Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 537
Filtrar
1.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805392

RESUMO

A few prospective studies have suggested that tea, alcohol, and fruit consumption may reduce the risk of kidney stones. However, little is known whether such associations and their combined effect persist in Chinese adults, for whom the popular tea and alcohol drinks are different from those investigated in the aforementioned studies. The present study included 502,621 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB). Information about tea, alcohol, and fruit consumption was self-reported at baseline. The first documented cases of kidney stones during follow-up were collected through linkage with the national health insurance system. Cox regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). During a median of 11.1 years of follow-up, we collected 12,407 cases of kidney stones. After multivariable adjustment, tea, alcohol, and fruit consumption were found to be negatively associated with kidney stone risk, but the linear trend was only found in tea and fruit consumption. Compared with non-tea consumers, the HR (95% CI) for participants who drank ≥7 cups of tea per day was 0.73 (0.65-0.83). Compared with non-alcohol consumers, the HR (95% CI) was 0.79 (0.72-0.87) for participants who drank pure alcohol of 30.0-59.9 g per day but had no further decrease with a higher intake of alcohol. Compared with less-than-weekly consumers, the HR (95% CI) for daily fruit consumers was 0.81 (0.75-0.87). Even for those who did not drink alcohol excessively, increasing tea and fruit consumption could also independently reduce the stone risk. Among Chinese adults, tea, alcohol, and fruit consumption was associated with a lower risk of kidney stones.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between educational attainment and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is limited in evidence in middle-income countries like China. Exploring lifestyle-related mediators, which might be not universal between socioeconomic status and health outcomes in diverse regions, can contribute to interventions targeted at the Chinese to narrow the educational gap in IHD. METHODS: Based on the China Kadoorie Biobank of 489 594 participants aged 30-79 years who did not have heart disease or stroke at baseline, this study examined the association of educational attainment with IHD. Total IHD cases were further divided into acute myocardial infarction (AMI) cases and non-AMI cases. The Cox proportional hazard model was performed to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs for mortality and incidence of IHD. Logistic regression was used to estimate the ORs and 95% CIs for case fatality. RESULTS: During the median follow-up period of 11.1 years, this study documented 45 946 (6668) incident IHD (AMI) cases and 5948 (3689) deaths altogether. Lower educational attainment was associated with increased risk of incident AMI as well as death and fatality of total IHD including its subtypes (ptrend <0.001). Although the risk of incident non-AMI was greater for participants with higher levels of education in the whole population (ptrend <0.001), an inverse association of education with its incidence was found in participants from <50 years age group and rural areas. Smoking and dietary habits were the two most potent mediating factors in the associations of education with mortality and AMI incidence; whereas, physical activity was the major mediating factor for non-AMI incidence in the whole population. DISCUSSION: Interventions targeting unhealthy lifestyles are ideal ways to narrow the educational gap in IHD while solving 'upstream' causes of health behaviours might be the most fundamental ones.

