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1.
Food Chem ; 307: 125531, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644979

RESUMO

In the present study, submicrometer flow-through silica microspheres (Sub-FTSiO2) was for the first time obtained via a suspension polymerization method coupled with sol-gel transition and phase separation. The Sub-FTSiO2 was characteristic of rich mesopores, penetrable macropores and small particle size, which would be beneficial to fast mass transfer, low column backpressure and high column efficiency. It was directly used as the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) stationary phase, and the fast separation of seven water-soluble vitamins in 2.2 min was realized. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of water-soluble vitamins in two functional beverages on the market. The prepared Sub-FTSiO2 was well demonstrated for fast HILIC, and would be potential as the stationary phase matrix for fast liquid chromatography in diverse separation modes.

2.
Food Chem ; 307: 125554, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648176

RESUMO

The reaction of Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) with eight kinds of non-flavonoid o-benzoquinones and five kinds of flavonoid o-benzoquinones were investigated by cyclic voltammetry at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 8.0 and scan rate of 10, 50 and 100 mV/s. The reactivity of o-benzoquinones towards CML is weakened by the electron-donating substituent and strengthened by the electron-withdrawing substituent on the o-benzoquinone rings. The steric hindrance of the substituents on o-benzoquinone rings also weakens the quinone reactivity. Reaction of 4-methylbenzoquinone with CML (38.0 ±â€¯1.3%) was found to be faster than that with l-lysine (31.3 ±â€¯1.5%) and Nα-acetyl-l-lysine (14.5 ±â€¯0.1%) but slower than that with l-cysteine (≥100.0%) and Nα-acetyl-l-cysteine (≥100.0%) at pH 7.0 and scan rate of 10 mV/s. Products obtained by the reaction of CML with o-benzoquinones were found to include a CML-quinone adduct according to the cyclic voltammetry and UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis.

3.
Food Chem ; 302: 125275, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442701

RESUMO

2,6-Dimethoxy-ρ-benzoquinone (DMBQ) is a potential anti-tumor substance found in the fermented wheat germ. In this study, ultrasound and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used to improve the DMBQ yield. An artificial neural network (ANN) embedded separately with the back-propagation algorithm (BP), genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimized algorithm (PSO), ant colony optimized algorithm (ACO), GA-ACO, GA-PSO and PSO-ACO, were used to establish the relationship between 11 factors and DMBQ yield. The robustness and generalization of PSO-ACO-ANN, which gave the minimum mean squared error and mean absolute percentage error for the training and test dataset, was superior to the others. Next, a modified Garson's algorithm and mixed partial derivatives algorithm indicated that the most influential paired-parameters were ultrasonic power and concentration of nanoparticles. Finally, the factors were optimized by six optimization algorithms, and confirmatory experimental results indicated that the optimum DMBQ yield was 0.213 ±â€¯0.007 mg/g, which was 161.2% higher than the control.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Benzoquinonas/metabolismo , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Redes Neurais (Computação)
4.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(2): 692-700, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383064

RESUMO

Fluorescent bimetallic Au-Ag nanoclusters (Au-AgNCs) were found to exhibit oxidase-like activity and could catalyze the oxidation of 3,3',5,5' tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to oxTMB. On the basis of this property, we assembled a fluorescent nanoplatform as a turn-on probe for sensing mercury (II) ions (Hg2+) through the inner-filter effect (IFE). Au-AgNCs and oxTMB were chosen as IFE absorber and fluorophore pair for the first time. In the absence of Hg2+, the Au-AgNCs absorption band well. Covered the fluorescence emission band of oxTMB, and as a result, the fluorescence of oxTMB was reduced. In the presence of Hg2+, Hg2+ was reduced to Hg0 by extra BSA in Au-AgNCs probe system and anchored on the surface of Au-AgNCs. The absorption intensity for Au-AgNCs then decreased at 418 nm, resulting in the recovery of fluorescence from oxTMB. The formed Au-Hg thin amalgam layer obviously enhanced the oxidase-like activity of Au-AgNCs as well as hindered the IFE activity between Au-AgNCs and oxTMB. Therefore, based on the Hg2+ stimulating oxidaselike properties of Au-AgNCs, a fluorometric assay for determination of Hg2+ was developed in this study. The proposed sensing strategy showed a linear range from 10 nM to 500 nM, with ultralow LOD of ~0.7 nM for Hg2+. Moreover, the detection probe system was stable over a wide pH range, making it able to be applied in complex sample systems. We have successfully demonstrated the detection of Hg2+ in tap water samples. The fluorescent assay reported here, for sensitive and selective determination of Hg2+, may find great application in multiple areas, such as environmental and pharmaceutical analysis.

