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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 375-381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893434

RESUMO

The value of optical redox imaging (ORI) of cells/tissues based on the intrinsic fluorescences of NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and oxidized flavoproteins (containing flavin adenine dinucleotide, i.e., FAD) has been demonstrated for potential biomedical applications including diagnosis, prognosis, and determining treatment response. However, the Chance redox scanner (a 3D cryogenic tissue imager) is limited by spatial resolution (~50 µm), and tissue ORI using fluorescence microscopy (single or multi-photon) is limited by the light penetration depth. Furthermore, viable or snap-frozen tissues are usually required. In this project, we aimed to study whether ORI may be achieved for unstained fixed tissue using a state-of-the-art modern Serial Two-Photon (STP) Tomography scanner that can rapidly acquire multi-plane images at micron resolution. Tissue specimens of mouse muscle, liver, and tumor xenografts were harvested and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) for 24 h. Tissue blocks were scanned by STP Tomography under room temperature to acquire the autofluorescence signals (NADH channel: excitation 750 nm, blue emission filter; FAD channel: excitation 860 nm, green emission filter). We observed remarkable signals with significant intra-tissue heterogeneity in images of NADH, FAD and redox ratio (FAD/(NADH+FAD)), which are worthy of further investigation for extracting biological information.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , NAD , Imagem Óptica , Animais , Tecnologia Biomédica/instrumentação , Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo , Xenoenxertos/diagnóstico por imagem , Camundongos , Oxirredução , Fótons
2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817450

RESUMO

Transendothelial migration of malignant cells plays an essential role in tumor progression and metastasis. The present study revealed that treating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with exosomes derived from metastatic breast cancer cells increased the number of cancer cells migrating through the endothelial cell layer and impaired the tube formation of HUVECs. Furthermore, the expression of intercellular junction proteins, including vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and zona occluden-1 (ZO-1), was reduced significantly in HUVECs treated with carcinoma-derived exosomes. Proteomic analyses revealed that thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) was highly expressed in breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231-derived exosomes. Treating HUVECs with TSP1-enriched exosomes similarly promoted the transendothelial migration of malignant cells and decreased the expression of intercellular junction proteins. TSP1-down regulation abolished the effects of exosomes on HUVECs. The migration of breast cancer cells was markedly increased in a zebrafish in vivo model injected with TSP1-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that carcinoma-derived exosomal TSP1 facilitated the transendothelial migration of breast cancer cells via disrupting the intercellular integrity of endothelial cells.

3.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 21(3): 399-400, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020510
4.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 21(3): 417-425, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977079

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Optical redox imaging (ORI) technique images cellular autofluorescence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp containing FAD, i.e., flavin adenine dinucleotide). ORI has found wide applications in the study of cellular energetics and metabolism and may potentially assist in disease diagnosis and prognosis. Fixed tissues have been reported to exhibit autofluorescence with similar spectral characteristics to those of NADH and Fp. However, few studies report on quantitative ORI of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) unstained tissue slides for disease biomarkers. We investigate whether ORI of FFPE unstained skeletal muscle slides may provide relevant quantitative biological information. PROCEDURES: Living mouse muscle fibers and frozen and FFPE mouse muscle slides were subjected to ORI. Living mouse muscle fibers were imaged ex vivo before and after paraformaldehyde fixation. FFPE muscle slides of three mouse groups (young, mid-age, and muscle-specific overexpression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) transgenic mid-age) were imaged and compared to detect age-related redox differences. RESULTS: We observed that living muscle fiber and frozen and FFPE slides all had strong autofluorescence signals in the NADH and Fp channels. Paraformaldehyde fixation resulted in a significant increase in the redox ratio Fp/(NADH + Fp) of muscle fibers. Quantitative image analysis on FFPE unstained slides showed that mid-age gastrocnemius muscles had stronger NADH and Fp signals than young muscles. Gastrocnemius muscles from mid-age Nampt mice had lower NADH compared to age-matched controls, but had higher Fp than young controls. Soleus muscles had the same trend of change and appeared to be more oxidative than gastrocnemius muscles. Differential NADH and Fp signals were found between gastrocnemius and soleus muscles within both mid-aged control and Nampt groups. CONCLUSION: Aging effect on redox status quantified by ORI of FFPE unstained muscle slides was reported for the first time. Quantitative information from ORI of FFPE unstained slides may be useful for biomedical applications.

