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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207013

RESUMO

The present study was initiated to investigate the geochemical features and associated pollution risks of selected heavy metals in sediments near an active copper sulfide mines, south China. These results indicated that legacy contamination in sediments were mainly Cd (11.9 mg/kg), Cu (0.106%), Pb (0.189%), Zn (0.0958%), and As (0.158%). Furthermore, the geochemical variability of most elements, ranging from 5.66% for K2O to 24.99% for Cd, was relatively lower. On the spatial scale, the variation patterns of multi-elements did not show a decreasing trend. The multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the significant enrichment of the studied elements was mostly related to the geochemical background and anthropogenic sources. Besides that, the stable climate might have positive influences on the leachability patterns of heavy metals in sediment profiles. According to the results of the potential ecological risk index (PERI), Cd, Cu, Pb, and As were identified as the riskiest elements due to their rather higher contribution ratios to pollution risk. In response to continuous exposure risks, the significant enrichment of these mining-derived elements should be preferentially concerned. Finally, some reasonable action is proposed for aquatic environment protection. Graphical abstract.

2.
J Adv Nurs ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128865

RESUMO

AIMS: To test prospective pathways of a Comprehensive Reminder System based on the Health Belief Model (CRS-HBM), stroke knowledge, health belief in health behaviour, blood pressure (BP) control, and disability in hypertensive ischaemic stroke patients at 6-month postdischarge. DESIGN: A nested cohort study design. METHODS: Data were derived from a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of the intervention (N = 174, performed during February 2015 - March 2016). Data were collected by questionnaires and analysed in structural equation modelling in Mplus software. RESULTS: The proposed model provided a good fit to the data. This model accounted for 51.5% of the variance in health behaviour, 34.1% in BP control, and 5.7% in modified Rankin Scale score at 6-month postdischarge. The CRS-HBM had: (a) direct positive effect (ß = .391, p < .001) and indirect positive effects (ß = .186, p = .002) on health behaviour; (b) direct positive effect (ß = .356, p < .001) and indirect positive effects (ß = .183, p = .009) on BP control; and (c) indirect negative effect (ß = -.146, p = .008) on disability. Being female was linked to better health behaviour. Higher education predicted higher level of stroke knowledge and health belief. CONCLUSIONS: The CRS-HBM can not only directly but also indirectly improve patients' health behaviours by improving their health knowledge or health belief. Better health behaviour can improve patients' BP control and reduce disability. Therefore, nurses need to pay more attention to not only patients' health knowledge but also their health belief when providing education. IMPACT: The CRS-HBM intervention accounted for 51.5% of variance in health behaviour, 34.1% in BP control, and 5.7% in modified Rankin Scale score at 6-month postdischarge. This research can help nurses improve health education strategies in postdischarge and community contexts to achieve better health results.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124474

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells have been identified as the major cause of cancer initiation and progression. To investigate the effects of puerarin 6″-O-xyloside (PXY), derived from Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, on lung cancer stem cells, we enriched and identified a subpopulation of lung cancer stem-like cells (LCSLCs) derived from lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells with traits including high self-renewal and invasive capability in vitro, elevated tumorigenicity in vivo, and high expression of stem cell markers CD44, CD133 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1). We found that PXY could impair cell viability, suppress self-renewal and invasive capability, and decrease CD133, CD44 and ALDH1 mRNA expression in LCSLCs in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed that PXY suppressed the self-renewal and invasive capability of LCSLCs at least in part through suppressing the activation of Akt/c-Myc signalling. In conclusion, PXY can block the traits of LCSLCs, indicating that PXY may be a candidate compound for lung adenocarcinoma therapy via eliminating LCSLCs.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230065, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160249

RESUMO

Village collectives are important providers of rural public goods in developing countries with dual urban-rural structures. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the public goods provided by village collectives and the subjective well-being (SWB) of rural residents. This study aims to fill that gap. Based on the 2014 round of China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) survey data, this study estimates an ordered logit model of a SWB function to examine the role of the public goods provided by village collectives. The results indicate that village collectives' provision of public goods has a significantly positive effect on the SWB of rural residents by promoting the dual growth of household income and consumption. Village collectives' public expenditures on production, education, and public services also positively affect the SWB of rural residents. The public goods provided by village collectives have a significantly positive effect on the SWB of young and middle-aged rural residents but not on the SWB of elderly rural residents. Finally, rural residents with low levels of education and health obtain more SWB effects than do residents with high levels.