3.
Eur J Radiol ; 138: 109662, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774440

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a CT-based radiomics nomogram for differentiating gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) from gastric adenocarcinomas (ADCs). METHODS: CT images of 63 patients with gastric NECs were collected retrospectively, and 63 patients with gastric ADCs were selected as the control group. Univariate analysis was used to identify the significant factors of clinical characteristics and CT findings for differentiating gastric NECs from ADCs. Radiomics analysis was applied to CT images of unenhanced, arterial phase and venous phase, respectively. A radiomics nomogram incorporating the radiomics signature and the subjective CT findings was developed and its diagnostic ability was evaluated. The diagnostic performances of CT findings model, radiomics signature and radiomics nomogram were compared using DeLong test. RESULTS: The tumor margin and lymph node (LN) metastasis were independent predictors for differentiating gastric NECs from ADCs. The radiomics signature based on venous phase presented superior AUC of 0.798 [95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.657-0.938] in validation cohort. The nomogram incorporated the radiomics signature, tumor margin and LN metastasis showed AUCs of 0.821 (95 %CI: 0.725-0.895) in the primary cohort and 0.809 (95 %CI: 0.649-0.918) in the validation cohort. Moreover, the radiomics nomogram showed good discrimination and calibration. The diagnostic performance of CT findings model was significantly lower than that of radiomics nomogram (p =  0.001) and radiomics signature (p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Radiomics analysis exhibited good performance in differentiating gastric NECs from ADCs, and the radiomics nomogram may have significant clinical implications on preoperative detection of gastric malignant tumors.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallstone disease (GSD) is associated with a higher risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. However, it is unclear whether the associations are causal. METHODS: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) recorded 17,598 cases of GI cancer among 510,137 participants without cancer at baseline during 10 years of follow-up. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for specific cancer by GSD status and duration. Mendelian randomisation was conducted to assess the genetic associations of GSD with specific cancer. RESULTS: Overall 6% of participants had symptomatic GSD at baseline. Compared with those without GSD, individuals with symptomatic GSD had adjusted HRs of 1.13 (1.01-1.29) for colorectal, 2.01 (1.78-2.26) for liver, 3.70 (2.88-4.87) for gallbladder, 2.31 (1.78-3.07) for biliary tract, and 1.38 (1.18-1.74) for pancreatic cancer. Compared with participants without GSD, the risks of colorectal, liver, gallbladder, biliary tract, and pancreatic cancer were highest during 0 to <5 years following disease diagnosis. There was evidence of genetic associations of GSD with these cancers, with odds ratios per 1-SD genetic score of 1.08 (1.05-1.11) for colorectal, 1.22 (1.19-1.25) for liver, 1.56 (1.49-1.64) for gallbladder, 1.39 (1.31-1.46) for biliary tract, and 1.16 (1.10-1.22) for pancreatic cancer. When meta-analysing the genetic estimates in CKB and UK Biobank, there was evidence of causal associations of GSD with colon cancer, gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (GBTC), and total GI cancer (RR per 1-SD: 1.05 [0.99-1.11], 2.00 [1.91-2.09], and 1.09 [1.05-1.13]). CONCLUSIONS: GSD was associated with higher risks of several GI cancers, warranting future studies on the underlying mechanisms.

5.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766948

RESUMO

Lung function is a heritable complex phenotype with obesity being one of its important risk factors. However, the knowledge of their shared genetic basis is limited. Most genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for lung function have been based on European populations, limiting the generalisability across populations. Large-scale lung function GWAS in other populations are lacking.We included 100 285 subjects from China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB). To identify novel loci for lung function, single-trait GWAS were performed on FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC in CKB. We then performed genome-wide cross-trait analysis between the lung function and obesity traits (body mass index [BMI], BMI-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio, and BMI-adjusted waist circumference) to investigate the shared genetic effects in CKB. Finally, polygenic risk scores (PRSs) of lung function were developed in CKB and its interaction with BMI's association on lung function were examined. We also conducted cross-trait analysis in parallel with CKB using 457 756 subjects from UK Biobank (UKB) for replication and investigation of ancestry specific effect.We identified 9 genome-wide significant novel loci for FEV1, 6 for FVC and 3 for FEV1/FVC in CKB. FEV1 and FVC showed significant negative genetic correlation with obesity traits in both CKB and UKB. Genetic loci shared between lung function and obesity traits highlighted important pathways, including cell proliferation, embryo and tissue development. Mendelian randomisation analysis suggested significant negative causal effect of BMI on FEV1 and on FVC in both CKB and UKB. Lung function PRSs significantly modified the effect of change-in-BMI on change-in-lung function during an average follow-up of 8 years.This large-scale GWAS of lung function identified novel loci and shared genetic etiology between lung function and obesity. Change-in-BMI might affect change-in-lung function differently according to a subject's polygenic background. These findings may open new avenue for the development of molecular-targeted therapies for obesity and lung function improvement.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from epidemiological studies remains inconsistent or limited about the associations of tea consumption with incident diabetes and risk of diabetic complications and death among patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the associations of tea consumption with long-term risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and risks of diabetic complications and death among patients with diabetes. METHODS: This study included 482,425 diabetes-free participants and 30,300 patients with diabetes aged 30-79 y at study enrollment from the China Kadoorie Biobank. Tea consumption information was collected at baseline by interviewer-administered questionnaires. Incidences of diabetes, diabetic complications, and death were identified by linkages to the National Health Insurance system, disease registries, and death registries. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: The mean ± SD age of participants free of diabetes was 51.2 ± 10.5 y and 41% were male. The mean ± SD age of patients with diabetes was 58.2 ± 9.6 y and 39% were male. Of all daily tea consumers, 85.8% preferred green tea. In the diabetes-free population, 17,434 participants developed incident T2D during 11.1 y of follow-up. Compared with participants who never consumed tea in the past year, the HR (95% CI) of T2D for daily consumers was 0.92 (0.88, 0.97). In patients with diabetes, we identified 6572 deaths, 12,677 diabetic macrovascular cases, and 2441 diabetic microvascular cases during follow-up. Compared with patients who never consumed tea in the past year, the HRs (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality and risk of microvascular complications for daily consumers were 0.90 (0.83, 0.97) and 0.88 (0.78, 1.00), respectively. Tea consumption was not associated with risk of macrovascular complications among patients with diabetes. With regard to tea consumed, the inverse associations between daily tea consumption and risks of T2D and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes were only observed among daily green tea drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese adults, daily green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of incident T2D and a lower risk of all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes, but the associations for other types of tea were less clear. In addition, daily tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of diabetic microvascular complications, but not macrovascular complications.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671018

