formation of vascularized bone is key for bone tissue engineering. Growth of specialized blood vessels termed type H is associated with bone formation. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that low level laser therapy (LLLT) promotes angiogenesis, fracture healing, and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether LLLT can couple angiogenesis and osteogenesis, and the underlying mechanisms during bone formation, remains largely unknown. METHODS: Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) combined with biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) grafts were implanted into C57BL/6 mice to evaluate the effects of LLLT on the specialized vessel subtypes and bone regeneration in vivo. Furthermore, human BMSCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were co-cultured in vitro. The effects of LLLT on cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and osteogenesis were assessed. RESULTS: LLLT promoted the formation of blood vessels, collagen fibers, and bone tissue and also increased CD31hiEMCNhi-expressing type H vessels in mBMSC/BCP grafts implanted in mice. LLLT significantly increased both osteogenesis and angiogenesis, as well as related gene expression (HIF-1α, VEGF, TGF-ß) of grafts in vivo and of co-cultured BMSCs/HUVECs in vitro. An increase or decrease of ROS induced by H2O2 or Vitamin C, respectively, resulted in an increase or decrease of HIF-1α, and a subsequent increase and decrease of VEGF and TGF-ß in the co-culture system. The ROS accumulation induced by LLLT in the co-culture system was significantly decreased when HIF-1α was inhibited with DMBPA and was followed by decreased expression of VEGF and TGF-ß. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT enhanced vascularized bone regeneration by coupling angiogenesis and osteogenesis. ROS/HIF-1α was necessary for these effects of LLLT. LLLT triggered a ROS-dependent increase of HIF-1α, VEGF, and TGF-ß and resulted in subsequent formation of type H vessels and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. As ROS also was a target of HIF-1α, there may be a positive feedback loop between ROS and HIF-1α, which further amplified HIF-1α induction via the LLLT-mediated ROS increase. This study provided new insight into the effects of LLLT on vascularization and bone regeneration in bone tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Osteogênese , Animais , Regeneração Óssea , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neovascularização Fisiológica
13.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(8): 280, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331134

RESUMO

By in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) within the acid-etched (AE) MIL-101 (Cr) framework, AE-MIL-101 (Cr) nanocomposites embedded with AuNPs (AuNP/AE-MIL-101 (Cr)) were prepared as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. AuNPs are uniformly distributed and stabilized inside the metal-organic framework (MOF), thus forming more SERS hotspots. The SERS performance of AuNP/AE-MIL-101 (Cr) was evaluated using 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MPBA), 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA), benzidine, and rhodamine 6G (R6G). The SERS substrate displays satisfying stability with very low background signal. When benzidine is used as the Raman reporter, the limit of detection (LOD) can reach 6.7 × 10-13 mol·L-1, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the intra- and inter-batch repetitive tests is less than 5.2%. On this basis, we developed a method for the detection of human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE 1) in human serum using AuNP/AE-MIL-101 (Cr) nanocomposite as SERS substrate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) colorimetric substrate as SERS marker. This method was used to determine hCE 1 in clinical serum samples without complicated sample pretreatment, and the detection results were consistent with the data determined by ELISA. In the concentration range 0.1-120 ng·mL-1, the SERS signal intensity of benzidine at 1609 cm-1 gradually decreases with the increase of hCE 1 concentration (R2 = 0.9948). The average recoveries of hCE 1 in human serum are in the range 84 to 108%, with RSDs lower than 7.7%. By using AuNP/acid etching-MIL-101(Cr) metal organic framework (MOF) as SERS substrate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) colorimetric substrate as the SERS marker, a rapid and sensitive method for the determination of human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) in human serum samples has been developed.