5.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(8): 3541-3554, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103315

RESUMO

Alginate oligosaccharides are associated with some beneficial health effects. Gut microbiota is one of the most recently identified factors in the development of several metabolic diseases induced by high-fat diet. Our objective was to evaluate how alginate oligosaccharides impact on high-fat diet­induced features of metabolic disorders and whether this impact is related to modulations in the modulation of the gut microbiota. C57BL/6J mice were fed with chow diet, high-fat diet, or high-fat diet supplemented with alginate oligosaccharides for 10 weeks. Alginate oligosaccharide treatment improved lipid metabolism, such as reducing levels of TG and LDL-C and inhibiting expression of lipogenesis genes. Alginate oligosaccharide administration reduced the levels of fasting blood glucose and increased the levels of serum insulin. Alginate oligosaccharide treatment was found to lower the expression of markers of inflammation, including IL1ß and CD11c. Alginate oligosaccharide treatment modulated gut microbial communities and markedly prompted the growth of Akkermansia muciniphila, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus gasseri. Additionally, alginate oligosaccharide intervention significantly increased concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, as well as decreased levels of endotoxin. Alginate oligosaccharides exert beneficial effects via alleviating metabolic metrics induced by high-fat diet, which is associated with increase in A. muciniphila, L. reuteri, and L. gasseri, as well as the release of microbiota-dependent short-chain fatty acids and inhibition of endotoxin levels.

6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9082924, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104708

RESUMO

Objectives: This meta-analysis was conducted to compare the complication rates between arm and chest ports in patients with breast cancer. Design and Data Sources. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang database were used to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of publications published from the inception of the database to 11, October 2019. Our search generated a total of 22 articles published from 2011 to 2019, including 6 comparative studies and 16 single-arm articles, involving 4131 cases and 5272 controls. Single-arm studies combined with comparative studies were also pooled and analyzed. Finally, subgroup analysis was performed to compare the rates of infection and thrombosis between these two ports. Eligibility Criteria. Included articles were research studies comparing complication rates of arm ports with chest ports in patients with breast cancer. Any review or meta-analysis article would be removed. Data Extraction and Synthesis. Demographic data and information for the following analysis were extracted. DerSimonian and Laird random effect meta-analysis was conducted to analyze comparative studies while Begg's and Egger's tests were used for assessment of publication bias. Meta-regression analysis was performed to explain the sources of heterogeneity. Results: There was no difference in the risk of overall complications between arm and chest ports for comparative studies (P=0.083). While results of pooled comparative and single-arm studies indicated that arm port would increase the overall complication risks with RR of 2.64, results of the subgroup analysis showed that there was no difference in the risk of catheter-related infection between these two ports. However, arm port might be associated with the higher thrombosis rates compared with chest port according to the results of the analysis for only comparative studies (RR of 2.64, results of the subgroup analysis showed that there was no difference in the risk of catheter-related infection between these two ports. However, arm port might be associated with the higher thrombosis rates compared with chest port according to the results of the analysis for only comparative studies (P=0.083). While results of pooled comparative and single-arm studies indicated that arm port would increase the overall complication risks with RR of 2.64, results of the subgroup analysis showed that there was no difference in the risk of catheter-related infection between these two ports. However, arm port might be associated with the higher thrombosis rates compared with chest port according to the results of the analysis for only comparative studies (P=0.083). While results of pooled comparative and single-arm studies indicated that arm port would increase the overall complication risks with. Conclusions: This study indicated that the arm port might increase the risk of overall complication risks as well as the risk of catheter-related thrombosis compared with the chest port. However, these reported findings still need to be verified by large randomized clinical trials.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 59(5): 2636-2640, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058709

RESUMO

Encapsulation of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in a porphyrinatomanganese(III)-based cubic cage allowed the fast reduction of manganese(III) porphyrin in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). This supramolecular system was capable of efficiently activating dioxygen and catalyzing the oxidation of benzyl alcohol. Control experiments suggested that the close proximity between FMN and manganese(III) porphyrins forced by the host-guest interaction might benefit the electron-transfer process from the FMN cofactor to the metal centers.