5.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 224: 117433, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390579

RESUMO

Detecting NAA in food has drawn intense attention as it has imposed significant threat to people's health and the growth of food industry. Over the past few years, great importance has been attached to the application of copper nanomaterials as fluorescent probe to food and environmental detection. Here, the simple, rapid, cost effective and water soluble fluorescent copper nanoparticles were synthesized with chemical reduction sonochemical assisted method for highly selective and sensitive detection of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) by using 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) as a protecting agent and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizing agent (MBT-PVP CuNPs). The resultant CuNPs has a spherical shape with an average diameter of 10-15 nm and strong fluorescent pink emission characteristic peak at 580 nm upon 334 nm excitation. Interestingly, upon the addition of NAA, the fluorescence of MBT-PVP CuNPs can be effectively quenched for the reason that NAA could interact with MBT via hydrogen bonding and conform copper-NAA clathrate with Cu+ via coordination bond, which shows a good linearity in the range of NAA from 0.5 to 50 µM and with a detection limit of 9.6 nM. Moreover, the prepared probe has good selectivity for NAA detection over other co-existing molecules. It is worth mentioning that this method has been successfully applied to authentic comestible sample analysis and obtained satisfying and promising results, which indicates that this strategy is likely to have a promising application potential for NAA detection in the field of food safety.

6.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 146(4): 2482, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671957

RESUMO

Many underwater acoustic (UWA) channels exhibit impulsive noise, thereby severely degrading the performance of traditional channel estimation algorithms. This paper presents two channel estimation algorithms for impulsive noise, namely (i) the variable forgetting factor l1,0 recursive least sign algorithm (VFF-l1,0-RLSA) and (ii) the variable forgetting factor l2,0 recursive least sign algorithm (VFF-l2,0-RLSA), both of which exploit the group sparse multipath structure and maintain robustness under impulsive noise. By using the l1 norm of the estimation error as part of the cost function, RLSAs are better at detecting and rejecting impulsive noise than the recursive least squares algorithms. A mixed l1,0 or l2,0 norm is incorporated with a RLSA to achieve better performance in group sparse UWA channel estimation. The time-varying forgetting factor and regularization parameter in the two proposed algorithms help to improve their performance. Simulation results based on Arctic ice cracking noise demonstrate the robustness and superiority of the two proposed algorithms.

7.
J Cutan Pathol ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693188

RESUMO

Primary cutaneous follicle center cell lymphoma is the most prevalent type of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and usually portends a favorable prognosis. Typically, the diagnosis can be rendered based on characteristic histopathologic features and immunohistochemical profile. Rarely, a diagnostically challenging variant with a predominant spindle morphology mimicking other malignant spindle cell neoplasms may be encountered. Even more unusual is the presence of a prominent myxoid stroma in this rare sarcomatoid variant of follicle center cell lymphoma. Herein, we present a case of a 52-year-old man with a slowly enlarging cyst-like lesion on the chin with histopathologic examination revealing a malignant, predominantly spindled neoplasm within an abundant myxoid stroma. Following a broad panel of immunohistochemical stains, the strong positive staining of the spindle cells for LCA (CD45), CD20, and Bcl-6 confirmed the diagnosis of follicle center cell lymphoma. We present this distinctive rare subtype of cutaneous follicle center cell lymphoma to increase awareness of this variant and to discuss challenging histopathologic mimics to consider while highlighting the utility of immunohistochemistry stains to avoid misdiagnosis.

8.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(46): 7377-7386, 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696197

RESUMO

A multi-functional nanohybrid (PyAnOH-Ag) with both a two-photon photothermal therapy (TP-PTT) effect and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging performance has been fabricated based on interfacial coordination interactions. The hybrid possesses a high two-photon absorption cross section (δTPA, 4638 GM) and detectable TPEF signals, which leads to excellent two-photon photothermal conversion. Upon irradiation at 840 nm, the temperature of the PyAnOH-Ag-PBS suspension reaches 42 °C in just 4 min, which results in 80% photothermal toxicity on HepG2 cells. The detectable TPEF signals can be used to monitor the cell ablation procedure. Moreover, PyAnOH-Ag exhibits a good phototherapeutic effect on tumor tissue of H22-modelled mice with almost 100% tumor growth inhibition under 840 nm irradiation for 10 min, which is superior to many reported photothermal agents. This strategy of TPEF guided TP-PTT agents can be potentially applied in a variety of therapeutic agents with monitoring ability.