14.
15.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 79, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325707

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional frequency-matched case-control study. BACKGROUND AND AIM: The serum lipid profile of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] level and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio (Apo B/Apo A1) ratio were found to be more representative for serum lipid level and were recognized as the independent risk factors for various diseases. Although the blood levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were found to be associated with symptomatic intervertebral disk herniation (IDH), no studies to date have evaluated the association of Apo AI, Apo B, Lp(a), and Apo B/Apo AI levels with symptomatic IDH. This study aimed to assess the link between blood lipid levels and symptomatic IDH. METHOD: The study included 1839 Chinese patients. Of these, 918 patients were diagnosed with IDH and enrolled in the experimental group. A control group of 921 patients underwent a physical examination during the same period. The serum lipid levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, Lp(a), Apo B, and Apo B/Apo AI were examined and analyzed. The control group comprised randomly selected patients who met the baseline levels of the aforementioned lipid molecules. RESULTS: Patients with IDH exhibited significantly higher TC, TG, LDL, Apo B, and Lp(a) levels than controls. The percentage of high TC, high TG, high LDL, high Apo B, and high Lp(a) were obviously higher in the IDH group than in the control group. However, hyperlipidemia had no relationship with the degenerated segment of the IDH (P = 0.201). The odds ratio (OR) for the incidence of IDH with elevated levels of LDL-C, TC, TG, Lp(a), Apo B, and Apo B/Apo AI was 1.583, 1.74, 1.62, 1.58, 1.49, and 1.39, respectively. The correlation analysis revealed the correlation between elevated LDL-C, TC, TG, Apo B, Lp(a), and incidence of IDH was significant (R2LDL = 0.017; R2TC = 0.004; R2TG = 0.015; R2Apo B = 0.004; R2Lp(a) = 0.021) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study suggested that elevated levels of serum TC, TG, LDL, Apo B, Lp(a), and Apo B/Apo AI were associated with a higher risk of IDH. This study provided useful information to identify a population that might be at risk of developing IDH based on elevated lipid levels.

16.
J Int Med Res ; 49(6): 3000605211019664, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078160

RESUMO

Delayed neurological deficits secondary to percutaneous vertebroplasty caused by cement leakage is a rare condition. Although cement extravasation during percutaneous vertebroplasty is not uncommon, most cases are clinically asymptomatic, and symptomatic cement extravasation that requires surgical excision is rarely reported. Herein, a case of L4 radiculopathy secondary to cement leakage is reported that involved the delayed onset of neurological symptoms. The patient was treated using a minimally invasive transforaminal endoscopic approach. The clinical and imaging findings and treatment methods are discussed.


Assuntos
Radiculopatia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Vertebroplastia , Cimentos Ósseos/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Vertebroplastia/efeitos adversos
17.
Food Chem ; 364: 130235, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175625

RESUMO

The effects of brewing water on the sensory attributes and physicochemical properties of tea infusions made from Chinese teas were investigated. The tea infusions brewed in water with higher pH and total dissolved solids (TDS), generally had a darker color and lower overall sensory acceptability. Moreover, those infusions had less catechins, particularly galloylated-catechins, and lower antioxidant capacity. The teas with less fermentation contained more galloylated-catechins and had higher antioxidant capacity, but were much more susceptible to high mineral brewing water. Green tea was proved to be the most susceptible one, whereas dark tea the most stable one. Green tea infusions prepared with higher pH/TDS water were more rapidly oxidized, resulting in a darker color due to polymerization of catechins, when exposed to the air. These findings suggested that low mineral brewing water was better for Chinese tea, both from the sensory and health benefit perspectives.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Catequina , Antioxidantes/análise , Catequina/análise , Chá , Água
18.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(5): 2017-2024, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156161

RESUMO

Baicalein is a biologically important flavonoid in extracted from the Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, which can effectively inhibit the influenza virus. This study aimed to analyze the safety and pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics of baicalein tablets in healthy Chinese subjects and provide more information for phase II clinical trials. In this multiple-ascending-dose placebo-controlled trial, 36 healthy subjects were randomized to receive 200, 400, and 600 mg of baicalein tablet or placebo once daily on day 1 and day 10, 3 times daily on days 4-9. All groups were intended to produce safety and tolerability outcomes (lowest dose first). Blood and urine samples were collected from subjects in the 600 mg group for baicalein PK analysis. Our study had shown that Baicalein tablet was generally safe and well-tolerated. All adverse events were mild and resolved without any intervention except one case of fever reported in the 600 mg group, which was considered as moderate but not related with baicalein as judged by the investigator. Oral baicalein tablets were rapidly absorbed with peak plasma levels being reached within 2 h after multiple administration. The highest urinary excretion of baicalein and its metabolites peaked in 2 h, followed by 12 h, with a double peak trend.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 219: 112356, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044309