5.
J Biomed Opt ; 24(5): 1-2, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020821

RESUMO

This guest editorial introduces the Special Section on Metabolic Imaging and Spectroscopy: Britton Chance 105th Birthday Commemorative.

6.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 21(3): 410-416, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Optical redox imaging (ORI), based on collecting the endogenous fluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp) containing a redox cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), provides sensitive indicators of cellular metabolism and redox status. ORI indices (such as NADH, FAD, and their ratio) have been under investigation as potential progression/prognosis biomarkers for cancer. Higher FAD redox ratio (i.e., FAD/(FAD + NADH)) has been associated with higher invasive/metastatic potential in tumor xenografts and cultured cells. This study is to examine whether ORI indices can respond to the modulation of oncogene DEK activities that change cancer cell invasive/metastatic potential. PROCEDURES: Using lentiviral shRNA, DEK gene expression was efficiently knocked down in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (DEKsh). These DEKsh cells, along with scrambled shRNA-transduced control cells (NTsh), were imaged with a fluorescence microscope. In vitro invasive potential of the DEKsh cells and NTsh cells was also measured in parallel using the transwell assay. RESULTS: FAD and FAD redox ratios in polyclonal cells with DEKsh were significantly lower than that in NTsh control cells. Consistently, the DEKsh cells demonstrated decreased invasive potential than their non-knockdown counterparts NTsh cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides direct evidence that oncogene activities could mediate ORI-detected cellular redox state.

7.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 21(3): 426-435, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151646

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fluorescence of co-enzyme reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp) provides a sensitive measure of the mitochondrial redox state and cellular metabolism. By imaging NADH and Fp, we investigated the utility of optical redox imaging (ORI) to monitor cellular metabolism and detect early metabolic response to cancer drugs. PROCEDURES: We performed ORI of human melanoma DB-1 cells in culture and DB-1 mouse xenografts to detect the redox response to lonidamine (LND) treatment. RESULTS: For cultured cells, LND treatment for 45 min significantly lowered NADH levels with no significant change in Fp, resulting in a significant increase in the Fp redox ratio (Fp/(NADH+Fp)); 3-h prolonged treatment led to a decrease in NADH and an increase in Fp and a more oxidized redox state compared to control. Significant decrease in the mitochondrial redox capacity of LND-treated cells was observed for the first time. For xenografts, 45-min LND treatment resulted in a significant reduction of NADH content, no significant changes in Fp content, and a trend of increase in the Fp redox ratio. Intratumor redox heterogeneity was observed in both control and LND-treated groups. CONCLUSION: Our results support the utility of ORI for evaluating cellular metabolism and monitoring early metabolic response to cancer drugs.

8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1072: 177-181, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178342

RESUMO

Our previous studies indicate that the mitochondrial redox state and its intratumor heterogeneity are associated with invasiveness and metastatic potential in human breast cancer cell models and mouse xenografts. To further study the molecular basis of redox heterogeneity, we obtained the fluorescence images of Fp (oxidized flavoproteins containing flavin adenine dinucleotide, i.e., FAD), NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), and the Fp redox ratio (FpR = Fp/(Fp + NADH)) of MDA-MB-231 xenografts by the Chance redox scanner, then isolated the intratumoral redox subpopulations by dissection according to the redox ratio image. A total of 12 subpopulations were isolated from 4 tumors (2-4 locations from each tumor). The 12 subpopulations were classified into 3 FpR groups: high FpR (HFpR, n = 4, FpR range 0.78-0.92, average 0.85), medium FpR (MFpR, n = 5, FpR range 0.39-0.68, average 0.52), and low FpR (LFpR, n = 3, FpR range 0.15-0.28, average 0.20). The RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) analysis on these redox subpopulations showed that PGC-1α is significantly upregulated in the HFpR redox group compared to the MFpR group (fold change 2.1, p = 0.008), but not significantly different between MFpR and LFpR groups, or between HFpR and LFpR groups. These results indicate that optical redox imaging (ORI)-based redox subpopulations exhibit differential expression of PGC1α gene and suggest that PGC1α might play a role in redox mediation of breast cancer progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/biossíntese , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/metabolismo , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Camundongos , NAD/metabolismo , Oxirredução
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 977: 51-57, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685427