9.
Elife ; 82019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710289

RESUMO

Sertoli cells are essential nurse cells in the testis that regulate the process of spermatogenesis and establish the immune-privileged environment of the blood-testis-barrier (BTB). Here, we report the in vitro reprogramming of fibroblasts to human induced Sertoli-like cells (hiSCs). Initially, five transcriptional factors and a gene reporter carrying the AMH promoter were utilized to obtain the hiSCs. We further reduce the number of reprogramming factors to two, NR5A1 and GATA4, and show that these hiSCs have transcriptome profiles and cellular properties that are similar to those of primary human Sertoli cells. Moreover, hiSCs can sustain the viability of spermatogonia cells harvested from mouse seminiferous tubules. hiSCs suppress the proliferation of human T lymphocytes and protect xenotransplanted human cells in mice with normal immune systems. hiSCs also allow us to determine a gene associated with Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCO), CX43, is indeed important in regulating the maturation of Sertoli cells.

10.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 147: 60-71, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734444

RESUMO

Theories of the neural basis of implicit learning postulated that specific regions were responsible for specific structures (e.g., supra-finite state) regardless of domain (e.g., vision, movement); others assumed that implicit learning was the adaptation that occurred within neural regions dealing with each domain. We explored whether people could implicitly learn to detect symmetry in biological motion, and if so, based on voxel-based morphometry (VBM), whether the learning was associated with language-related regions involved with supra-finite state grammars (such as symmetry) or motor-related regions. To explore the relevance of motor-related regions, we investigated brain structural changes in athletes compared with non-athletes and the advantage of athletes in implicit learning of action symmetry. Further, we examined whether motor imagery ability could account for the role of motor-related regions in this learning. Participants passively observed and memorized a number of biological motion sequences instantiating a symmetry rule and then judged new sequences as grammatical or not. Behaviorally, the implicit acquisition of symmetry could extend to process biological motion. Athletes showed superior classification accuracy and kinesthetic imagery ability, and gave more familiarity attributions. VBM results showed that athletes exhibited greater gray matter density in the right cerebellum, as well as the left lingual gyrus, the left precuneus, the left calcarine gyrus, and the right thalamus. Correlation analysis showed that the cerebellar gray matter density was positively associated with classification accuracy, which was mediated by kinesthetic imagery ability. Moreover, gray matter density of the left inferior frontal cortex was also positively associated with classification accuracy, indicating the involvement of regions related to symmetry learning across domains. The study provides initial evidence that implicit learning involves both adaptation within brain regions responsible for the specific domain as well as brain regions processing the same structure across domains, at least in a case of supra-finite state grammars.

11.
Water Res ; 170: 115324, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770649

RESUMO

Aeration and mechanical agitation are the main drivers of aerosol generation in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the effect of aeration mode on aerosol characteristics remains poorly understood. In this study, horizontal rotor aeration and fine bubble aeration in the same WWTP were selected to identify the effect on the emission, size distribution, microbial and chemical composition. For bacteria, fungi, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in aerosols, the horizontal rotor aeration had higher contributions to the emissions than the fine bubble aeration. Horizontal rotor aeration generated a more coarse fraction (size > 7 µm) and a comparable respirable fraction (RF; size < 3.3 µm) compared with those of fine bubble aeration. More types of potential pathogens were generated by horizontal rotor aeration. The most easily aerosolized genera generated by horizontal rotor aeration and fine bubble aeration, were Trichosporon and Mycobacterium, with the aerosolization factors of 633.70 and 192.56, respectively. For Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, Zn, Ba, Cd, Sc, V, Rb, Ca, K, Ca, K, Mg, Na and Si in the aerosols, the contributions of fine bubble aeration were higher than those of horizontal rotor aeration. Due to the aerosol specialty from the different aeration modes, targeted manipulations should be employed to reduce the exposure risks.