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the incidence and risk factors of hyperuricemia among Chinese adults in 2017-2018. Methods: A total of 2,015,847 adults (mean age 41.2 ± 12.7, 53.1% men) with serum uric acid concentrations assayed on at least two separate days in routine health examinations during 2017-2018 were analyzed. Hyperuricemia was defined as fasting serum urate concentration >420 µmol/L in men and >360 µmol/L in women. The overall and sex-specific incidence rate were stratified according to age, urban population size, geographical region, annual average temperature and certain diseases. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore risk factors associated with hyperuricemia. Results: 225,240 adults were newly diagnosed with hyperuricemia. The age- and sex-standardized incidence rate per 100 person-years was 11.1 (95%CI: 11.0-11.1) (15.2 for men and 6.80 for women). The risk of hyperuricemia was positively associated with younger age, being male, larger urban population size, higher annual temperature, higher body mass index, lower estimate glomerular filtration rate, hypertension, dyslipidemia and fat liver. Conclusions: The incidence of hyperuricemia was substantial and exhibited a rising trend among younger adults, especially among men. Socioeconomic and geographic variation in incidence were observed. The risk of hyperuricemia was associated with estimate glomerular filtration rate, fat liver and metabolic factors.

8.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-8, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645497

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyze differences in birth weight and overweight/obesity in a Shanghai twin cohort. We also wanted to study their association and explore possible risk factors for the discordance of overweight/obesity within twins. This was an internal case-control study designed for twins. The 2012 Shanghai Twin Registration System baseline survey data of a total of 3417 twin pairs were statistically analyzed using SPSS22 software. Results show that the body mass index (BMI) of the Shanghai twin population increased with age. Twins with a high birth weight had a higher BMI and a higher rate of overweight and obesity; 0- to 6-year-old twins, male twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins had higher rates of overweight/obesity than other groups. The greater the discordant birth weight rate of twins, the more obvious the difference in BMI (p < .05). There was a significant difference in overweight/obesity between twins with a relative difference of birth weight ≥15% in DZ twins (p < .05). DZ twins, male twins and 0- to 6-year-old twins were more likely to be discordant in overweight/obese than others. The discordant birth weight within twins was not a risk factor for discordant overweight/obesity. However, attention should be paid to childhood obesity, and appropriate interventions should be made at the appropriate time. Genetics may play an important role in the occurrence and development of overweight/obesity. In conclusion, discordant growth and development in the uterus early in life may not lead to discordant weight development in the future.