RESUMO

Aging is the greatest risk factor for many diseases. Intracellular concentrations of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and the NAD+-coupled redox state have been proposed to moderate many aging-related processes, yet the specific mechanisms remain unclear. The concentration of NAD+ falls with age in skeletal muscle, yet there is no consensus on whether aging will increase or decrease the redox potential of NAD+/NADH. Oxidized flavin groups (Fp) (e.g. FAD, i.e., flavin adenine dinucleotide, contained in flavoproteins) and NADH are intrinsic fluorescent indicators of oxidation and reduction status of tissue, respectively. The redox ratio, i.e., the ratio of Fp to NADH, may be a surrogate indicator of the NAD+/NADH redox potential. In this study we used the Chance redox scanner (NADH/Fp fluorescence imaging at low temperature) to investigate the effect of aging on the redox state of mitochondria in skeletal muscles. The results showed that there are borderline significant differences in nominal concentrations of Fp and NADH, but not in the redox ratio s when comparing 3.5-month and 13-month old muscles of mice (n = 6). It may be necessary to increase the number of muscle samples and study mice of more advanced age.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Animais , Flavoproteínas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oxirredução
11.
J Biomed Opt ; 21(11): 114003, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27896360

RESUMO

Our long-term goal was to investigate the potential of incorporating redox imaging technique as a breast cancer (BC) diagnosis component to increase the positive predictive value of suspicious imaging finding and to reduce unnecessary biopsies and overdiagnosis. We previously found that precancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. We also revealed abnormal mitochondrial redox state in cancerous specimens from three BC patients. Here, we extend our study to include biopsies of 16 patients. Tissue aliquots were collected from both apparently normal and cancerous tissues from the affected cancer-bearing breasts shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen and scanned with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the three-dimensional cryogenic NADH/Fp (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/oxidized flavoproteins) fluorescence imager. We found both Fp and NADH in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled that in the normal tissues ( p < 0.05 ). The redox ratio Fp/(NADH + Fp) was ? 27 % higher in the cancerous tissues ( p < 0.05 ). Additionally, Fp, or NADH, or the redox ratio alone could predict cancer with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Our findings suggest that the optical redox imaging technique can provide parameters independent of clinical factors for discriminating cancer from noncancer breast tissues in human patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/química , Biópsia , Mama/química , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/análise , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/química , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/química , NAD/análise , NAD/química , Oxirredução , Curva ROC
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 923: 121-127, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27526133

RESUMO

The invasive/metastatic potential of cancer cells is an important factor in tumor progression. The redox ratios obtained from ratios of the endogenous fluorescent signals of NADH and FAD, can effectively respond to the alteration of cancer cells in its mitochondrial energy metabolism. It has been shown previously that the redox ratios may predict the metastatic potential of cancer mouse xenografts. In this report, we aimed to investigate the metabolic state represented by the redox ratios of cancer cells in vitro. Fluorescence microscopic imaging technology was used to observe the changes of the endogenous fluorescence signals of NADH and FAD in the energy metabolism pathways. We measured the redox ratios (FAD/NADH) of breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MCF-7, and SKBR3. We found that the more invasive cancer cells have higher FAD/NADH ratios, largely consistent with previous studies on breast cancer xenografts. Furthermore, by comparing the fluorescence signals of the breast cancer cells under different nutritional environments including starvation and addition of glutamine, pyruvate and lactate, we found that the redox ratios still effectively distinguished the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells from less invasive MCF-7 cells. These preliminary data suggest that the redox ratio may potentially provide a new index to stratefy breast cancer with different degrees of aggressiveness, which could have significance for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Metabolismo Energético , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/metabolismo , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , NAD/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica , Oxirredução , Rotenona/farmacologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Desacopladores/farmacologia
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 923: 401-406, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27526169