12.
Cognition ; 195: 104077, 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770670

RESUMO

Risky decisions are ubiquitous in daily life and are central to human behavior, but little attention has been devoted to exploring whether risky choice can be influenced by gaze direction. In the current study, we used gaze-contingent manipulation to manipulate an individual's gaze while he/she decided between two risky options, and we examined whether risky decisions could be biased toward a randomly determined target. We found that participants' risky choices were biased toward a randomly determined target when they were manipulated to gaze longer at the target option (Study 1, N=37; Study 3, N=40) or at the target outcome dimension (Study 2, N=37). We also found that both the relative time advantage and the location of the last fixation mediated the effect of the gaze-contingent manipulation on risky choice in the valid trials. However, the mediation effects of the relative time advantage and the location of the last fixation were not significant when timed-out trials were included in Studies 2 and 3, indicating that the gaze-contingent manipulation did not effectively enforce a bias toward attending to a particular stimulus through eye gaze in all trials. Future work is needed to improve the effectiveness of the gaze-contingent prompt procedure.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5277, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754099

RESUMO

Mitochondrial calcium ([Ca2+]mito) dynamics plays vital roles in regulating fundamental cellular and organellar functions including bioenergetics. However, neuronal [Ca2+]mito dynamics in vivo and its regulation by brain activity are largely unknown. By performing two-photon Ca2+ imaging in the primary motor (M1) and visual cortexes (V1) of awake behaving mice, we find that discrete [Ca2+]mito transients occur synchronously over somatic and dendritic mitochondrial network, and couple with cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyto) transients in a probabilistic, rather than deterministic manner. The amplitude, duration, and frequency of [Ca2+]cyto transients constitute important determinants of the coupling, and the coupling fidelity is greatly increased during treadmill running (in M1 neurons) and visual stimulation (in V1 neurons). Moreover, Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II is mechanistically involved in modulating the dynamic coupling process. Thus, activity-dependent dynamic [Ca2+]mito-to-[Ca2+]cyto coupling affords an important mechanism whereby [Ca2+]mito decodes brain activity for the regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics to meet fluctuating neuronal energy demands as well as for neuronal information processing.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756623

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is often accompanied by metabolic imbalance and Berberine can relieve the symptoms of IBD, but the mechanism is still unclear. To explore the relationship between IBD, metabolism and Berberine, dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) model was built and urine and feces samples were analyzed with ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, followed by multivariate statistical analyses. Targeted metabolomics was applied to verify and supplement the result of amino acids tested by non-targeted metabolomics. The study found that Berberine could ameliorate UC and improve metabolic disorders. The level of 4 metabolites increased and 35 decreased in urine and these metabolites mainly belong to amino acid, glucide, organic acid and purine. Besides, Berberine could reduce the level of 5 metabolites and raise the level of 7 metabolites in feces, which mainly belong to amino acid and lipid. Additionally, these altered metabolites were mainly related to amino acids metabolism, purine metabolism, vitamin metabolism, lipid metabolism and citrate cycle pathways. Furthermore, microbiome metabolism may be regulated by Berberine in UC. In general, this study provides a useful approach for exploring the mechanism of Berberine in the treatment of UC from the perspective of metabolomics.

15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 444, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sleep quality of pregnant women in the third trimester is related to mental health. However, there is still a lack of large-scale cohort research exploring this relationship in the second trimester. Thus, we assessed the associations of sleep quality during the second trimester with antenatal stress and antenatal and postnatal depression. METHODS: We examined 1152 pregnant women from a prospective cohort study in China to assess the associations of sleep quality in the second trimester with antenatal stress, antenatal depression, and postnatal depression. We used linear regression models and logistic regression models to examine the associations of sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) during pregnancy with perinatal stress (Pregnancy Pressure Scale [PPS]) and depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale [EPDS]) status. We further assessed the relationship in groups divided according to maternal age. RESULTS: PSQI scores were positively associated with antenatal PPS scores (ß: 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28, 1.76), antenatal EPDS scores (ß: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.78), and postpartum EPDS scores (ß: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.64). Poor sleep quality (PSQI scores ≥5) was associated with antenatal stress status (odds ratio [OR]: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.79, 3.77), antenatal depression status (OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 2.48, 4.72), and postpartum depression status (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.58, 3.64) after adjusting maternal age, BMI, gestational age, smoking, educational level, annual household income and social support. The association of poor sleep quality (PSQI scores ≥5) in the second trimester with postnatal depression status was significant among women more than or equal to 30 years old (OR: 4.12, 95% CI: 2.18, 7.78) but not among women less than 30 years old after adjusting covariates above. CONCLUSION: Poor sleep quality in the second trimester among Chinese pregnant women is associated with stress and depression symptoms. Strategies to boost sleep quality should be considered during prenatal health care to improve women's mental health status.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5181, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729358