8.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102062

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although exercise is a safe, cost-effective, and therapeutic post-stroke therapy, the proper time-window and dosage of exercise are still unknown. We aim to determine the optimal combination of time-window and intensity of exercise by assessing infarct volume, neurological recovery, and underlying mechanisms in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. METHODS: The study contains two parts: the time-window and the dosage experiments. The time-window experiment assessed the effects of moderate intensity exercise that was initiated at 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 96 hrs and the control. In the dosage experiment, moderate and another two intensity exercise groups (Low, High) were assessed. Forced wheel running was the exercise technique used. Infarct volume and neurological function (modified Neurological Severity Scores, mNSS) were measured. Inflammatory cytokines, cell death and proliferation were further detected in the ischemic penumbra. RESULTS: The time-window part revealed that neither infarct volume nor mNSS was reduced in the exercise group initiated at 24 hrs. The other three groups with exercise initiated after 24 hrs had reduced infarct volume and reduced mNSS but those outcomes do not differ from each other. In the dosage part, the Low and Moderate intensity groups with exercise initiated at 48 hrs were both better than the High intensity group in terms of infarct volume and mNSS at 14 days; however, there was no statistical difference between these low and moderate groups. Exercise initiated at 24 hrs or High intensity promoted pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell death. Conclusions - Exercise at 24 hrs is harmful. Low and Moderate intensity exercise initiated at 48 hrs post-stroke appears to be the optimal combination for maximal functional recovery.

9.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigated the metrorrhagia volume-reduction activity, anti-inflammatory activity and repair-promoting activity of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze. METHODS: An abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) model was induced via oral administration of mifepristone and misoprostol to pregnant rats, which were treated with the total extract of C. chinense (TEC). After 7 days, the metrorrhagia volume was measured, the levels of TXB2, 6-keto-PGF1α, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured by ELISA, the pathological changes and micro vessel density (MVD) of the endometrium were evaluated using HE and immunofluorescence staining, and the expression of VEGF, MMP-2/9 and TGF-ß were assessed by Western blotting. Preliminary phytochemicals were screened and identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. RESULTS: Eleven compounds in C. chinense were identified via comparison to standard substances. The results of animal experiment showed TEC could reduce metrorrhagia volume, alleviate pathological injury and increase MVD to promote recovery of the endometrium; TEC could also increase the levels of TXB2 and the expression of VEGF, TGF-ß, decrease the levels of IL-6, TNF-α and the expression of MMP-2/9. CONCLUSIONS: TEC showed beneficial effects on treating AUB by reducing metrorrhagia volume, inhibiting the inflammatory response and promoting the repair of the endometrium. Additionally, TEC also showed great haemostatic potential in AUB.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1593, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005962

RESUMO

The anti-inflammatory activity of Quzhou Fructus Aurantii Extract (QFAE) has been reported recently. Thus, present study aims to explore the mechanism of anti-inflammation of QFAE in vitro and in vivo to develop a lung phylactic agent. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of QFAE in RAW 264.7 cells and acute lung injury (ALI) mice model was determined by cytokines analysis, histopathological examination, Western blot assay, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry analysis. The results showed that QFAE restrained mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, whereas AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways were activated, as revealed by prominent attenuation of phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, p38, p65, IκBα, RSK and MSK, and overt enhancement of phosphorylation of ACC and AMPKα. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-6, and IL-1ß were suppressed, whereas the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased after pretreatment with QFAE in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, QFAE prevented mice from LPS-provoked ALI, bases on alleviating neutrophils, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and mitigatingpulmonary histological alters, as well as hematological change. The MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated ALI mice were dampened by QFAE pretreatment, whereas AMPK signaling pathways were accelerated, as testify by significant restraint of phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, p38, p65, and IκBα, and distinct elevation of phosphorylation of ACC and AMPKα. The remarkable anti-inflammatory effect of QFAE is associated with the suppression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and the initiation of AMPK signaling pathway.