RESUMO

It is significant to derive an appropriate cadmium (Cd) threshold for the rice to ensure that the Cd concentration of rice grains meets the food safety standards. In the present study, soil thresholds for Cd were derived using the method of species sensitivity distribution based on aging time, cultivars, and soil properties. Dataset from thirty-nine rice cultivars planted in different soils published in literature of five bibliographic databases were screened using designated search strings to explore their differences in Cd accumulation capacity in paddy soil. The empirical soil-plant transfer model was used to normalize the bioaccumulation data. Later, the soil Cd concentration for protecting 95% (HC5) of the cultivars was calculated using species sensitivity distribution curves fitted by the Burr III function. The soil Cd criteria derived from the added approach for risk assessment were proposed as continuous criteria based on the combination of soil pH and organic carbon in soil. Soil Cd criteria ranged from 0.34 to 1.18 mg/kg. The prediction model for HC5 was applied to field experimental data to validate its validity and applicability. The predicted Cd thresholds were less than the field experiment Cd thresholds. In conclusion, this study provided valuable and scientific bases for setting soil Cd criteria for paddy soils.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Oryza/química , Medição de Risco , Solo/química
20.
Pain Physician ; 24(3): E349-E356, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, we have found that the pain caused by thoracolumbar osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) is sometimes not limited to the level of the fractured vertebrae but instead occurs in areas far away from the injured vertebrae, such as the lower back, area surrounding the iliac crest, or buttocks, and this type of pain is known as distant lumbosacral pain. The pathogenesis of pain in distant regions caused by thoracolumbar OVCF remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical efficacy and imaging outcomes of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) in the treatment of distant lumbosacral pain accompanied by thoracolumbar OVCF and to explore the possible pathogenesis of distant lumbosacral pain caused by thoracolumbar OVCF. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: A university hospital spinal surgery departments. METHODS: A total of 62 patients who underwent vertebral augmentation for thoracolumbar OVCF with lumbosacral pain were included and divided into the PVP group (28 cases) and the PKP group (34 cases). The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the severity of local and distant lumbosacral pain, and the Chinese modified Oswestry Disability Index (CMODI) was used for functional assessment. The anterior vertebral height (AVH) of the fractured vertebrae and local kyphotic angle were measured on plain radiographs. The average follow-up time was 28.62 ± 8.43 months in the PVP group and 29.22 ± 9.09 months in the PKP group. RESULTS: Within the 2 groups, the VAS score of local pain, VAS score of distant lumbosacral pain, and CMODI score at 3 days postoperatively and at the last follow-up improved significantly compared with the scores before surgery. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. At 3 days postoperatively and at last follow-up, the AVH and Cobb angle in the 2 groups improved significantly compared with those before surgery, but the magnitudes of AVH improvement and Cobb angle correction were significantly larger in the PKP group than in the PVP group. LIMITATIONS: First, this study is retrospective and may be prone to selection bias. Second, because of cultural and linguistic differences, the original version of the Oswestry Disability Index could not be properly understood and completed by people in mainland China. Therefore in this study, the CMODI was used, but the correlation coefficients of the CMODI within and between groups were 0.953 and 0.912, respectively. Third, a pain diagram was not used to accurately reflect the location of pain in the distant lumbosacral region. CONCLUSIONS: Both PVP and PKP can effectively alleviate pain in the distant lumbosacral region caused by thoracolumbar OVCF, and distant lumbosacral pain associated with thoracolumbar OVCF may be considered vertebrogenic referred pain.

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