RESUMO

Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is an attractive route to utilize CO2 as a chemical feedstock with which to convert CH4 into valuable syngas and simultaneously mitigate both greenhouse gases. Ni-based DRM catalysts are promising due to their high activity and low cost, but suffer from poor stability due to coke formation which has hindered their commercialization. Herein, we report that atomically dispersed Ni single atoms, stabilized by interaction with Ce-doped hydroxyapatite, are highly active and coke-resistant catalytic sites for DRM. Experimental and computational studies reveal that isolated Ni atoms are intrinsically coke-resistant due to their unique ability to only activate the first C-H bond in CH4, thus avoiding methane deep decomposition into carbon. This discovery offers new opportunities to develop large-scale DRM processes using earth abundant catalysts.

17.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752141

RESUMO

The tea-like beverage Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Stevia) is popular in China because it reduces blood glucose and has a sweet taste. In this work, a comprehensive quality assessment of Stevia led to the discovery of five phenylethanoid glycosides, namely steviophethanoside (1), cuchiloside (2), salidroside (3), icariside D (4), and tyrosol (5). Of them, compound 1 is a novel compound. Mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy were employed to confirm the absolute configuration. A hydrolytic step with 4 N TFA at 95 °C for 4 h was used to confirm the monosaccharides. In addition, Discovery Studio 4.0 was used to predict the ADME and toxicity activity of compound 1. The results suggested that compound 1 was biocompatible and had poor toxicity, which was verified by rat INS-1 islet ß cells through an MTT assay. Meanwhile, a significant stimulatory effect on INS-1 cells was observed, which indicated a hypoglycemic effect of compound 1. This is the first report that describes a natural, novel, and hypoglycemic phenylethanoid glycoside in Stevia.

19.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 172801, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738935

RESUMO

Ginseng has been traditionally used to treat diabetes mellitus (DM) in China. Ginsenoside Rg1 is a major active ingredient in processed ginseng, which elicits proven biological and pharmacological effects. Although a correlation between nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and predisposition to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been identified, the mechanism underlying the potential function and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in DM have not been elucidated to date. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects and underlying mechanism of Rg1 on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1DM in mice through short or long-term observation. Concurrently, we intended to explore the relationships between inflammasome, pyroptosis and oxidative stress and the role of NLRP3 and Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in the development and progression of DM. Using ELISA and Western blot analysis, we found that Rg1 attenuated abnormally elevated blood glucose, reduced inflammatory factors IL-1ß and IL-18 in the blood, decreased ALT and AST levels, promoted insulin secretion, and weakened the function of NLRP3 in mouse liver and pancreas. In addition, Rg1 protected against STZ-induced reactive oxygen species-mediated inflammation by upregulating Nrf2/ARE pathway, which further activated antioxidant enzymes. Interestingly, Rg1 also regulated H3K9 methylation in liver and pancreas, as detected by immunohistochemistry. In summary, these data provide new understanding about the mechanism of Rg1 action, suggesting that it is a potential drug applied for preventing the occurrence and development of T1DM.

20.
Genome Res ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744902

RESUMO

The shoot apical meristem (SAM) orchestrates the balance between stem cell proliferation and organ initiation essential for postembryonic shoot growth. Meristems show a striking diversity in shape and size. How this morphological diversity relates to variation in plant architecture and the molecular circuitries driving it are unclear. By generating a high-resolution gene expression atlas of the vegetative maize shoot apex, we show here that distinct sets of genes govern the regulation and identity of stem cells in maize versus Arabidopsis. Cell identities in the maize SAM reflect the combinatorial activity of transcription factors (TFs) that drive the preferential, differential expression of individual members within gene families functioning in a plethora of cellular processes. Subfunctionalization thus emerges as a fundamental feature underlying cell identity. Moreover, we show that adult plant characters are, to a significant degree, regulated by gene circuitries acting in the SAM, with natural variation modulating agronomically important architectural traits enriched specifically near dynamically expressed SAM genes and the TFs that regulate them. Besides unique mechanisms of maize stem cell regulation, our atlas thus identifies key new targets for crop improvement.

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