9.
PLoS Med ; 18(3): e1003545, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death in China and accounts for about one-sixth of all suicides worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine the recent distribution of suicide and risk factors for death by suicide. Identifying underlying risk factors could benefit development of evidence-based prevention and intervention programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective study, the China Kadoorie Biobank, of 512,715 individuals (41% men, mean age 52 years) from 10 (5 urban, 5 rural) areas which are diverse across China in geographic locations, social economic developmental stages, and prevalence of disease patterns. After the baseline measurements of risk factors during 2004 to 2008, participants were followed up for suicide outcomes including suicide and possible suicide deaths. Risk factors, such as sociodemographic factors and physical and mental health status, were assessed by semistructured interviews and self-report questionnaires. Suicide and possible suicide deaths were identified through linkage to the local death registries using ICD-10 codes. We conducted Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for suicide and for possible suicide in sensitivity analyses. During an average follow-up period of 9.9 years, 520 (101 per 100,000) people died from suicide (51.3% male), and 79.8% of them lived in rural areas. Sociodemographic factors associated with increased suicide risk were male gender (adjusted hazard ratios [aHR] = 1.6 [95% CI 1.4 to 2.0], p < 0.001), older age (1.3 [1.2 to 1.5] by each 10-yr increase, p < 0.001), rural residence (2.6 [2.1 to 3.3], p < 0.001), and single status (1.7 [1.4 to 2.2], p < 0.001). Increased hazards were found for family-related stressful life events (aHR = 1.8 [1.2 to 1.9], p < 0.001) and for major physical illnesses (1.5 [1.3 to 1.9], p < 0.001). There were strong associations of suicide with a history of lifetime mental disorders (aHR = 9.6 [5.9 to 15.6], p < 0.001) and lifetime schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (11.0 [7.1 to 17.0], p < 0.001). Links between suicide risk and depressive disorders (aHR = 2.6 [1.4 to 4.8], p = 0.002) and generalized anxiety disorders (2.6 [1.0 to 7.1], p = 0.056) in the last 12 months, and sleep disorders (1.4 [1.2 to 1.7], p < 0.001) in the past month were also found. All HRs were adjusted for sociodemographic factors including gender, age, residence, single status, education, and income. The associations with possible suicide deaths were mostly similar to those with suicide deaths, although there was no clear link between possible suicide deaths and psychiatric factors such as depression and generalized anxiety disorders. A limitation of the study is that there is likely underreporting of mental disorders due to the use of self-report information for some diagnostic categories. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that a range of sociodemographic, lifestyle, stressful life events, physical, and mental health factors were associated with suicide in China. High-risk groups identified were elderly men in rural settings and individuals with mental disorders. These findings could form the basis of targeted approaches to reduce suicide mortality in China.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 517, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of high levels of physical activity and relationship between daily total physical activity and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among hypertensive people were not clear. This study aimed to explore the optimum level of physical activity for CVD prevention. METHODS: Data used in the present study was derived from the sub-study of China Kadoorie Biobank study (CKB) in Jiangsu province of China. The CKB was a prospective cohort study established during 2004-2008. At baseline, 53,259 participants aged 35-74 years were recruited for the CKB Jiangsu sub-study conducted in Wuzhong district of Suzhou City. Among those 53,259 participants, the 20,179 hypertensive individuals were our study population. The outcome events were cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), while the independent variable was total daily physical activity. The Cox proportional hazard models were introduced to investigate the association between total physical activity and CVDs, reporting as hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: During a 10.1-year follow-up, 2419 CVD cases were identified. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, compared with participants at the lowest level of daily total physical activity, the hazard ratios for CVDs were 0.87 (95%CI: 0.79-0.97), 0.73 (95%CI: 0.65-0.83) and 0.75 (95%CI: 0.65-0.85) for participants within 2, 3 and 4 quartiles of physical activity. Such a negative association between total physical activity and CVDs were also observed among participants by gender and age-group, but within patients with stage 1 hypertension only. Moreover, the association of physical activity with CVDs was U-shape and the lowest HR (0.63, 95%CI: 0.54-0.74) was observed at 35.4 MET-h/d of total physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Total daily physical activity was negatively associated with CVDs among hypertensive adults in China, and this association was U-shape. It has some public health implications that community-based total physical activity intervention campaigns can be of help for CVDs prevention among hypertensive people in China.

11.
Sex Med ; 9(2): 100296, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529810

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dapoxetine on demand has been approved for premature ejaculation (PE) management in China; however, studies on the efficacy and safety of this treatment in the Chinese population are scarce. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg on demand in Chinese men with PE. METHODS: Phase IV real-world study on 1,252 patients with PE. If men reported no response to dapoxetine 30 mg after 4 weeks treatment, dapoxetine has been uptitrated at 60 mg for 4 weeks more. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-reported data were collected for demographics, general and sexual health characteristics, PE severity, and treatment safety and effectiveness, as measured by the PE profile questionnaire. RESULTS: Adverse events (AEs), such as nausea, thirst, headache, and dizziness, similarly to previous literature, were detected. The treatment-emergent AEs rate was higher in the patients treated with 30 and 60 mg (n = 192) compared with those treated with the dapoxetine 30 mg only (n = 1060) (34.4% vs 15.8%, respectively). No new safety concerns were observed. The overall effectiveness rates were 88.2% in subjects using 30 mg of dapoxetine, whereas a rescue from the previous failure was in 55.7% in the patients who received 60 mg after the initial 30 mg. Overall, 83.2% responded to dapoxetine at dosages equal to or lower than 60 mg. CONCLUSION: The results in this study demonstrated in a large Chinese population that on-demand dapoxetine is a safe and effective symptomatic treatment in patients with PE. J Peng, L Yang, L Liu, et al. Safety and Effectiveness of Dapoxetine On Demand in Chinese Men With Premature Ejaculation: Results of a Multicenter, Prospective, Open-Label Phase IV Study. Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX-XXX.