RESUMO

Developing imaging biomarkers for non-invasive measurement of the tissue redox state is a key research area. Recently, we presented the first non-invasive MR imaging method that demonstrated the correlation between the endogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast and the tissue redox state. It is well known that the broadband magnetization transfer (MT) can occur via chemical exchange (CEST) and/or dipole-dipole interactions. The present study investigated if the broadband MT also correlated with the tissue redox state. The preliminary result for the prostate tumor xenografts indeed showed a significant correlation between the broadband MT contrast and the NADH redox ratio quantified with the optical redox scanning. In vivo MT contrast, once calibrated, may potentially serve as an imaging biomarker for tissue redox state.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meios de Contraste , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , NAD/metabolismo , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neovascularização Patológica , Oxirredução , Neoplasias da Próstata/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Hipóxia Tumoral
14.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 6(1): 57-66, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26981456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinically translatable hyperpolarized (HP) (13)C-NMR can probe in vivo enzymatic reactions, e.g., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-catalyzed reaction by injecting HP (13)C-pyruvate into the subject, which is converted to (13)C labeled lactate by the enzyme. Parameters such as (13)C-lactate signals and lactate-to-pyruvate signal ratio are commonly used for analyzing the HP (13)C-NMR data. However, the biochemical/biological meaning of these parameters remains either unclear or dependent on experimental settings. It is preferable to quantify the reaction rate constants with a clearer physical meaning. Here we report the extraction of the kinetic parameters of the LDH reaction from HP (13)C-NMR data and investigate if they can be potential predictors of lung inflammation. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 controls, 14 treated) were used. One dose of bleomycin (2.5 U/kg) was administered intratracheally to the treatment group. The lungs were removed, perfused, and observed by the HP-NMR technique, where a HyperSense dynamic nuclear polarization system was used to generate the HP (13)C-pyruvate for injecting into the lungs. A 20 mm (1)H/(13)C dual-tuned coil in a 9.4-T Varian vertical bore NMR spectrometer was employed to acquire the (13)C spectral data every 1 s over a time period of 300 s using a non-selective, 15-degree radiofrequency pulse. The apparent rate constants of the LDH reaction and their ratio were quantified by applying ratiometric fitting analysis to the time series data of (13)C labeled pyruvate and lactate. RESULTS: The apparent forward rate constant kp =(3.67±3.31)×10(-4) s(-1), reverse rate constant kl =(4.95±2.90)×10(-2) s(-1), rate constant ratio kp /kl =(7.53±5.75)×10(-3) for the control lungs; kp =(11.71±4.35)×10(-4) s(-1), kl =(9.89±3.89)×10(-2) s(-1), and kp /kl =(12.39±4.18)×10(-3) for the inflamed lungs at the 7(th) day post treatment. Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed that the medians of these kinetic parameters of the 7-day cohort were significantly larger than those of the control cohort (P<0.001, P=0.001, and P=0.019, respectively). The rate constants of individual lungs correlated significantly with the histology scores of neutrophils and organizing pneumonia foci but not macrophages. Both kp and kp /kl positively correlated with lactate labeling signals. No correlation was found between kl and lactate labeling signals. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate bleomycin-induced lung inflammation significantly increased both the forward and reverse reaction rate constants of LDH and their ratio at day-7 after bleomycin treatment.

15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 923: E3, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28875403
16.
J Innov Opt Health Sci ; 7(2): 1350045, 2014 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24917891

RESUMO

The heart requires continuous ATP availability that is generated in the mitochondria. Although studies using the cell culture and perfused organ models have been carried out to investigate the biochemistry in the mitochondria in response to a change in substrate supply, mitochondrial bioenergetics of heart under normal feed or fasting conditions has not been studied at the tissue level with a sub-millimeter spatial resolution either in vivo or ex vivo. Oxidation of many food-derived metabolites to generate ATP in the mitochondria is realized through the NADH/NAD+ couple acting as a central electron carrier. We employed the Chance redox scanner - the low-temperature fluorescence scanner to image the three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of the mitochondrial redox states in heart tissues of rats under normal feeding or an overnight starvation for 14.5 h. Multiple consecutive sections of each heart were imaged to map three redox indices, i.e., NADH, oxidized flavoproteins (Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)) and the redox ratio NADH/Fp. The imaging results revealed the micro-heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of these redox indices. The quantitative analysis showed that in the fasted hearts the standard deviation of both NADH and Fp, i.e., SD_NADH and SD_Fp, significantly decreased with a p value of 0.032 and 0.045, respectively, indicating that the hearts become relatively more homogeneous after fasting. The fasted hearts contained 28.6% less NADH (p = 0.038). No significant change in Fp was found (p = 0.4). The NADH/Fp ratio decreased with a marginal p value (0.076). The decreased NADH in the fasted hearts is consistent with the cardiac cells' reliance of fatty acids consumption for energy metabolism when glucose becomes scarce. The experimental observation of NADH decrease induced by dietary restriction in the heart at tissue level has not been reported to our best knowledge. The Chance redox scanner demonstrated the feasibility of 3D imaging of the mitochondrial redox state in the heart and provides a useful tool to study heart metabolism and function under normal, dietary-change and pathological conditions at tissue level.