11.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 6047145, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064276

RESUMO

Background: More and more studies focus on the relationship between the gastrointestinal microbiome and type 2 diabetes, but few of them have actually explored the relationship between enterotypes and type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 134 patients with type 2 diabetes and 37 nondiabetic controls. The anthropometric and clinical indices of each subject were measured. Fecal samples of each subject were also collected and were processed for 16S rDNA sequencing. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associations of enterotypes with type 2 diabetes. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between lipopolysaccharide levels and insulin sensitivity after adjusting for age, BMI, TG, HDL-C, DAO, and TNF-α. The correlation analysis between factors and microbiota was identified using Spearman correlation analysis. The correlation analysis between factors was identified using partial correlation analysis. Results: Gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes group exhibited lower bacterial diversity compared with nondiabetic controls. The fecal communities from all subjects clustered into two enterotypes distinguished by the levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella. Logistic regression analysis showed that the Bacteroides and Bacteroides and Prevotella enterotype. Partial correlation analysis showed that lipopolysaccharide was closely associated with diamine oxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and Gutt insulin sensitivity index after adjusting for multiple covariates. Furthermore, the level of lipopolysaccharide was found to be an independent risk factor for insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: We identified two enterotypes, Bacteroides and Prevotella, among all subjects. Our results showed that the Bacteroides enterotype was an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes, which was due to increased levels of lipopolysaccharide causing decreased insulin sensitivity.Bacteroides and Prevotella enterotype. Partial correlation analysis showed that lipopolysaccharide was closely associated with diamine oxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and Gutt insulin sensitivity index after adjusting for multiple covariates. Furthermore, the level of lipopolysaccharide was found to be an independent risk factor for insulin sensitivity. Bacteroides and.

12.
Langmuir ; 36(6): 1559-1568, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030985

RESUMO

Self-assembly provides researchers powerful tools for creating ordered functional structures and complex architectures. Investigation of in vivo self-assembly reveals the assembly/aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect and enhanced targeting effect, which can be applied to promising biomedical applications by enhancing molecular accumulation in the target region. These unique bioeffects inspire the interest of researchers in construction of self-assembled nanomaterials in biological systems. Although many efforts have been achieved, the in-depth analysis of the relationship between assemblies and functions is rarely reported. Here, we focus on the relationship of chlorophyll-derivative assemblies and their photoacoustic signals and attempt to establish a method for monitoring the aggregation efficiency in vivo based on photoacoustic signals. Three arginine-rich peptide-purpurin molecules were designed and synthesized. The assembled capabilities and assembly processes of these molecules were characterized and monitored by UV, fluorescence, and CD spectra images of gradually changing polarities in mixed solvents, and the morphologies of the assemblies were observed by TEM. Furthermore, the relationship between the aggregation ratios of the molecules and the ratiometric photoacoustic signals was systemically studied. We prospect that the fundamental research in revealing objective laws will be useful for future guidance in optimizing photoacoustic detection windows and assembled molecule design.

13.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2020: 4235909, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089644

RESUMO

Severe pneumonia with sepsis is characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response of endotoxin. In our study, we attempted to investigate the roles of the immune guardian cells (monocytes) in the immune-inflammatory response of severe pneumonia-induced sepsis. We performed analysis in the blood samples of human and animals with ELISA, western blot, flow cytometry (FCM) methods, etc. Results showed that the proinflammatory status shifted to hypoinflammatory phases during the sepsis process. In a clinical study, the levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, etc., except for IL-10, were inhibited in the late phase of sepsis, while, in an animal study, the immune suppression status was attenuated with administration of the adenovirus Ade-HIF-1α. Conversely, the amount of IL-10 was lower in the adenovirus Ade-HIF-1α group compared with the sepsis model group and the Ade-control group. Moreover, in the clinical study, the programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) was overexpressed in monocytes in the late phase of sepsis, while the expression of proteins HIF-1α and STAT3 was decreased in the late phase of sepsis. However, in the animal study, we found that the HIF-1α factor facilitated the inflammatory response. The expression of the proteins HIF-1α and STAT3 was increased, and the PD-L1 protein was decreased with the adenovirus Ade-HIF-1α administration compared with the rats without Ade-HIF-1α injection and with the Ade-control injection. Additionally, the proteins HIF-1α and STAT3 were coregulated at transcriptional levels during the inflammatory responses of sepsis. Taken together, monocytes undergo reprogramming to generate immunosuppression through the HIF-1α signaling pathway in the late phase of sepsis.