12.
J Infect ; 82(4): 75-83, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The HPV vaccine has been licensed in mainland China since 2017. This study aimed to assess the epidemiological characteristics of HPV genotypes in the pre-vaccine era in China. METHODS: We conducted a multicentric population-based study nested in the largest health clinic chain in China. Between January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2017, 427,401women aged 20 years or older with polymerase chain reaction-based HPV genotyping tests were included in the study. The cervicovaginal infection of 14 high-risk HPV genotypes and 9 low-risk genotypes was assessed using adjusted prevalence, multivariable logistic regression, cluster analysis, and heatmap. RESULTS: HPV prevalence was 15.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.1-15.9%) in China, with high- and low-risk genotypes being 12.1% (95%CI: 11.4-12.7%) and 5.2% (95%CI: 4.8-5.7%), respectively. The prevalence of HPV genotypes corresponding to bivalent, quadrivalent, and nonavalent vaccines were 2.1%, 2.4%, and 8.3%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of non-vaccine high-risk genotypes was 5.7%. The most common high-risk genotypes were HPV-52 (3.5%), HPV-58 (2.1%), and HPV-16 (1.6%), and the prevalence of HPV-18 (0.6%), HPV-6 (0.1%), and HPV-11 (0.2%) were relatively low. Infection with HPV genotypes differed significantly across age groups and geographic locations. CONCLUSION: HPV prevalence was high in the pre-vaccine era in China, and a population-based HPV vaccination strategy is needed in the future.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521941

RESUMO

China has made rapid progress in reducing the incidence of HBV infection in the past three decades, along with a rapidly changing lifestyle and aging population. We aimed to develop and validate an up-to-date liver cancer risk prediction model with routinely available predictors and evaluate its applicability for screening guidance. Using data from the China Kadoorie Biobank, we included 486 285 participants in this analysis. Fifteen risk factors were included in the model. Flexible parametric survival models were used to estimate the 10-year absolute risk of liver cancer. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the net benefit of the model to quantify clinical utility. A total of 2706 participants occurred liver cancer over the 4 814 320 person-years of follow-up. Excellent discrimination of the model was observed in both development and validation datasets, with c-statistics (95% CI) of 0.80 (0.79-0.81) and 0.80 (0.78-0.82) respectively, as well as excellent calibration of observed and predicted risks. Decision curve analysis revealed that use of the model in selecting participants for screening improved benefit at a threshold of 2% 10-year risk, compared to current guideline of screening all HBsAg carriers. Our model was more sensitive than current guideline for cancer screening (28.17% vs 25.96%). We developed and validated a CKB-PLR (Prediction for Liver cancer Risk Based on the China Kadoorie Biobank Study) model to predict the absolute risk of liver cancer for both HBsAg seropositive and seronegative populations. Application of the model is beneficial for precisely identifying the high-risk groups among the general population.

14.
Elife ; 102021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558007

RESUMO

Adherence to healthy lifestyles is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but uncertainty persists about the underlying lipid pathway. In a case-control study of 4681 participants nested in the prospective China Kadoorie Biobank, 61 lipidomic markers in baseline plasma were measured by targeted nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Baseline lifestyles included smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary habit, physical activity, and adiposity levels. Genetic instrument was used to mimic the lipid-lowering effect of statins. We found that 35 lipid metabolites showed statistically significant mediation effects in the pathway from healthy lifestyles to CHD reduction, including very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles and their cholesterol, large-sized high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle and its cholesterol, and triglyceride in almost all lipoprotein subfractions. The statins genetic score was associated with reduced intermediate- and low-density lipoprotein, but weak or no association with VLDL and HDL. Lifestyle interventions and statins may improve different components of the lipid profile.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6657112, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628803