17.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 16(5): 670-9, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24811957

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tissue redox state is an important mediator of various biological processes in health and diseases such as cancer. Previously, we discovered that the mitochondrial redox state of ex vivo tissues detected by redox scanning (an optical imaging method) revealed interesting tumor redox state heterogeneity that could differentiate tumor aggressiveness. Because the noninvasive chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI can probe the proton transfer and generate contrasts from endogenous metabolites, we aim to investigate if the in vivo CEST contrast is sensitive to proton transfer of the redox reactions so as to reveal the tissue redox states in breast cancer animal models. PROCEDURES: CEST MRI has been employed to characterize tumor metabolic heterogeneity and correlated with the redox states measured by the redox scanning in two human breast cancer mouse xenograft models, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. The possible biological mechanism on the correlation between the two imaging modalities was further investigated by phantom studies where the reductants and the oxidants of the representative redox reactions were measured. RESULTS: The CEST contrast is found linearly correlated with NADH concentration and the NADH redox ratio with high statistical significance, where NADH is the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. The phantom studies showed that the reductants of the redox reactions have more CEST contrast than the corresponding oxidants, indicating that higher CEST effect corresponds to the more reduced redox state. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study suggests that CEST MRI, once calibrated, might provide a novel noninvasive imaging surrogate for the tissue redox state and a possible diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer in the clinic.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos Nus , NAD/metabolismo , Oxirredução
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 812: 217-223, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24729236

RESUMO

Understanding the biological mechanism and identifying biomarkers of hemorrhagic shock is important for diagnosis and treatment. We aim to use optical imaging to study how the cerebral blood circulation and metabolism change during the progression of severe hemorrhagic shock, especially the decompensatory stage. We used a multi-parameter (blood pressure (BP), cerebral blood flow (CBF), functional vascular density (FVD), blood oxygenation and mitochondrial NADH signal) cerebral cortex optical imaging system to observe brain hemodynamic change and metabolic alteration of rats in vivo for 4 h. Cerebral circulation and mitochondrial metabolism could be well preserved in the compensatory stage but impaired during the decompensatory stage. The changes of brain hemodynamics and metabolism may provide sensitive indicators for various shock stages including the transition from compensatory stage to decompensatory stage. Our novel imaging observations of hemodynamic and metabolic signals in vivo indicated that the rat brains under hemorrhagic shock suffered irreversible damage which could not be compensated by the autoregulation mechanism, probably due to injured mitochondria.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque Hemorrágico/metabolismo
20.
Acad Radiol ; 21(2): 175-84, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24439331

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Our long-term goals are to identify imaging biomarkers for hemorrhagic shock and to understand how the preservation of cerebral microcirculation works. We also seek to understand how the damage occurs to the cerebral hemodynamics and the mitochondrial metabolism during severe hemorrhagic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a multimodal cerebral cortex optical imaging system to obtain 4-hour observations of cerebral hemodynamic and metabolic alterations in exposed rat cortexes during severe hemorrhagic shock. We monitored the mean arterial pressure, heart rate, cerebral blood flow (CBF), functional vascular density (FVD), vascular perfusion and diameter, blood oxygenation, and mitochondrial reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) signals. RESULTS: During the rapid bleeding and compensatory stage, cerebral parenchymal circulation was protected by inhibiting the perfusion of dural vessels. During the compensatory stage, although the brain parenchymal CBF and FVD decreased rapidly, the NADH signal did not show a significant increase. During the decompensatory stage, FVD and CBF maintained the same low level and the NADH signal remained unchanged. However, the NADH signal showed a significant increase after the rapid blood infusion. FVD and CBF rebounded to the baseline after the resuscitation and then declined again. CONCLUSIONS: We present for the first time simultaneous imaging of cerebral hemodynamics and NADH signals in vivo during the process of hemorrhagic shock. This novel multimodal method demonstrated clearly that severe hemorrhagic shock imparts irreversible tissue damage that is not compensated by the autoregulatory mechanism. Hemodynamic and metabolic signatures including CBF, FVD, and NADH may be further developed to provide sensitive biomarkers for stage transitions in hemorrhagic shock.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Imagem Molecular/métodos , NAD/metabolismo , Oxigênio/sangue , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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