14.
Theranostics ; 10(5): 2243-2259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089740

RESUMO

Zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) are the largest transcription factor family in mammals, involved in the regulation of multiple physiologic processes including cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and neoplastic transformation. Approximately one-third of ZFPs are Krüppel-associated box domain (KRAB)-ZFPs. Methods: ZNF471 expression and methylation were detected by reverse-transcription PCR and methylation-specific PCR. The impact and mechanism of ectopic ZNF471 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Results: We identified a 19q13 KRAB-ZFP, ZNF471, as a methylated target in ESCC. We further found that ZNF471 is significantly downregulated in ESCC tissues compared with adjacent non-cancer tissues, due to its aberrant promoter CpG methylation, and further confirmed by methylation analysis and treatment with demethylation agent. Restoration of ZNF471 expression in silenced ESCC cells significantly altered cell morphology, induced apoptosis and G0/G1 arrest, and inhibited tumor cell colony formation, viability, migration and invasion. Importantly, ZNF471 was found to activate the expression of MAPK10/JNK3 and PCDH family genes, and further enhance MAPK10 signaling and downstream gene expression through binding to the MAPK10/JNK3 promoter. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that ZNF471 is an important tumor suppressor and loss of ZNF471 functions hampers MAPK10/JNK3 signaling during esophageal carcinogenesis.

15.
Cells Tissues Organs ; : 1-12, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101876

RESUMO

FAM20C (family with sequence similarity 20 - member C) is a protein kinase that phosphorylates secretory proteins, including the proteins that are essential to the formation and mineralization of calcified tissues. Previously, we reported that inactivation of Fam20c in mice led to hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia along with increased circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels and dental defects. In this study, we examined whether a high-phosphate (hPi) diet could rescue the skeletal defects in Fam20c-deficient mice. Fam20c conditional knockout (cKO) mice were generated by crossing female Fam20c-floxed mice (Fam20cfl/fl) with male Sox2-Cre;Fam20cfl/+ mice. The pregnant female Fam20cfi/fl mice were fed either a normal or hPi diet until the litters were weaned. The cKO and control offspring were continuously given a normal or hPi diet for 4 weeks after weaning. Plain X-ray radiography, micro-CT, histology, immunohistochemistry (FGF23, DMP1, OPN, and SOX9), and in situ hybridization (type II and type X collagen) analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of an hPi diet on the mouse skeleton. Plain X-ray radiography and micro-CT radiography analyses showed that the hPi diet improved the shape and mineral density of the Fam20c-deficient femurs/tibiae, and rescued the growth plate defects in the long bone. Histology analyses further demonstrated that an hPi diet nearly completely rescued the growth plate-widening defects in the long bone and restored the expanded hypertrophic zone to nearly normal width. These results suggested that the hPi diet significantly improved the skeletal development of the Fam20c-deficient mice, implying that hypophosphatemia partially contributed to the skeletal defects in Fam20c-deficient subjects.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 226, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937822

RESUMO

The mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum, has become a major pest of many crops and fruit trees since the widespread adoption of Bt cotton in northern China. Neonicotinoid insecticides, such as dinotefuran, applied to control this pest may show sublethal effects, but evidence for such effects is lacking. Here, we investigated the sublethal and transgenerational effects of dinotefuran on biological parameters and feeding behavioural traits of A. lucorum using the age-stage, two-sex life table and electrical penetration graphs (EPGs), respectively. The LC10 and LC30 of dinotefuran against 3rd-instar nymphs of A. lucorum were 14.72 and 62.95 mg L-1, respectively. These two concentrations significantly extended the development duration from 3rd-instar nymph to adult in parent generation (F0). LC30 also increased the oviposition period and male adult longevity and reduced nymphal survival rate in the F0. For offspring generation (F1), the egg duration, preadult duration, and total preoviposition period were significantly lower at LC10 than in the control, and the egg duration, duration of 4th-instar nymphs, preadult duration, oviposition period, and fecundity were also decreased at LC30. However, the four demographic parameters of F1 generation, namely, net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and mean generation time (T), were not affected by dinotefuran. The significant differences in the number of probes and duration of each of four feeding waveforms failed to be detected when A. lucorum nymphs treated by dinotefuran feed on Bt cotton plants without insecticide exposure. Overall, the dinotefuran concentrations tested here have sublethal, but no transgenerational impacts on A. lucorum.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 344, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941914