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the mortality and attrition rates within the first year of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in rural Guangxi, China. Design: Observational cohort study. Setting. The core treatment indicators and data were collected with standard and essential procedures as per the Free ART Manual guidelines across all the rural health care centers of Guangxi. Participants. 58,115 PLHIV who were under ART were included in the study. Interventions. The data collected included sociodemographic characteristics that consist of age, sex, marital status, route of HIV transmission, CD4 cell count before ART, initial ART regimen, level of ART site, and year of ART initiation. Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures. Mortality and attrition rate following ART initiation. Results: The average mortality rate was 5.94 deaths, and 17.52 attritions per 100 person-years within the first year of ART initiation among PLHIV. The mortality rate was higher among intravenous drug users (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.27, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.14-1.43), prefecture as a level of ART site (AHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.28), and county as the level of ART site (AHR 2.12, 95% CI 1.90-2.37). Attrition was higher among intravenous drug users (AHR 1.87, 95% CI 1.75-2.00), the first-line ART containing AZT (AHR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16), and first-line ART containing LVP/r (AHR 1.34, 95% CI 1.23-1.46). Conclusion: The mortality and attrition rates were both at the highest level in the first year of post-ART; continued improvement in the quality of HIV treatment and care is needed.

16.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 16, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurately quantifying the risk of osteoporotic fracture is important for directing appropriate clinical interventions. While skeletal measures such as heel quantitative speed of sound (SOS) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone mineral density are able to predict the risk of osteoporotic fracture, the utility of such measurements is subject to the availability of equipment and human resources. Using data from 341,449 individuals of white British ancestry, we previously developed a genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS), called gSOS, that captured 25.0% of the total variance in SOS. Here, we test whether gSOS can improve fracture risk prediction. METHODS: We examined the predictive power of gSOS in five genome-wide genotyped cohorts, including 90,172 individuals of European ancestry and 25,034 individuals of Asian ancestry. We calculated gSOS for each individual and tested for the association between gSOS and incident major osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture. We tested whether adding gSOS to the risk prediction models had added value over models using other commonly used clinical risk factors. RESULTS: A standard deviation decrease in gSOS was associated with an increased odds of incident major osteoporotic fracture in populations of European ancestry, with odds ratios ranging from 1.35 to 1.46 in four cohorts. It was also associated with a 1.26-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.41) increased odds of incident major osteoporotic fracture in the Asian population. We demonstrated that gSOS was more predictive of incident major osteoporotic fracture (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) = 0.734; 95% CI 0.727-0.740) and incident hip fracture (AUROC = 0.798; 95% CI 0.791-0.805) than most traditional clinical risk factors, including prior fracture, use of corticosteroids, rheumatoid arthritis, and smoking. We also showed that adding gSOS to the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) could refine the risk prediction with a positive net reclassification index ranging from 0.024 to 0.072. CONCLUSIONS: We generated and validated a PRS for SOS which was associated with the risk of fracture. This score was more strongly associated with the risk of fracture than many clinical risk factors and provided an improvement in risk prediction. gSOS should be explored as a tool to improve risk stratification to identify individuals at high risk of fracture.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have suggested that higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were associated with favorable serum lipids and related metabolites. However, if such observations reflect causality remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the causal effect of elevated 25(OH)D with the detailed systemic metabolite profile in Chinese adults. METHODS: A total of 225 lipid and other metabolites were quantified in 4,662 individuals in China Kadoorie Biobank. Instrumental variable analyses were performed to test the causal associations of plasma 25(OH)D with the lipids and metabolites. RESULTS: Higher plasma 25(OH)D was related to favorable lipid profiles in observational analyses. The genetic risk score was robustly correlated with observed 25(OH)D (beta[SE]= 3.54 [0.32]; P<1×10 -5, F-statistic =122.3) and explained 8.4% of the variation in 25(OH)D in the Chinese population. For all individual metabolites, the causal estimates were not significant for at the threshold P<5×10 -4 (multiple testing corrected). However, the MR estimate showed that per 1-SD increase in genetically determined 25(OH)D was suggestive associated with decreased levels of cholesterol, lipoprotein particle, phospholipids within very small very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) (P≤0.05, nominal significance). For amino acids, fatty acids, ketone bodies, glycoprotein acetyls, fatty acids and other traits, we did not observe any significant causal association. CONCLUSIONS: The MR analysis of metabolic data based a population-based cohort suggested a potential causal association of plasma 25(OH)D with cholesterol, lipoprotein particle, phospholipids concentrations and total lipids within very small VLDL and IDL. Our findings highlight long-term effect of 25(OH)D levels in maintaining healthy lipid metabolism.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634874

RESUMO

Alcohol drinking is associated with increased risks of several site-specific cancers, but its role in many other cancers remains inconclusive. Evidence is more limited from China, where cancer rates, drinking patterns and alcohol tolerability differ importantly from Western populations. The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank recruited >512 000 adults aged 30 to 79 years from 10 diverse areas during 2004 to 2008, recording alcohol consumption patterns by a standardised questionnaire. Self-reported alcohol consumption was estimated as grams of pure alcohol per week based on beverage type, amount consumed per occasion and drinking frequency. After 10 years of follow-up, 26 961 individuals developed cancer. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating alcohol consumption to incidence of site-specific cancers. Overall, 33% (n = 69 734) of men drank alcohol regularly (ie, ≥weekly) at baseline. Among male current regular drinkers, alcohol intake showed positive dose-response associations with risks of cancers in the oesophagus (655 events; HR = 1.98 [95%CI 1.79-2.18], per 280 g/wk), mouth and throat (236; 1.74 [1.48-2.05]), liver (573; 1.52 [1.31-1.76]), colon-rectum (575; 1.19 [1.00-1.43]), gallbladder (107; 1.60 [1.16-2.22]) and lung (1017; 1.25 [1.10-1.42]), similarly among never- and ever-regular smokers. After adjustment for total alcohol intake, there were greater risks of oesophageal cancer in daily drinkers than nondaily drinkers and of liver cancer when drinking without meals. The risks of oesophageal cancer and lung cancer were greater in men reporting flushing after drinking than not. In this male population, alcohol drinking accounted for 7% of cancer cases. Among women, only 2% drank regularly, with no clear associations between alcohol consumption and cancer risk. Among Chinese men, alcohol drinking is associated with increased risks of cancer at multiple sites, with certain drinking patterns (eg, daily, drinking without meals) and low alcohol tolerance further exacerbating the risks.

19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(1): 199-211, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous case-control studies have reported positive associations of spicy food consumption with risks of certain gastrointestinal-tract (GI) cancers. However, there is no prospective evidence on such associations, particularly from China, where there are high incidence rates of GI cancers and spicy food is widely consumed. METHODS: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank study recruited >512 000 adults aged 30-79 years from 10 areas in China during 2004-2008; 2350 oesophageal, 3350 stomach and 3061 colorectal incident cancer cases were recorded by 1 January 2017, after a median of 10.1 years of follow-up. Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for each cancer associated with spicy food intake. RESULTS: Overall, 30% of participants reported daily spicy food consumption at baseline. Spicy food consumption was inversely associated with oesophageal cancer risk, with adjusted HRs of 1.00, 0.88, 0.76, 0.84 and 0.81 for those who never/rarely consumed (reference) and consumed monthly, 1-2 days/week, 3-5 days/week and 6-7 days/week, respectively (ptrend < 0.002). The association remained similar after excluding the first 3 years of follow-up but appeared stronger in participants who did not smoke or drink alcohol regularly (ptrend < 0.0001). The corresponding HRs for stomach cancer were 1.00, 0.97, 0.95, 0.92 and 0.89 (ptrend = 0.04), with the association disappearing after excluding the first 3 years of follow-up. For colorectal cancer, the HRs were 1.00, 1.00, 0.95, 0.87 and 0.90, respectively (ptrend = 0.04) and the inverse association appeared to be restricted to rectal rather than colon cancer (pheterogeneity = 0.004). The types and strength of spice used showed little additional effects on these associations. CONCLUSION: In Chinese adults, higher spicy food consumption was associated with lower risks of certain GI cancers, particularly among individuals who never smoked or drank alcohol regularly.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507871

RESUMO

Retinal electrical stimulation is a widely utilized method to restore visual function for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) represents an effective way to improve the visual function due to its potential neuroprotective effect. However, TES with single electrode fails to spatially and selectively stimulate retinal neurons. Herein, a computational modeling method was proposed to explore the feasibility of spatially selective retinal stimulation via temporally interfering electric fields. An eyeball model with multiple electrodes was constructed to simulate the interferential electric fields with various electrode montages and current ratios. The results demonstrated that the temporal interference (TI) stimulation would gradually generate an increasingly localized high-intensity region on retina as the return electrodes moved towards the posterior of the eyeball and got closer. Additionally, the position of the convergent region could be modulated by regulating the current ratio of different electrode channels. The TI strategy with multisite and steerable stimulation can stimulate local retinal region with certain convergence and a relatively large stimulation range, which would be a feasible approach for the spatially selective retinal neuromodulation.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...