RESUMO

Agricultural expansion at the cost of natural or semi-natural habitats is simplifying human-dominated landscapes. As croplands provide a large resource of food to herbivores, pest damage may increase, but such large-scale patterns across regions are little known. Here, we used two years of maize field data from 102 counties (each 1318 km2 on average) across Shandong Province in China to study the spatial distribution of two major co-occurring maize pests: the putative habitat specialist the Asian Corn Borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) (ACB) and the generalist Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) (YPM). We used Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices (SADIE) to assess the spatial distribution patterns of these pests and their relation to landscape factors. In both 2016 and 2017, the aggregation and abundance of the ACB was positively correlated with the proportion of maize on the county level, whereas the YPM exhibited the opposite pattern, i.e., a negative correlation with maize proportion. The ACB abundance was below the economic threshold level when maize was <31% in 2017, whereas the YPM abundance was below the threshold when maize was >27% (in 2016) or 23% (in 2017). Maize plant presence was the main determinant of the abundance of the ACB, while the YPM appeared to benefit from further resources in non-crop habitats. These contrasting distribution patterns suggest that the two pests are driven by their different resource requirements. In more diversified landscapes, pest control may need to focus primarily on the generalist consumer, the YPM, whereas in maize-dominated landscapes, the specialist consumer, the ACB, is dominant and needs attention.

18.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(7): 4533-4536, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968514

RESUMO

The hot-injection method was used for the synthesis of ternary metal chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs) CuInS2 (CIS); this was achieved by using the metal precursors (copper iodide and indium acetate) and four different types of sulfur precursor solutions. It was discovered that CIS NCs synthesized with different sulfur precursor solutions exhibited the chalcopyrite structure with similar particle sizes of ~4.2 nm. As a comparison, CIS NCs synthesized using ODE-S precursor displayed an enhanced luminescence intensity and a long PL decay lifetime, which could be considered as an evidence of improved interior crystallinity.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 978, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969646

RESUMO

Societal lifestyle changes, especially increased consumption of a high-fat diet lacking dietary fibers, lead to gut microbiota dysbiosis and enhance the incidence of adiposity and chronic inflammatory disease. We aimed to investigate the metabolic effects of inulin with different degrees of polymerization on high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 J mice and to evaluate whether different health outcomes are related to regulation of the gut microbiota. Short-chain and long-chain inulins exert beneficial effects through alleviating endotoxemia and inflammation. Antiinflammation was associated with a proportional increase in short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria and an increase in the concentration of short-chain fatty acids. Inulin might decrease endotoxemia by increasing the proportion of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, and their inhibition of endotoxin secretion may also contribute to antiinflammation. Interestingly, the beneficial health effects of long-chain inulin were more pronounced than those of short-chain inulin. Long-chain inulin was more dependent than short-chain inulin on species capable of processing complex polysaccharides, such as Bacteroides. A good understanding of inulin-gut microbiota-host interactions helps to provide a dietary strategy that could target and prevent high-fat diet-induced endotoxemia and inflammation through a prebiotic effect.

20.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 35(2): 156-164, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health behaviors and blood pressure control of patients with hypertension who have had a stroke are unsatisfactory. A protocol of a comprehensive reminder system has been published, and the results of 3 months of implementation have demonstrated improved patient health behaviors and blood pressure control. The continuity of the intervention effect on these variables after 3 months was not clear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a comprehensive reminder system intervention on health behaviors, medication adherence, blood pressure, disability, and stroke recurrence in patients with hypertension who have had a stroke from baseline to 6 months after discharge. METHOD: A multicenter, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted with 174 patients with hypertension who have had a stroke. The intervention consisted of health belief education, a calendar handbook, weekly short message services, and telephone interviews. Data were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months after discharge. RESULTS: Repeated-measures analysis of variance and single-effect analysis revealed that, compared with the control group, improvements of health behaviors, medication adherence, blood pressure, and disability of participants in the intervention group were superior. From 3 to 6 months after discharge, these trends remained or continually improved, whereas a downward trend was observed in the control group. There were only 2 stroke recurrences within 6 months, and no statistically significant difference between groups was found. CONCLUSION: The comprehensive reminder system improved patients' health behaviors and medication adherence and reduced blood pressure and disability; the effect extended to 6 months after discharge.

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